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Námořní pěchota - WWII


Unit EnglishUnit Englishthe Rank of commander agnlickythe Rank of the commander of the EnglishNote
Fire Teamfire teamCorporalcorporalThree men under the command of the commander of the team; this level was introduced in 1944
SquadteamSergeantsergeantthree fire teams
Sectionsection2nd Lieutenant or NCOsecond lieutenant or a petty officerone to three of the operator's arms; a part of a platoon or battery
Platoonplatoon2nd or 1st Lieutenantlieutenant or ensignthree or four squads, or two or three sections
DetachmentdetachmentCaptain or 1st Lieutenantcaptain or lieutenantsize was variable and alternated between a squad and a smaller banner; generally the unit is organized and managed as a company, but of smaller size - compared to this rule but there were a number of exceptions
CompanycompanyCaptaincaptaintwo to four platoons; a separate rotám often lead majors
BatterybatteryCaptaincaptainfour to six sections
GroupgroupMajormajortwo or three batteries; they were an organic part of the defense battalions and battalions of anti-aircraft artillery
BattalionbattalionLieutenant Colonellieutenant colonelthree to five companies or batteries; defence battalions and anti-aircraft artillery battalions led by colonels
Provisional Groupmakeshift groupColonel or Lieutenant Colonelcolonel or lieutenant colonelMakeshift groups included artillery, amphibious tractors (tractors), the engineers and other units temporarily formed a choir to support a specific operation. The group formed divisions were the only producer of specialized units and units of services functionally zorganizovanými to support combat operations. In general, command them the commanders of the battalions.
Marine RegimentmarinesColonelcolonelthree battalions; four or five battalions in the artillery regiment
Marine Brigadebrigade of naval infantryBrigadier Generalbrigadier generalone or two regiments of naval infantry, brigade units
Tactical Grouptactical groupBrigadier Generalbrigadier generalit Was a makeshift tactical unit of about the size of a brigade.
Amphibious Corps Artillerythe headquarters of the artillery of the amphibious corpsBrigadier Generalbrigadier generalx
Marine Divisiondivision of the marine corpsMajor Generalmajor generalthree regiments of naval infantry + artillery regiment + specialized units + units services
Amphibious Corpsamphibious corpsMajor Generalmajor generaltwo or three division + headquarters artillery corps + corps units
Fleet Marine Force, PacificxLieutenant Generallieutenant generalx
Commandant of the Marine ForcexGeneralgeneralAt the beginning of the war, the commander of the marine corps systematizovanou the rank of major general in January 1942, was changed to the rank of lieutenant general and in march of 1945 at the general.
.
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Labelling of ground units



Full name
The official and complete name of the unit include the designation of the superiors of the units and the headquarters to which the unit was assigned to the (assigned). Thus, for example, 1st Marine Amphibious Truck Company, Headquarters Troops, V Amphibious Corps or 3rd Marines, 3rd Marine Brigade, Defense Force, Samoan Group, Fleet Marine Force, In the Field. This designation has remained in place, even when the unit was temporarily assigned (attached) to the unit or headquarters to lower levels. The name was changed to the general command only after the unit was assigned to the (reassigned) to other higher unit or headquarters. This was introduced in 1933, although it was praktivováno already in the previous years. In the Field it meant that the unit was planted in the field. If the unit was located in the barracks, contained the name of the unit name of the base or camp. If the unit was board the vessel, was at the end of the stated Beyond the Seas or at sea or overseas. If the ship was in port, he was part of the drive home řístav of the vessel - for example, Marine Detachment, USS Arizona, Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Terriotry of Hawaii.

Numbering
Units of the same type were numbered in ascending order according to the date of activation. But sometimes there were exceptions. Battalions and separate companies, detachments or squads were numbered one or two-digit Arabic number. Some of the separate company and platoon should be in the name of the word Marine (naval infantry), to be easily distinguishable from the army units of the same type. Some units were not numbered, nábrž bore the name of their deployment or function - for example Marine Aircraft, Hawaiian Area, Marine Aircraft Wings, Pacific.


Amphibious corps
Amphibious corps were numbered with roman numerals (I, III and V). However, Even. the amphibious corps was often referred to as 1st. The numbers didn't go behind. Also. and In., respectively III. and In the. amphibious corps corresponded with the same number flot navy, with which it operated. Councils were also referred to as IMAC, IIIAC or VAC. Accounting and labelling according to the custom of the navy - for example, III Phib Corps. Choral units bear an indication of the ward, so they were referred to as as Medical Battalion, III Amphibious Corps, FMF, Pacific.


marine Division
Six divisions of the marine corps were numbered sequentially according to the date of activation. Divisions were always referred to as e.g. 1st Marine Division, not only as a 1st Marine, because this abbreviated form was used in regiments and could lead to unwanted confusion. All the divisional units on praporní level bear the number of the division. On the other side of it but it cannot be inferred that all units with order number 1 included under 1. division. Could actually fall under a higher headquarters, for example, directly under the FMF, as it was in case 1. houfnicového battalion.


Regiments of naval infantry
The first modern regiment of marines was created in 1899. A more permanent character had up to the year 1913, which was initially named differently and the name of the 1st Marine Regiment received in the year 1916. During the first world war were four regiments reorganized according to army tables on the formation of three organic battalions, the remaining ten have preserved the existing structure, i.e., the regiments not subordinate praporní grade and consisted of několiak separate companies, or one battalion and several separate companies, or two battalions after two to four columns. During the first world war, there were fourteen regiments of the marine corps - 1.-11. and 13.-15., while it is not clear why there was 12. The interwar regiments had only two battalions. 3., 7., 8. and 9. the reserve regiment of the marine corps bore the numbers of the previous regular regiments.

Since 1930 may not be in the title contained the word Regiment. In the years 1930-1933 there was in the individual regiments to the deletion of this word. Since indicate just such as 4th Marines. During the second world war there were infantry, artillery and engineer regiments. This functional breakdown is but in no way did not reflect in their name. In historical works, but sometimes she can be added to the brackets for easier orientation, but it must be borne in mind that it wasn't an official part of the name. Regiments were activated sequentially from the lowest numbers, but willy-nilly. Regiments were divided into blocks according to the type. Regiments with serial numbers from 1 to 9 and 21 to 29 were infantry, the regiments with the numbers 10 to 15 were the artillery and the regiments with the numbers 16 to 20 were engineers. Beyond these "standard" regiments, several specialized regiments, which were numbered out of the bullish variety. It was, for example, about 1. paradesantní regiment of the marine corps (1st Marine Parachute). In October 1947 were regiments reduced to the size of battalions, but retained the old regimental designation. These battalions held the tradition of their plukovních predecessors. In October 1949, there has been reactivation 2., 5., 6., 10. and 11. the regiment of the marine corps.


Banners
Battalions within the infantry and engineer regiments three and were referred to as 1. to 3. Artillery regiments should be according to the period of four or five battalions. The numbers of the battalions in the regiment sometimes varied depending on the change in the equipment or in the reorganizations. Sometimes the banner on his own and in his place was established a battalion of the new. The banners are in regular communication referred to e.g. as 1/5 (and pronounce it as a One/Five).


Company
Troops were called in alphabetical order in the context of the entire regiment. 1. the battalion had companies a, B, C and D, 2. battalion of companies E, F, G and H and the 3rd battalion of companies I, K, L and M. The first three companies in each of the battalions have been the company shooting. Companies D, H and M were companies of weapons. These company in 1944 were cancelled, without changing the letters for the other rot, the letters D, H and M were simply omitted (the exception is 29. the regiment, which, at the time the changes only shaped). Omitted was from the beginning of the letter J, because it was too similar to the point Even. The company was commonly referred to as E company, 4. the regiment of the marine corps (Company E, 4th Marines), or simply as E/4 (the pronunciation of E/Four). The number of the battalion, therefore, was dropping. Sometimes it was used a system that did not use slash and vice versa featured a number of the battalion. For example, the abbreviation 2E4 meant E company, 2. battalion, 4th. a regiment of marines. In the documents, but this system too is not present.

Battery
The battery was in the marine corps relative novelty. Ground forces, although this term, which referred to the artillery units of the size of the company, introduced already in 1838, however, the marines started to use it occasionally until during the first world war and introduced him to in November 1924. Artillery regiments of five battalions were in the assemblies of the battery And to P. When they were fifth battalions in 1944 abolished, it meant the end of the rot N, O and P. The battery defense and anti-aircraft artillery battalions were also referred to the letters. These battalions consisted of two to four groups and then further from two to four batteries. The order of designation was not standardized.

Another company and a battery
Traditionally there were no company and a battery J, as in the nineteenth century looked like writing J and I as well, so there would be confusion. Regimental platoon weapons were not numbered, were referred to simply e.g. as a company weapon, 3. the regiment of the marine corps (Weapons Company, 3rd Marines). During the second world war became known as the labelling rot/battery using the phonetic alphabet (e.g., Able Company). From this arises the question whether it is correct to write Company or Company. The answer is that the right is both, because there was no official prescribed format, and used both. However, the notation Company after all has been occurring more and extra so in the original the writer avoids the fact that the phrase started to Company, which might not be clear whether And means designation of the company And a or an indefinite article. Company and battery in separate battalions were also referred to the letters. An exception represented the divisional command battalions. Their company carried the same label as their parent division, e.g. 1. a company of military police (1st Military Police Company), 1. company the connecting company (1st Signal Company) and 1. reconnaissance platoon (1st Reconnaissance Company) were under the command of the battalion, 1. division of the marine corps (Headquarters Battalion, 1st Marine Division). Occurred but even the label in the form of a connecting company, the command of the battalion, 3. division of the marine corps (Signal Company, Headquarters Battalion, 3rd Marine Division).

Barracks of the marine corps and their company
The phrase Marine Barracks so the Barracks of the marine corps doesn't mean the building, but the tactical unit. The first such unit was established in 1804. These units were placed in naval bases, which provided security and other support services. These units consisted of a few rot. The barracks of the marine corps mostly consisted of kasárenského detachment (command elements, the elements of the services, or music) and a few sentry rot. Ever been assigned to and connecting company or company services. Before the establishment of the permanent battalions and regiments were makeshift expeditionary unit compiled just from the rot of the various barracks. These companies together have not undergone any training and for the first time saw when in the port where they embark. The whole complicated system of marking rot. You indicate, for example, as a company, the barracks of the marine corps, naval base, Philadelphia. In the year 1900 were given all the company allocated to a permanent numerical designation, although at the same time retain the existing designations using the letters. The numbers have also received a command, machine-gun, engineer, fasteners, and the artillery company. These numbers went in succession through all the marines, regardless of the function of the company. So when these company's assembled into provisional battalions and regiments, not the orientation in terms of rot about not much better. He appeared, therefore, a third system of identification. When the company collected into a provisional regiment or battalion, received the most custom labelled with the letter, which had a sequence within the regiment or battalion. This system was officially introduced in 1931, however, the company continues to rather prefer the numbers assigned in 1900. When easy company was reassigned from one praporpu or regiment to another, changed its letter designation, while the numerical way. At the beginning of the year 1933 it was the numerical designation of rot canceled, which most marines welcomed with resentment.

Additional labelling rot
Some of the companies were referred to by numbers or letters in sequence in the context of all battalions of the same type, without regard to regiments. For example, orty 1. and 2. the medical battalion were in the interwar period numbered in the context of both battalions.


Detachments
The word detachment (Detachment) was used in three meanings. Mostly it was about the unit with the internal organisation of the appropriate company, but with smaller numbers of men, basically a bigger squad. The word detachment is also referred to the element that was temporarily allocated from the parent unit. It could be a temporary formation of several humans or also by formation of two or more rot. Such a formation you carry in the title the name of the parent unit. For example, it was a detachment, a company, 4. medical battalion (Detachment, Company A, 4th Medical Battalion). The third use were detachments of the marine corps (Marine detachments) on board ships. It was basically a small company. It was basically a smaller version of the barracks of the marine corps. These detachments can also be set up for special purposes or for the purpose of managing the marines, who were assigned to carry out tasks in the navy.


Group
Group (Group) as an organizational term occurred in more contexts and include the formation of very different size. First, this term appeared for the designation of a small and temporary task element established within the regiment or battalion. Is it close to the other meaning of the word detachment, but the group has remained under the maternal unit, while the detachment worked out of her. Another use is related to defence battalions and later also anti-aircraft artillery battalions, where the group was their organic components and consisted of two to four batteries. It was actually kind of small battalions. The word group was also used for the marking of temporary piecework elements established by corps or divisions to implement specific tactical or support missions in support of combat operations. It could be a battalion, reinforced by detachments from other units or a formation consisting of several battalions. The fourth application concerned the makeshift tactical groups, which was another form of task organization, but this shouldn't just support tasks, but rather straight combat. The basis was the regiment, which was reinforced by the specialized unit and services unit. In the end, it thus corresponded to a force of roughly brigade.


Ešalon
The word ešalon (Echelon) has in the military environment of multiple meanings. In the field of the organisation units of the marked part of the unit sits separately from the parent unit. For ground units it was mainly the forward (Forward) and occipital (Rear) ešalony. For air units it was about Advance, Forward, Rear, Flight and Ground Echalon. Sometimes used the designation ešalon and to determine the order of arrival or disembarkation of troops (1st Echalon, 2nd Echalon, Assault Echalon).


Note
Contemporary documents know and use the term Advance and Advanced. It's about synonyms without semantic difference. There are also similar words Amphibian and Amphibious. Is, in principle, also synonyms, but there is a official difference. Word Amphibian was used for the identification of units equipped with amphibious tractors (tahačy) while word Amphibious for the amphibious corps..
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Additional names



Separate
Units with the designation of a separate (Separate) have been assigned or allocated to the larger unit or headquarters. Autonomy meant that the battalion, company, battery or platoon were not an organic part of the regiment or battalion. These units were all managed directly by headquarters, FMF, Pacific, which is usually to allocate jednotlivýžm corps, divisions, brigades, and other units to perform combat operations.


Temporary
As a makeshift (Provisional) were referred to units that were formed higher hqs and units of forces and means assigned to the existing subordinate units or downloaded from the doplńovacích formations. These units are incurred without regard to systemize. Their purpose was to reinforce, complement or strengthen the existing similar units, or to meet a specific task. From the administrative point of view remained team, which was assigned to a provisional unit assigned to their parent unit, which provided payroll, equipment, etc.). This principle koplikoval life headquarters of the parent and provisional units. Makeshift units were most of the time abolished, with the forces and means returned to the parent units. In some nečetných cases, transformed themselves in the regular units. Word Provisional was sometimes contained in the body of the name, sometimes added after the name in parentheses. In the documents occur in both forms and none have been standardized. Possible therefore, they are both.

Headquarters marine corps (HQMC), while it understood the need to provide commanders in the field, a certain leeway, but in 1944, at the same time saw the issues that caused the existence of these formations. Commanders often failed to justify their existence and the barrel is formed only of each of the funds available. Since they didn't want to limit the strength of the existing regular units, consisted of these makeshift formations of the recharge of the team. But it reduced the amount of marines, who were returning back to the US. It caused the lack of an experienced team, which would be the basis for new training or additional units. HQMC has tried to make the marines from deployment, coming back after 14 months, but also because of the existence of makeshift units so often happened until after 24 to 30 months. HQMC, therefore, increase the supervision of the existence of makeshift units and managed to achieve the abolition of a number of them.

Another type of makeshift units were the ones that were set up in the middle of the fight as an ad hoc emergency formation. These units were officially activated and appear only in the war diaries. Team to their establishment was withdrawn from the special units and units of services, where appropriate, of the units, which suffered in the fight with big losses and were withdrawn from the front. In really crisis situations was withdrawn and ground personnel of the air units of the navy. Their task was to function as a backup, to ensure the exposed wings, clean up the first sequences obejitá pockets of resistance or to secure the rear against the penetration of the enemy. These units typically had a short time of existence.


Mixed
Mixing (Composite) units were assembled from smaller units of two or more types. For example, 51. defense battalion (mixed) (51st Defense Battalion (Composite)) consisted of anti-aircraft artillery group, machine gun group, kanónových and houfnicových batteries and a reinforced rifle company. In the case of air units, the marines were cases when the unit was equipped with aircraft of different types.


Special units
Divisional special troops (special troops) were originally subordinated to the Headquarters of the special units (Commander, Special Troops), which was essentially a regimental headquarters within the division. Consisted of the command of the battalion, a light tank battalion, battalion special weapons, engineer battalion, zákopnického battalion and parachute battalion. Special units have shrunk in mid-1942, when they were set up engineer regiments, to which were transferred engineer and zákopnické battalions. In April 1943 was the expulsion of the airborne battalions between the units of the FMF. In may 1943 have been cancelled battalions of special weapons. So remained only the command and tank battalions. Headquarters special forces was therefore in may 1944 cancelled. Both remaining battalions were transferred under the Command of units of service.


Units of service
Divisional services unit (service troops) were originally subordinate to the Hq units of services (Commander, Service Troops), which was essentially a regimental headquarters within the division. Consisted of operating battalion, medical battalion and the amphibious traktorového battalion. The latter battalion was added in July 1942, but in may 1944, these battalions převdeny to the units of the FMF. Motorized transport battalions were added in April 1943, but it is needed to add that were created from road rot of the operational battalions.


Associated and combined
Terms associated (Joint) and combined (Combined) began to appear after the american-british conference ARCADIA, which took place in December 1941 and January 1942 in Washington. Here was their meaning defined. Associated unit was one that was composed of lower units of the various armed forces of one state (e.g., air force and navy), while the combined unit byal such, which was drawn up from the lower units more states (in particular, the units of american and british)..
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Task-focused organization in the fight


in General
Units of the marine corps nestled into a fight fought as vševojskové (combined arms) formation consisting of infantry, artillery, special forces and units of services. A particular composition has been unfolding from that, what require the specified mission. Division before entering into battle allocating special units and services of your regiments, battalions, and sometimes even rotám. Other units might be allocated from the choral units, which were mostly artillery, defensive, and amphibious tractor units. Thus reinforced, and a task-organized regiments were originally referred to as the battle group (combat groups) and their battalions as combat teams (combat teams). These terms were eventually replaced by dates of regimental landing team (detained landing team) and praporní landing team (battalion landing team).


Battle groups and teams
For the landing on Guadalcanal compiled 1. marine division Battle group, And (Combat Group), for which the basis was 5. a regiment of marines, and a Combat group B (Combat Group B), for which the basis was 1. a regiment of marines. Each group consisted of infantry regiment, artillery battalion, a light tank company, engineer company, zákopnické battalion, amphibious tractor battalion, medical platoon, a reconnaissance platoon, a platoon of special weapons and motorized transport platoon. Infantry battalions of the Combat group And were organized as Combat teams 1, 2 and 3 and the infantry battalions of Combat group B and then as Combat teams 4, 5 and 6. Combat teams consisting of infantry battalion, houfnicové battery, a sapper platoon, zákopnické platoon, amphibious tractor platoon and smaller elements of units of service. The divisional support group (Division Suport Group) consisted of engineers, special weapons, engineers and artillery. This structure was designed not only for landing and combat, but also for the actual embarkation on transport vessels..
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Yet without a greater command of degrees than is the wing


EnglishEnglish
MARINE AVIATION FLYING UNITSUNITS of the AIR force the MARINE CORPS (AVIATION)

Marine Aircraft Wingair wing marine corps
Marine Base Defense Aircraft Wingair wing base defense marine corps
Marine Air Task Forceair task force marine corps

Marine Aircraft Groupair group marine corps
Marine Base Defense Aircraft Groupair band base defense marine corps
Marine Air Support Groupair support group of the marine corps
Marine Carrier Air Groupon-board air band marine corps
Marine Observation Groupobservation group of the marine corps
Marine Glider Groupkluzáková group of the marine corps

Marine Fighting Squadronfighter squadron of the marine corps
Night Fighting Squadronnight fighter squadron of the marine corps
Marine Scout-Bombing Squadronzvědně-bomber squadron of the marine corps
Marine Fighter-Bombing Squadronfighter-bomber squadron of the marine corps
Marine Torpedo-Bombing Squadrontorpédově-bomber squadron of the marine corps
, Marine Bombing Squadronbomber squadron of the marine corps
Scouting Squadronzvědná squadron of the marine corps
Marine Scouting Squadron-Reservebackup intelligence squadron of the marine corps
Marine Observation Squadronobservation squadron of the marine corps
Marine Photographic Squadronphotographic squadron marine corps
Marine Utility Squadron?
Transport Squadrona transport squadron of the marine corps (or traffic?)
Marine Glider Squadronkluzáková squadron of the marine corps
Marine Training Squadrontraining squadron, marine corps
Marine Operational Training Squadronoperational training squadron of the marine corps

Marine Target Towing Detachmentdetachment towing the objectives of the marine corps ???

Artillery Spotting Division???


MARINE AVIATION GROUND UNITSUNITS of the AIR force the MARINE CORPS (GROUND)
Service Group (Provisional)
Air Base Group
Warning Group
Marine Ground Control Group
Woman's Reserve Group

Aircraft Engineering Squadron
Air Regulating Squadron
Marine Aircraft Wing Service Squadron
Marine Aircraft Group and Marine Aircraft Wing Headquarters Squadrons
Marine Aircraft Group Service Squadron
Marine Service Squadron-Reserve
Service Squadron
Air Casual Squadron
Air Warning Squadron
Marine Ground Control Intercept Squadron
Air Warning Squadron (Air Transportable)
Marine Assault Air Warning Squadron
Marine Tactical Air Control Squadron
Marine Air Base Squadron
Marine Air Depot Squadron
Marine Aircraft Salvage and Repair Squadron
Aviation women's Reserve Squadron
Marine Barrage Balloon Squadron

Landing Force Air Support Control Unit
Base Air Detachment
Marine Carrier Aircraft Service Detachment
Marine Aviation Detachment, MAD, ...
.
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Unit EnglishUnit Englishthe Composition ofSystematized the rank of commanderthe Rank of commander in the practice
Aircraft, Fleet Marine Force, Pacificheadquarters of the air force Headquarters flotních forces of the marine corps in the Pacific-major general-
Marine Aircraft Wingair wing of the marine corps2 to 8 groupsbrigadier generalfrom lieutenant colonel for a brigadier general
Marine Aircraft Groupair group marine corps2 to 10 squadrons (normally 3 or 4)colonelfrom major after colonel
Marine Squadronsquadron of the marine corps3 to 4 divisionmajorfrom the captain after the colonel
Aircraft Divisionair division2 to 3 sectionscaptainfrom lieutenant after captain
Aircraft Sectionair sections2 to 3 aircraftlieutenant
.
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Fighter squadron of the marine corps
Marine Fighting Squadron
Pursuit squadron were by far the most numerous. It was a multi-purpose unit, which perform the task in the field of air combat, air combat patrols, attacks against ships, accompanied by bombers and direct air support. This last part of them was basically fighter-bombers. It was indeed the main purpose for which they were established, i.e. the support of amphibious airborne ground units. Naval air units also fulfil tasks in the area of direct air support, but the focus of their activities consisted in previous roles. But you often have to comply with the just and fighter squadron of the marine corps. To carry out the support of amphibious landings, was part of the fighter pěrutí marines armed with interceptors capable of launch from the decks of aircraft carriers. This allowed them to support forward deployed from the very beginning. The rest of the squadron received the tank intended for the start of the classic airports, or machines, which were originally designed for operation from the decks of ships, but in practice, in this role they haven't worked. In 1944, received the majority of the squadrons after two fotoprůzkumných machines for the evaluation of effects of air raids. Fighter squadrons the marine corps had originally 18 fighter aircraft. In 1944 this number was increased to 24.

Night fighter squadron of the marine corps
Marine Night Fighting Squadron
Night fighter squadron of the marine corps were armed with and trained to conduct seizures útočích enemy aircraft even before their arrival to the destination, and the night raids on the enemy vessels. These units were equipped with ground guide radar the SCR-527A, later SCR-588, and cooperate with the pinions of air alerts. Fighters were the targets zeroing in from the centres to the management of fighters. Individual machines were equipped with the identification device IFF, radio sets operating at very high frequencies and its own short-range radar, which allowed them to the final guide. The first night the squadron were set up in July 1943, the first deployment experienced in September 1943. Most of the squadrons had in the arsenal stroll the F4U-2 Corsair, F6F-3N Hellcat and F6F-5N Hellcat. One had a machine PV-1N Ventura, at the end of the war some squadrons přezbrojily on the machine F7F-3N Tigercat, but these were not enough zapojti into the fight. The standard was 12 aircraft in service with the squadron, but the number ranged up to 6 pieces up to 34 machines.

Zvědně-bomber squadron of the marine corps
Marine Scout-Bombing Squadron
Four zvědně-bomber squadron, which existed at the beginning of the war, arose from the renaming of two of the three zvědných squadrons and two bomber squadrons. These units were armed with zvědnými bombers, which carried out the dive-attacks, long-distance zvědnou activity and patrol. In addition, also sometimes carried out air strikes on targets before disembarking land units and eventually even their close air support. Sometimes also implement the classic horizontal bombing at different heights, viewed the smoke screen and were spraying DDT on areas of the bases. The basic equipment of these squadrons were mostly aircraft SBD Dauntless and the SB2C Helldiver. In 1944-1945, part of the squadrons used machines F4U-4 Corsair. The squadron had originally in a state of 18 machines, in 1944, there was an increase of 24 machines.

Fighter-bomber squadron of the marine corps
Marine Fighter-Bombing Squadron
The course of the fighting showed the need for air units specialzivoaných on the effective support of ground forces. These wings have arisen by renaming and přezbrojením some zvědně-bomber squadron in October 1944. However, already in December 1944 they were renamed back to zvědně-bombing. Vntřní the organization of these squadrons followed the fighter squadron. Armed with were battle versions of the fighter aircraft, which have a greater carrying capacity and better protection, possibly newer versions of the fighter, which t these enhancements also available. The main task of these units was the provision of direct air support, however, often have been deployed even when útočích on the enemy vessels. Squadron standard had 24 aircraft.

Torpédově-bomber squadron of the marine corps
Most torpédově-bombing squadrons was formed by renaming of zvědně-bomber squadrons and later also of the fighter-bomber squadrons. The first torpédově-bomber squadron was formed in may 1943. The squadron, however, were rarely deployed on the torpedo mission. Most implement the classic horizontal bombing at various altitudes and carry out patrol missions. Due to the relatively large space for the cargo of ammunition were often used also to supply the ground troops dropping supplies by parachutes. These should be in the arsenal of 18 torpedo bombers TBF-1C Avenger.

Bomber squadron of the marine corps
The marines had already from the year 1937 bombardovacími pinions. These were in 1941, renamed to zvědně-bomber squadron. The first new bomber squadron, which has already been equipped with medium bombers, was established in march 1943. Their existence in the marine corps was often questioned. However, the air force had medium bombers excess, and so is the marine corps could easily get. In addition to total proved themselves in horizontal bombing at various altitudes, long-distance attacks on enemy vessels and survey. The wing should have in the arsenal of 12 or sometimes up to 15 medium bomber PBJ-1 (the navy designation for the B-25 Mitchell).

Zvědná squadron of the marine corps
Two of the three pre-war zvědných squadrons were in July 1941 renamed zvědně-bomber squadron. Remained the only squadron with that name. This was in the Virgin islands, and was armed with amphibious multi-purpose aircraft J2F-2A Duck, which were in 1942 replaced by machines OS2N-1
Kingfisher and then at the beginning of the year 1944 zvědnými bombers SBD Dauntless. In may 1944 was the squadron deactivated.

Observation squadron of the marine corps
During the second world war there existed in the marine corps, two different types of observation squadrons. Four of the squadron should be in the name of queen numbers and were equipped with 18 fighter aircraft F4F-3P, the F4F-7, or the F6F-5P. These machines were equipped for fotoprůzkum. All observation squadron of this type have been in 1944 or 1945 přetransformovány and renamed the fighter squadron. The other observation squadron should be in the title of a one-digit number. These squadrons were equipped with 12 or 14 light observation aircraft-NO-1B, or OY-1. The first squadron of this type arose in January 1944 from artillery controllers divisions, which existed from October 1943 in the context of the above observation squadrons with a three-passenger number in the title. These divisions have 12 machines, of which three were replacement. Both types of squadrons to conduct tactical reconnaissance in favor of land units and function as návodčí artillery fire. Squadron armed with light observation aircraft to support the activities of the choral and the divisional artillery, which guided their activities. In addition, to ensure even contact years ago. Squadron equipped with photographic versions of fighter aircraft to carry out remote photo and vidový survey.

Photographic squadron marine corps
The first photographic squadron was established in April 1942. These squadrons were equipped with six fotoprůzkumnými military planes and eight patrol bombers PB4Y-1 (B-24D) Liberator, or PB4Y-2 Privateer. These machines perform remote, high-altitude fotoprůzkum.

Multi-purpose squadron of the marine corps
Multi-purpose squadron was equipped with 12 to 15 transport aircraft R4D (C-47) Skytrain, three multi-purpose transport aircraft and three multi-purpose aircraft. In June and July were these squadrons renamed to the transport squadron.

a Transport squadron of the marine corps
These squadrons were incurred in June and July 1944 by renaming of the multi-role squadrons and were equipped with 12 transport aircraft R4D (C-47) Skytrain. Those were from August, 1944, being replaced by the transport aircraft R5C-1 (C-46) Commando. The squadron provided transport materials and troops, dropping supplies on parachutes and get injured..
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k tem leteckym jednotkam :


Carrier Air Group - v RAF i USA zatim prekladame jako palubni letecka skupina
Fighter-Bombing Squadron - stíhací-bombardovací (s pomlckou, ne bez, o tom byly velke debaty Very Happy )


Artillery Spotting Division - divize dělostřeleckých návodčích ?


ty groupy a wingy - muzes prekladat "pres linkator" - v USAF se vetsina nazvu jiz vyskytuje
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díky moc za připomínky!


stíhací-bombardovací a pomlčka --- ok, nemám s tím sebemenší problém


Carrier - palubní --- oj, já hlava děravá, to mi vůbec nedošlo a přitom je to tak jasné, achjo... zapracuji



na zbytek ještě kouknu
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Hele, jak jsem psal, nemám s tou pomlčkou problém. Ale tady na válce, i jinde na netu, to vidím psané bez té pomlčky, viz např. https://www.valka.cz/topic/view/73032. Analogicky třeba i "zvědná bombardovací" máme bez pomlčky...
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Pak bych taky chtěl probrat, zda psát u jednotek


torpédovací či torpédová


vyskytuje se obojí, i zde u nás na foru


vesměs vidím torpédový člun a torpédový bombardér, takže se ptám, zda je ok, kdy od toho odvodím
torpédová peruť
a stejně tak
torpédová bombardovací peruť



nebo je u jednotek posun od torpédový k torpédovací a píše se tedy
torpédovací peruť
a stejně tak
torpédovací bombardovací peruť



anebo záleží na tom, zda je to slovo Torpedo samostatné, nebo zda je ve složenině a tedy se píše


torpédová peruť
ale
torpédovací bomnardovací


či naopak


torpédovací peruť
ale
torpédová bombardovací peruť



či čili jak překládat,


Torpedo Squadron
Torpedo Bombing Squadron
Torpedo-Bombing Squadron
Torpedo Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron
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Psaní adjektiv k flota (a rovnou i flotila) a torpédo (vč. složenin) jsem přes kolegyni konzultoval s pracovnicí ÚJČ. Ještě se na to podívám a postupně zapracuji to, co se týká floty a torpéd. K pozornosti širšího pléna doporučiji hlavně ten konec, který se týká používání spojovníků mezi adjektivy tohoto typu.




Od substantiva „flota“ (v originále Fleet) je vhodnější adjektivum „flotní“, nebo „flotový“?
výkladové slovníky češtiny adjektivum neuvádějí, doporučuji podobu flotový. Přípona -ový je nejfrekventovanější příponou, kterou se tvoří vztahová adjektiva



Od slova „flotila“ (v originále Flotilla; výrazně menší jednotka než flota) je vhodnější adjektivum „flotilní“, nebo „flotilový“?
podle SSJČ i Nového akademického slovníku má adj. podobu flotilový



Je vhodnější psát „torpédový bombardér“, nebo „torpédovací bombardér“?
Je vhodnější psát „torpédová peruť“, nebo „torpédovací peruť“?

V obou případech doporučuji adj. torpédový. V Českém národním korpusu jsem našla spojení torpédový bombardér 96×, torpédovací bombardér ani jednou. Pochopitelně, že ani spojení torpédovací bombardér chybné není. Obě příd. jm. vyjadřují totéž.


Je vhodné aby to byl stejný tvar jak pro letadlo, tak i pro jednotku letadlem vybavenou, nebo naopak rozdílný, anebo je to z lingvistického hlediska irelevantní?
Tomu moc nerozumím. To se vztahuje ke dvojici předchozí? Pokud ano, tak doporučuji užít adj. torpédový.


Často je to i ve složeninách (s pomlčkou i spojkou). Je pak vhodnější:
„torpédovací a bombardovací peruť“, respektive „torpédovací-bombardovací peruť“, nebo
„torpédová a bombardovací peruť“, respektive „torpédová-bombardovací peruť“?

Spojovník se mezi těmito typy adjektiv běžně v češtině neužívá. Pokud se však zvolí spojka a, tak dané spojení nemusí být jednoznačné – může to vyznít, že jde jednak o torpédovou peruť a jednak o bombardovací peruť, tedy o perutě dvě, nebo o peruť jednu mající dvě funkce. Pokud jde o druhý význam, šlo by to vyřešit podobou torpédově-bombardovací.
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Martin Smíšek
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Zakládám perutě USMC a koukám přitom samozřejmě na dosavadní překlady, hlavně do leteckých jednotek letectva a námořnictva. Narazil jsem na problém a rád bych ho pořešil, než to začnu zakládat/překládat. Máme tu trochu rozplizlé překlady pro Attack a Strike.


Dotaz: Můžeme se domluvit, že bude


Strike = Úderný
Attack = Bitevní
Heavy Attack = Těžký bitevní
Strike Fighter = úderně-stíhací
Fighter Attack = stíhací-bitevní
All-Weather Fighter Attack = stíhací-bitevní pro každé počasí
All-Weather Attack = bitevní pro každé počasí


?



(Assault = Útočný (netýká se letectva, doplňuji spíše pro úplnost))






Předem díky za vyjádření/pomoc/připomínky.
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