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Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse]

Yakovlev Yak-24

Яковлев Як-24

Jakovlev Jak-24
Originální název:
Original Name:
Яковлев Як-24
víceúčelový vrtulník
DD.MM.1952-DD.MM.1958 Leningradský letecký závod č. 272, Leningrad /
Období výroby:
Production Period:
DD.MM.1956-DD.MM.1958 série
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
4 prototypy + 38 sériových strojů
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Uspořádání rotorů:
Rotor Configuration:
tandemové rotory
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného vrtulníku:
Empty Weight:
10607 kg
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
14270 kg
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
16800 kg
Délka s otáčejícími se rotory:
Length with Rotors Turning:
33,03 m
Délka trupu:
Fuselage Length:
21,34 m
Šířka trupu:
Fuselage Width:
? m
Celková výška:
Overall Height:
6,50 m
Průměr hlavního rotoru:
Main Rotor Diameter:
20,00 m
Průměr vyrovnávacího rotoru:
Tail Rotor Diameter:
- m
Plocha disku hlavního rotoru:
Main Rotor Disc Area:
628,32 m2
Plocha disku vyrovnávacího rotoru:
Tail Rotor Disc Area:
- m2
Počet motorů:
Number of engines:
Švecov AŠ-82V (Швецов АШ-82В) o výkonu 1250 kW/1700 k
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
1500 l
3x 800 l přídavná nádrž
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
175 km/h v ? m
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
156 km/h v ? m
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s
Statický dostup:
Static Ceiling:
2000 m
Dynamický dostup:
Dynamic Ceiling:
4200 m
265 km
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
1000 km
Přepravní kapacita:
Transport Capacity:
30 vojáků, nebo 18 nosítek + 1 zdravotník, nebo 4000 kg nákladu
Výzbroj a vybavení:
Armament and Equipment:
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
kód NATO: Horse

Údaje platí pro základní verzi Jak-24
Fojtík Jakub, Ruské vrtulníky, Svět křídel 2009
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Yakovlev yak-24
(Яковлев Як-24)

Helicopter Yak-24 represents the third trip to this otherwise "letounové" OKB between the rotorcraft. The yak-24 was designed for a very short period of time: from the approval of a design concept in October 1951 the first flight in July 1952 had passed only 9 months.

In the Soviet Union by that time the heavy transport choppers more pronounced attention was paid. He was known to american structures company Piasecki and the british Bristol, but only their successful deployment in the war in Korea, where perform a variety of tasks, brought on them the attention of the command of the VVS of the USSR.

J. In. Stalin I personally instructed the OKB Mila and OKB Yakovlev development of the heavy transport helicopters, adapted for operation in all weather conditions, day and night. OKB Mil is focused on the middle category of up to 1200 kg, OKB Yakovlev then on the category of the heavy helicopters. Both helicopters should be in the framework of the unification of the share most of the on-board systems, engine type, AL-82, a bearing rotor, rotor head, reducer, or control system. While the lighter single engine - the future I-4 he was classically conceived, heavier twin-engine Yak-24 was equipped with two on-line monitoring arranged contrarotating rotors. Design work on the Yak-24 while they were already on 24. September 1951. Technology 1:1 scale model of this machine the commission has gone through in a day 10. December of the same year.

The design team consisted of a group G. Also. Ogarkova, With. And. Semova, L. M. Šechtěra and Even. And. Erlich On (Г. И. Огарков, С. А. Бемов, Л. М. Шехтер). The main designer of the Yak-24 was Igor Aleksandrovič Erlich (Игорь Александрович Эрлих). With the helicopters already some experience had, since 1946, participated in the design of both of the previous jakovlevských machines - How M-II to FR-I, type N concentric propellers and How-100 with the classic concept of one carrier and one tail rotor. During this time worked my way up from an ordinary engineer to the position of chief designer of helicopters.

Were built 4 prototypes. 2 were intended to strength and fatigue testing, 2 for test flight. The first of four prototypes from the country for the first time breaking away 1. July, 1952, so far only confined to the ground, the first free flight performed 3. July. It was the largest helicopter of soviet design, which its capacity is several times superior to all the former soviet helicopters. During factory tests, completed on 15. November 1952, the two flight prototypes of the Yak-24 have performed together a total of 141 test flights. Almost half of them were focused on the research, the originator of the unwanted vibrations of the airframe, which had in some flight modes of influence even on the strength of the airframe. In addition to these difficulties with the vibration of the airframe a new type of plagued also stability problems. 2. static prototype ended in disaster, when in the course of the 300 hour endurance test after 178 hours of operation burst frame of the rear of the engine, he released, tipped forward and running the propeller practically destroyed the rear part of the fuselage. From přetrhaného pipe leakage fuel, which caused the whole machine burned up. All this, together with the unsatisfactory results of the static tests, which had to be eventually repeated, claimed the first stage of state tests twice interrupt, which this part of the test programme ran from 29. December 1952 to 16. February 1955.
The first test flight of the prototype took place on 3 July 1952 after 9 o'clock in the evening (during the day the wind was strong). Years lasted less than 10 minutes. The machine lifted into the air With. G. Brovcev (С. Г. Бровцев), a later holder of the title of Hero of the Soviet Union). In the cabin with him, he was a mechanic P. With. Semin (П. С. Семин).

Trials began visením in a small amount. Immediately identified defects requiring immediate adjustments. For example, the freely movable front and rear wheels of the chassis not allow you to move the helicopter in a chosen direction. From this shortcomings, get rid of, fix the wheels of the rear legs. After the pilots found that when increasing the forward speeds of the helicopter turns to the right and after reaching a speed of 60 km/hr reserve travel management not just to copes corner. To improve the side ovládatelnosti it was necessary to change the installation angles of the surfaces of rotation of the bearing propellers and adjust the tail surfaces, avoiding the tail area to the right.

After each adjustment have been performed dozens of flights and hover for 5-10 minutes. In the end, everything was done for real years. Historical event occurred on 3 July 1952, when the crew in the assembly Brovceva and Miljutičeva first performed on the as-24 long lasting take-off. It is appeared as an undoubted success of the soviet construction of helicopters - I-24 became the first in the country dvouvrtulovém helicopter longitudinal scheme. And what's more, due to the performance of the engine, and useful cargo at the time surpassed all the foreign machines.

Successive modifications have managed to most of the problems addressed, the machine e.g. the received rotor blades with a smaller length (about 0.5 m), the reinforced structure of the hull and some changes in the management system. Although the aforementioned changes have failed to remove all the flaws, of which the most kritizovanými become insufficient stability and a small height (4 to 200 m instead of the required 5 500 m). The second stage of the state testing was officially terminated on day 30. April 1955 signing of the final report. In April 1955 in race no 272 in Leningrad started the production and in the period 1956 - 1958 made 35 of these dvouvrtulových helicopters with a large hull, capable of holding a three-member crew and up to 30 soldiers, with full kits, or 18 stretchers, or 3,000 kg of cargo, loaded into a helicopter rear loading ramp using the winch. Podtrupový hook kidnapped the same burden. The number of prototypes was added on 4 flight of the specimen, which participated in the traditional parade Tušinu 1955 and 1956. In 1959 he successfully participated in the maneuvers on the territory of the then GDR and in Ukraine. As-24 should be the standard comes in 3 variants - assault, transport and ambulances.
A test pilot Is. F. Miljutičev (Е.Ф. Милютичев) on the new machine also 17. December 1955 established two international organisations of the FAI recognized world records the output to a height of 2 092 m with 4 t cargo and output to a height of 5 032 m 3 t of cargo.
Although the design was the Yak-24 in the course of the serial production of continuously improved, all before mentioned flaws, this type of never been able to completely remove. This fact together with the need to release the production capacity of the leningrad plant for the production of rocket technology resulted in the mass production of the machines stopped in 1958 after the delivery of only 40 specimens. All the Yak-24 while VVS excluded already during the first half of the 60. years, and that in connection with the introduction of far more efficient heavy transport helicopters of the type -6 from the workshop of M. L. Mila.

Like every machine, included in the armament of the soviet air force, the yak-24 has received a NATO designation code of the Horse, therefore the Horse.

Also, Jakub, Russian helicopters, the World of wings 2009
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The first mass-produced military version with folding seats along the walls of the cabin, with podtypovým hook about the lifting capacity of 3 000 kg. Because originally used the horizontal tail with a strong vzepětím (the so-called butterfly tail) couldn't Jake-24 to ensure a sufficient stability, which in the years 1955 to 1957 collected a heavy toll in the form of loss of three of these machines in case of accidents, it was later its dihedral dramatically reduced and at the same time on her end installed two vertical tail surfaces with a rectangular shape.

How-24T (Τрубокладчик = fitter pipe)
A special modification of the helicopter Yak-24 is running the Nerpa (Нерпа), which was to serve for the laying of fuel pipe under the support of tank units while advancing to the rear of the enemy with the use of field fuel type PMT-100 (полевой магистральный трубопровод ПМТ-100). How-24T should be operated in pairs. The first machine had to both sides of the hull in the area between the front and rear suspension attached cartridge with 44 pcs tubes in 2 rows each. Drop the individual parts of the pipeline were automatically, alternately, the intervals drop to paced the shoveling, set mechanically from the cabin. The machine during the tests performed 49 and performed a total of 159 shozů pipe. Dispersion shazovaných pipes does not exceed 15 m, while the maximum working height of 25 m. Inside the cargo space of the second machine there were three fuel tanks with a total volume of 3 156 l. During one operational flight of this pair of Yaks-24T managed to lay pipes up to 528 m. by Modifying the standard transport Jake-24 item no. numbers 03310 originated only a prototype of the special, which between 20. July 1957 and 28. September 1959 passed by racing tests. In July 1959, this machine laid the pipe between the Serpuchovem and Leningrad. This route was very difficult to reach the ground technique. Mentioned the action yet become historically the first-ever industrial the construction of the pipeline in the USSR for the use of the helicopter. Despite this success but the system Nerpa serial production never forthcoming. Use nepancéřované machine in přifrontovém space, where he had to fly slowly and low, was, politely speaking, a suicide attempt. This machine is today - selmutým device Nerpa - stored in an outdoor exposure of aviation museum in mona's. It is the only preserved specimen of the Jake 24.

How-24U (U = Уширенный - improved)
Originated on the basis of the award of the Airborne force (VDV) of 12. August 1957. According to the mentioned specifications should be able to transport all the equipment, which was at the time in service with the VDV. - greatly advanced modification of the helicopter Yak-24 with new rotors with a diameter 21,00 m (of the type Mi-4, instead of the rotors with a diameter of 20.20 m), a new horizontal tail fin, whose rising edge is now perpendicular to the sides of the hull (originally had a significantly positive dihedral motýlkovité concept), a modified fuselage with a larger width (about 0.4 m), slightly greater height and a metal film coating the middle section (in place of the coating cloth), modified rear suspension, a modified support system, which included a system of automatic control of the rotor blades of the type AP-102M, and significantly enlarged our fuel supply. The machine got to the autopilot. How-24U could inside the whimsical cabin to carry up to 40 troops or 18 stretchers with 2 paramedics. Or expense to the total weight of up to 4 t, 37 paratroopers or military equipment up to the size of the self-propelled artillery system of the type ASU-57. Into a cargo pod under the fuselage, it was possible to place even an automobile of the type GAZ-51, or other large loads up to a weight of 3.5 t. Report of completion of factory tests of the prototype of this machine, which was rebuilt from a serial Yak-24 item no. numbers, 01304, was signed on 5. may 1958. The machine eventually wouldn't even go into the military tests, and served mainly as a flying crane. The most famous actions was the replacement of wooden roof trusses for metal in Jekatěrinském palace in the city Puškino, which conducted a test pilot Also. With. Grigoriev (И. С. Григорьев) and on-board engineer B. N. Alenikov (Б. М. Алеников). A group of fitters headed the B. N. Mužčinkin (Б. Н. Мужчинкин). The work was carried out within 2 working days, without harm to the historic park surrounding the palace.

How-24F (фильмовой = filmmaking)
Special civil modification of the helicopter Yak-24 with a container with a total of 11 film cameras on an extensible and rotatable podtrupovém the shoulder of the tubular příhradoviny, who served for taking panorama of documentary films. After its launch under the machine operator to scan the surroundings in the range of 360°. Handling with camera bracket ensures the crane, located on the ceiling of the cabin. The whole boom was at rest retracted into the recess on the bottom of the hull. This was in the year 1959 edited one serial Yak-24. The container was stabilized to shocks, which was the first time ever in the USSR a similar device was created and was used.

How-24A (Аеролиния = line)
Civil transport modification of the helicopter Yak-24 with a cabin with seats for 30 persons at the place of the cargo area, larger side windows and new access door on the left side of the fuselage, which after opening forms the access steps. This model as well as How-24K also lacked the stern loading ramp and bow range. The only prototype of the transport Yak-24A was created in 1960, the reconstruction of the serial Yak-24. Because he was still in the same year, the development of helicopters, a series of How-24 completely stopped, the serial production is never forthcoming.

How to-24K (комфортабельный = comfortable)
The last version of the Jake 24. Parlor modification intended for the transport of VIP eight passengers in a luxuriously furnished heat and sound insulated cabin with heating. The passenger cabin of this model was divided into three sections, the front with a cloakroom and storage space, the medium, which consists of own personal cabin with eight comfortable swivel chairs, and the rear with a toilet, a washroom and a kitchen. How to-24K is further characterised by the absence of the aft cargo door and nose guns, the installation of four pairs of square windows with dimensions of 900 x 900 mm on the sides of the middle part of the trunk (the introduction of such large windows in place of the five pairs of significantly smaller windows, but required a rework skeleton of the torso), a substitute fabric covering the middle part of the hull metal, redesigned front and rear parts of the fuselage with the installation of the power units, which can now be replaced without intervention into the passenger cabin, and the new electrically vyklápěnými access door on the left side of the fuselage (the ones after the opening of the formed boarding ladder - like, as in the later třímotorového traffic How 40). Two specimens of the transport Yak-24K arose on the basis of the 1959 treatment of standard transport Yak-24 item no. numbers 2720803 and 2720804. This model is supposed to become a means of transport is the us president D. Eisenhovera during his expected visit to the USSR. While the first of them to Moscow has arrived already 30. October 1959, the second was completed in February 1960. Due to the significant deterioration of relations between the USSR and the USA (kill jeff powers ' U-2) but in the end for these machines found use.

How-24P (Пассжирсий - for the transport of persons)
The project of modernization of the helicopter assembly turboshaft engine Ivchenko AI-24V. Engines should be relocated above the passenger cabin, thereby the number of places reached 39. Travel speed should reach a value of 210 km/hr. From a redesigned rear fuselage, a relaxed relocation of the engines above the cabin, disappeared the cargo ramp. But there appeared room for luggage of passengers and toilet. The project was terminated after the demonstration of the mock-ups 1 : 1 at several international exhibitions in the early ' 60s. years. Coincidentally, it is this version known even by a plastic model of this version vyraběla company Plastikart of the former GDR.
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

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The scheme of location of power units and their connections.
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

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Jak-24T, Ústřední muzeum vojenského letectva Ruské federace, Monino, 2011.

Zdroj: archiv autora

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] -

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Якубович, Н.В.: Вертолёт Як-24, Приложение к журналу "МОДЕЛИСТ-КОНСТРУКТОР", 3/2011
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24 prvej série s motýlikovitými chvostovými plochami

Jak-24 prvej série s motýlikovitými chvostovými plochami
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24 Nerpa

Jak-24 Nerpa
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24U

Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24A

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Якубович, Н.В.: Вертолёт Як-24, Приложение к журналу "МОДЕЛИСТ-КОНСТРУКТОР", 3/2011
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Sériový Jak-24 652. vrtuľníkového pluku, Toržok, koniec 50-tych rokov

Sériový Jak-24 652. vrtuľníkového pluku, Toržok, koniec 50-tych rokov
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Modifikovaný Jak-24, ktorý sa podieľal na obnove Katarínskeho paláca v Puškine, leto 1959

Modifikovaný Jak-24, ktorý sa podieľal na obnove Katarínskeho paláca v Puškine, leto 1959
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24A, centrálne letisko, Moskva 1960

Jak-24A, centrálne letisko, Moskva 1960
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Moscow, Monino, 2009, own photo.
Jakovlev Jak-24 [kód NATO: Horse] - Jak-24T s demontovaným systémom Nerpa, detail vstupu pilotnej kabíny

Jak-24T s demontovaným systémom Nerpa, detail vstupu pilotnej kabíny
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