SOV - R-60 / AA-8 Aphid

R-60 / AA-8 Aphid
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The first studies, at the end of which the R-60 was created, were started in 1968 at the NKPK (former OKB-4 design office), whose chief designer was M. R. Bisnovat. In addition to him, his first deputies V. I. Jelagin, A. L. Kegeles, G. N. Smolsky and I. N. Karabanov took part in the development of the anti-aircraft missile. The new missile was to be characterized by low weight and high maneuverability, its carriers were to be aircraft MiG-21, MiG-23, [url=http : //] Su-15[/url], Su-17 a Jak-28P. In the same year, an agreement was reached with the Arsenal plant in Kiev, which was to develop a new Komar infrared guidance system with an uncooled sensor for the missile. The following year, the first 28 test subassemblies of the future R-60 were produced. By a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of 21 January 1970, the NKPK was officially ordered to design a "highly manoeuvrable missile weighing 30 to 35 kg." Thus began the production of prototypes of the basic units of the rocket and its body. At the same time, drawing documentation was prepared for a version of the missile with a Kolibri radar lighter instead of an optical N-62.

In 1971, flight tests were performed on the missile guidance device located in the test container K-30. The first ground prototype launches were also launched in the same year. A total of six K-60 missiles were fired, which were successfully guided to targets that were 500 to 1500 meters away from the launcher. Later, rocket fire from aircraft began MiG-21SMT and MiG-23M. During 17 shots in 1971 and 43 shots in 1972, 7 target aircraft were shot down MiG-17 and [url=http : //] La-17[/url]. By resolution of 18 December 1973, the missile was introduced into the armament of the Soviet Air Force under the designation R-60. In the NATO code, it received the designation AA-8 "Aphid".

Serial production of the R-60 series missiles called Izdělije 62 took place at the Kommunar plant in Moscow (between 1973 and 1985), the Izhevsk mechanical plant and the Tbilisi air plant.

R-60 missiles could be suspended (APU-60-1) or double (APU-60-2) launchers, among other things, can be suspended under aircraft MiG-21bis, MiG-23M, MiG-25PD, MiG-29, Su-15TM, Su-17M3, Su-17M4, Su-24, Su-25 a Yak-38.

R-60 (K-60, Izdělije 62, in NATO code AA-8 Aphid-A)
Anti-aircraft short-range missile mass-produced since 1973. The missile consists of five main structural units. In the first section there is an infrared guidance system OGS-60TI Komar with an uncooled sensor. Fixed rectangular destabilizers are built into the bow, behind which there are rudders. Destabilizers are intended to improve rudder efficiency when flying at high angles of attack.The second part of the missile consists of a fragmentation-explosive combat part BB-62 weighing 3 kg and an autopilot, which is followed by a third section with a contact igniter. The fourth section contains a non-contact optical lighter Střiž, which initiates the combat part at a distance of 1 to 5 meters from the target. The last subgroup consists of wings with rollers and a solid fuel engine PRD-259, which burns for 3 to 5 seconds. The missile is not all-course and can only be fired at the rear hemisphere of the target. The angle of view of the sensor is 12 °, the angular velocity of the target can be a maximum of 30 to 35 °/s. If the projectile misses the target, a self-destruct device is initiated after 25 seconds.

The first sharp use of R-60 missiles occurred on June 21, 1978, when around half past six in the morning, four Iranian helicopters of the type CH-47C (on a reconnaissance mission?) Violated USSR airspace in Turkmenistan. MiG-23M from report 152 was sent against intruders. IAP piloted Capt. A. V. Děmjanov. However, he found only one helicopter and also identified him as Soviet. In 6.52, another cash [url=http] was sent against the Iranian Chinooks : //] MiG-23M[/url] ze sestace 152. IAP. His pilot, Capt. Valery I. Skinder soon found all the helicopters and identified them correctly. He fired two R-60s at the nearest one. Both missiles were guided correctly and turned the Iranian helicopter into a wreck, in the bowels of which all 8 crew members died. The remaining Iranian crews, meanwhile, noticed the danger in the form of the Soviet MiG and headed back towards the border. Cpt. However, Skinder continued to attack. Two doses from the cannon GŠ-23L so seriously damaged the right engine of another CH-47C, who had to make an emergency landing near the Soviet border guard post. The Iranian four-member crew was captured and interrogated by the KGB in Ashgabat. Damaged Chinook with tactical number 5-4092 was later repaired and he returned to Iran with his crew and eight dead from the downed machine.

R-60 missile version designed for export purposes. The main difference is the use of a Kolibri radar lighter. R-60K missiles were deployed by the Syrian Air Force during the battles in Lebanon in 1982. On June 9, 1982, the Syrian MiG-21bis R-60K missile damage Israeli F-15D, the same day the same combination of Syrian aircraft and missiles caused destruction Kfiru C.2 Israeli Air Force. R-60K fired from MiGu-21bis could probably cause the downing of the Israeli machine on June 11 F-4E. The R-60Ks were also used in combat by the Iraqi Air Force during the Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s.

R-60M (K-60M, Izdělije 62M, in NATO code AA-8 Aphid-B)
An upgraded version of the basic type R-60 with a new more sensitive nitrogen-cooled sensor, which has an extended viewing angle of 20 °. Flight tests of the new guidance system OGS-75 Komar-M were started in 1973. The modernized sensor made it possible to attack air targets from the rear and front hemisphere.Also new was the combat part of the AB-62 rod-type weighing 3.5 kg, which forced the extension of the missile by 43 mm. Introduced into the Soviet Air Force in 1982 (?).

Export version of the R-60M missile with Kolibri-M radar lighter. The R-60MKs were used in combat by the Iraqi Air Force during the Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s. One Iraqi MiG-23ML from the 63rd Fighter Squadron on August 11, 1984, he had the assault of an Iranian fighter over the Persian Gulf with the assistance of the R-60MK F-14A Tomcat serving at 81st Tactical Fighter Wing. The Iraqis also used their R-60MK during the first hours of Operation Desert Storm on January 17 and 18, 1991, when [ url=/viewtopic.php] MiGy-23[/url] a The MiG-29 of the Iraqi Air Force tried unsuccessfully to intercept and shoot down the attacking aircraft of the US Air Force. Probably with the help of missiles R-60K/MK was Iraqi MiGem-25PD of the 96th Fighter Squadron shot down an American drone reconnaissance aircraft on December 23, 2002 RQ-1A Predator during its reconnaissance mission over Iraq.
R-60MK were also used over the Indian subcontinent, when August 10, 1999 shot down the Indian MiG-21bis patrol aircraft Atlantique, which disrupted Indian airspace. A cash pair of MiGs from the 45th Squadron was sent against the intruder. The head of S/Ldr Bundel intercepted a Pakistani naval machine on his radar at a distance of 10 to 15 km. After the approval of the guidance station, the Indian pilot detonated one R-60, which at about 11.17 hit the left engine of the intruder, which eventually crashed on Pakistani territory.

UZR-60T (also known as UZ-62?)
The register used in air combat training allows you to simulate all the necessary actions until the moment of launch. Corresponds to the basic variant R-60.

The register used in air combat training allows you to simulate all the necessary actions until the moment of launch. Corresponds to the basic variant R-60M.

Legend for marking bullets:
R-xx - designation of the Soviet Air Force
K-xx - design office designation
Izdělije xxx - factory designation

1) Gordon, J .: Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War II, Midland Publishing, Hincley, 2005
2) Markovskij, V. Ju., Perov, K .: Sovetskije aviacionnye rakety "vozduch-vozduch", Eksprint, Moscow, 2005
3) Markovskij, V. Ju., Perov, K .: Development of Soviet aviation air missiles class air-air, M-Chobbi, 2/2002
4) Angelskij, R., Korovin, V .: Otečestvennye upravljajemyje rakety „vozduch-vozduch“, TiV, 9/2005
5) Cooper, T., Bishop F .: Iran-Iraq War in the Air, 1980-1988, Schiffer, 2002
Iraqi Air-to-Air Victories since 1967
Syrian Air-to-Air Victories since 1948
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R-60 in Czechoslovak and Czech Air Force

In the Czechoslovak Air Force, the missile was introduced in the 1980s along with the Mig-23MF/ML. These aircraft could carry up to 4 R-60s under the fuselage on a pair of APU-60-IIs. MiG-29s in normal configuration used 2 R-60M (export MK) on the last pair of wing struts, including service in OH. The last type that can carry R-60 is the MiG-21. Several machines of the "MF" version were modified in the first half of the 1990s by the 9th Sbolp, others were modified for the possibility of arming with this APU in 1999-02. Since 2002, the standard armament of MiG-21MF/MFNs has been the R-60M/MK missile pair.

Combat Su-25s and fighter-bomber Su-22s could carry a pair of R-60s for self-defense.
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Photos taken in Monino museum, R-60 is carried on APU-60-2, which allows to carry two missiles at the same time.
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And this time the R-60 is carried separately.
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