Main Menu
User Menu

Military history website

In 2004, work began on the Russian-Slovak-Czech project of modernization of the popular cannon ZU-23-2 for export to third world countries. The project was assigned the designation ZU-23-A. The aim of the modernization was to significantly increase the effectiveness of fire on flying targets, reduce the number of crew members and the possibility of using new types of ammunition.

The restrictive conditions of the assignment were the requirements for:
- preservation of the original sight ZAP-23 and manual drive
- installation of modernization elements at the customer's in field conditions
- the price of modernization elements must be significantly lower than the prices of Finnish Patria and Russian ZU-32-2 M, M1 from OKB Nudelman

In 2006 the work was interrupted and since 2008 it has started again, this time without a Russian partner and under the project name "Vlára" (Vlára is a small river on the Moravian-Slovak border PL funds Angara, Jenisej, Tunguska, Šilka , Loara ..., and also indicates the ratio of funds to the project arrived Smile)
In 2009, work on a functional sample was successfully completed and completed with gunfire at VTSÚ Záhorie.

The fire control system consists of two separate groups:

Servo drives
- digital actuators with AC three-phase motors and microprocessor controllers with current recuperation function, speed 80 °/s in azimuth and 60 °/s in elevation, measuring step 10 microrads, positioning accuracy 0.3 mrad
- two-axis joystick controlling actuators via CAN Bus
- battery pack with control panel and charger

The optoelectronic block contains
- car device. capturing and tracking the target with a digital CCD camera
- CCD TV camera operator
- control computer with Pentium processor, PC 104+ format
- laser rangefinder with a safe wavelength of 1.54 μm
- microdisplay on the helmet
- temperature and barometric air pressure sensor
- control panel (common with actuators)

The weight of the laser block is 6.1 kg and the required power input from 24 VDC is 22 W.

The set is able to work from a 24 V/95 Ah rechargeable battery continuously for min. 24 hours.

The SRP software works with the hypothesis of constant acceleration of the target in all axes and is therefore more modern and accurate than PUAZO-6 used in 57 mm cannons and all modifications of the fire control system ZSU-23-4 Shilka introduced in the last century. Ballistic calculations are performed according to the STANAG methodology and allow the selection of several types of ammunition, including the new sub-caliber ammunition FAPDS and PELE.

Against the original TTD changes:
- 215 mm must be added to the heights of the set
- marching weight increases to approx. 1030 kg
- the maximum effective range is increased to 3000 m when using FAPDS ammunition
- the theoretical probability of intervention increases compared to the basic version about 10 times

Source: author's own archive
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
Ammo caliber 23x152 used systems ZSU-23-4 and ZU-23-2.

Fig. above - standard ammo API-T (БЗ-T Russian), Bulgarian provenance,

Fig. bottom - new ammo FAPDS-T offered by the Polish company MESKO.

Ammunition designed for destruction of air targets, after the passage of the first Al. sheet leads to the fragmentation of the tungsten core.

The new ammo needs a different table of the shooting, which is to be introduced only into the upgraded systems when implemented with digital computers.

In r. 1972 was in the CSLA considered the introduction of the system ZSU-23-4 Šilka and ammunition caliber 23x152 was assessed as a weak point of the system to the inappropriate introduction into the CSLA using Pldvk vz. 53/59 with the calibre of 30x211. It is interesting that after 60 years from the introduction of the four dozen armies around the world lift the weapons systems with this calibre of only one - the Bundeswehr, from which all the pieces of the ZU-23-2 inherited from the NVA immediately bought Greece. Also, the US military for its light armored vehicles, has selected a new caliber of 25x137, that is, after the ballistic site comparable.

Source: private archive of the author.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Standardní munice API-T

Standardní munice API-T
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Podkaliberní munice FAPDS-T

Podkaliberní munice FAPDS-T
URL : : 0
Undercaliber ammunition 23 x 152

Subcaliber ammunition is also produced by the Bulgarian Arsenal plant, the round is of Mauser Contraves design, formerly Oerlikon, later Contraves, now Rheinmetall.

Source. Arsenal, Bulgaria
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
The figure is a ZU-23-2 with the installed field modernization kit south axis, the level of M2 in the stage of functional sample (Field upgrade kit level M2). Přílba with mikrodisplejem lies on the seat, is connected to the connector of the external diagnostics.

The operation is divided into the basic - unskilled, which is allowed to virtually just turn on the servo and optoelektronický block, charge, shoot and clean a gun and a qualified, using which zodolněného PDA or laptop performs a semi-automatic electronic adjustments of the system, the choice of another type of ammunition, the installation of the other tables of the shooting, the extended diagnosis or ZU switching to another mode of action.

Fire control system and software is designed as modular, is calculated with the possibility of the use of different laser dálkoměrů and successive upgrading "the tracker" and boards the CPU. The software used allows also the realization of the functions of automatic detection of the moving targets or the transmission of the coordinates of the target from the external equipment /radar and the like/. By combining two of the upgraded ZU distant from each 20-30 m using a cable is perhaps the work in a fully passive mode, when both the ZU jointly measured distance objectives triangulací, without the use of demaskujícího laser dálkoměru.

The project counts with the level of Level M3, which does not have its own optoelektronický block and receives data from an external source, and the Level of the M4 with the passive optical rangefinder was interesting.

the design documentation functional sample, custom photo.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Pracoviště operátora ZU-23-2 M2 Vlára.

Pracoviště operátora ZU-23-2 M2 "Vlára".
URL : : 0
Look at the optoel elements - from left to right.

Laser rangefinder with a safe wavelength of 1.54 μm, the use of the model with the laser diode
brings reduce the hnotnosti and power, and reduces the possibility of capture, in particular, older detection systems
the laser irradiation.

Optoel. block
- TV camera operator ensures, in conjunction with the mikrodisplejem magnification of 3.3 x, and the field of view 10x7°,
deliberate the brand and other information are electronically generated for the selected type of ammunition.
- Optoelektrický tracker with a TV camera - it provides automatic target tracking with an accuracy several times
in excess of the ability of the operator, in the case of objective contrast against the sky and its semi-automatic capture.
To increase the dynamic range of the applicable lighting are used tipping filters.
- Termovize with nechlazeným chip - it is not installed into the cabinet above the cameras, as well as the joint laminated
the protective and shielding cover of the laser and optoel block..

The telescopic sight T-3 (the index of the 10П8) for poz. objectives - the 3.5 x magnification, field of view 4°30, original.

Kolimátor (left implementation - КВ-Л) index 51-ОЮ-618Б, magnification of 1.0 x, the field of view of +/- 50 dc, the original.

All optoel. components including the original are designed in such a way that it can be removed
(for example, for transport or extended storage) and then re-install without breaking the basic justáže.

Resources :
The design documentation of the prototype, custom archive.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
The source system is adapted to the modest logistical possibilities of landing and rapid border intervention teams, who are the usual users of the system. ZU-23-2M2 "south axis" has minimized the consumption of all components, and has consistently used the possibility of recuperation of at work of the servo drives. So it was possible even with conventional passive heat sink system design for continuous operation and time of operation min. 24 h from a single set of batteries. Due to the fact that the transition from the manual drive electric is possible within a few seconds, it is possible to operate optoelektronický system in combination with the small drives, the extended run time without recharging the battery up to 72 hours.

Charging current olověnných battery the battery provides intelligent microprocessor charger, which in the case of mechanical limitations of sector rotation within 180° allows the operator to improvise. Using a cable it is possible to connect in addition to their own power generators 24V Dc/ 1,1 kW with four-stroke engine and any other power source 110 - 240 V Ac/ 50 - 60 Hz. In the case of having a circular azimuth is possible headquarters fastened to the box with batteries or vyměnovat sets of batteries. A canister of petrol on the content of the 20l so can keep the ZU-23-2M2 south axis running continuously for at least 7 days.

For comparison - system ZU-23-4 Šilka may operate an 80 kW turbogenerátor continuously only 8 hours, and every hour consumes 50 to 70 l of diesel. Similarly, are the systems of the Cheetah and Tunguzka.

Sources - Design documentation funčního sample "south axis"
- Manuals to guide Šilka, Tunguzka..
URL : : 0
The manufacturer of the modernisation kit offers a separate servo drives.

Technical data is presented with adequate reserves, somewhat confused description of the rychostí had to express that the angular speed given by the operator using a joystick are for security reasons, limited, full power serv has the only available computer in the mode of homing. Likewise, no indication that the joystik has two ranges of speed. In the basic range corresponds to the full deflection of the joystick speed of 10°/s, what allows fine and accurate guidance. While holding the lever on the panel of the operator speeds up the servos on the allowed values of 40-50°/s.

Source :
- design documentation functional sample
- prospectus from the website of the manufacturer.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
The choice of concept and the components used for the construction of the optoelektronického block the fire control system substantially affects a fundamental parameter - the price of the system. Army NATO systematically increase the requirements on thermal and mechanical resistance, the operating range of -40 to +85 °C is considered as the absolute minimum, as well as a protection rating of IP 67. By contrast, the field commanders of the armies that have the combat experience of more than 4000 years (Egypt, India, Iran ...) are of the opinion that civilized warfare takes place in a temperature range of -20 to + 50 °C, outside this range as well soldiers zalezou to shelters and care for their own survival. In this temperature range to work reliably and the vast majority of cars and industrial equipment, therefore, greatly increases the number of applicable snimačů, plates, cables and connectors, everything is mass produced and is situated at the warehouses at affordable prices. Price is also the fact that nakupu and the sale of these components does not need the customer to pay for the kind permission of the band of officials in the U.S. or elsewhere, because these components are located inscriptions Made in INDIA., Malaysia, Taiwan or the People's republic of China. Even of these "minor" components can be build interesting devices, and the czechs and the slovaks have dlouholený training. For example, for the task of the CEILING, we had to use exclusively domací součástkovou base, up to a maximum of COMECON. Therefore, the original request of the Russian side to use "neembargovatelných" components (including components from their country) we have met lightly and with an indication of at least three possible alternatives.
Other savings options it is the maximum possible integration into a single housing, because the difference between the price of the outdoor and indoor cabling is abysmal. The normal computer cable connecting the camera with your computer costs $ 3, outdoor MILES of cable to separate the camera but it costs over 1000 USD and it is more expensive than the own CPU with Pentium.

A few boards PC104 format size 90x96 mm allow to implement most of the ideas, which was not enough even for its time, high-performance specialized computer system CEILING. Movement of the target is not predikován according to the hypothesis of targets moving in a straight line at a constant rate ( like most PUAZO and Fire Directorů of the last century), but it is assumed that the target has a constant acceleration in all three axes, in other words that it can do any turn and accelerate or slow down. All the calculations are run in 64-bit precision (Double precision) and the deviation of the target from the axis is calculated and predikována 20x per second. The format of the PC 104 allows the ongoing modernisation - against the year 2006, it is currently to bought twice more powerful CPU board with the same wattage and price.

Resources :
- design documentation task ZU-232-M2 south axis
- design notes the task of the CEILING.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Projekt - 09/2006.

Projekt - 09/2006.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Realita - 09/2009

Realita - 09/2009
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Desková kamera se zodolněným objektivem.

Desková kamera se zodolněným objektivem.
URL : : 0
Optoelektronický block for the first version of the ZU-23 was the construction of the Russian party and its main advantage
he was a powerful laser range finder, a LOTUS with a range of 10 km for the continuous measurement of 5x per second.

Works were suspended in 10 / 2005.

Source : private archive.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Funkční vzorek A, 07/2005.

Funkční vzorek A, 07/2005.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Výkonný dálkoměr LOTOS (BeLOMO).

Výkonný dálkoměr LOTOS (BeLOMO).
URL : : 0
The official sources give an altitude range of 1500 m for flying targets at an oblique range of up to 2000 m, but as the chart from the firing tables shows, the reality is somewhat different. The ZU-23-2 M2 Vlara's numerical fire control system counts ballistic elements up to the limit set by the fuse self-destruct time - a minimum of 5.5 seconds.

Source :
- TS-210 firing tables, for ZU-23, 1985
- Design documentation of the prototype
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
ZU-23B (Prototype B).

Is a successor of the functional sample of the ZU-23-M2 and the creator of all components of the prototype B is EVPU N. Dubnica.
The work was motivated by the preparation of the foreign tender and was made during the year 2011.

The optical block.
Created a consistent negation of all the principles of odzkoušených and best in the sample of ZU-23-M2, and most of the parameters was
"for sure" will be adjusted. There is another control panel and 5 controls, cameras are already only two.
Digital Camera CCD high resolution has zorná field electronically přepinatelné - 5°x3,5° or 10° x 7°.

Thermal imager with nechlazeným chip and zoom lens has a field of view field changeable smoothly from 4x3 to 12x9°.

A laser rangefinder is a diode, small power working to secure a wavelength of 1540nm, the same as for sample M2.

Holders of optical elements are accurately produced on NC machines, "for sure" but they are complemented by the stavěcími screws. In the exchange
the optical block is always necessary to carry out rectification with mechanical setting of the axes of the individual optical devices.

To display a picture of the cameras used přílbový mikrodisplej, the same as for the previous ZU-23-M2.

The computer block.
It is separated from the block of optical, the lineup includes functionally the same boards, PC104 format, used by the Pentium processor is several times more powerful than the processor of the year 2006.

The result is a total weight of approximately 18 kg and the power requirement of around 40W.

Software Optical and computer block.

It is also the result of the evolution of the main solver. SW is designed as a jednoúrovňový (for the professional soldier) and using dvojkliků and trojkliků on the buttons of the panel of the operator and the joystick it is possible to enter into the different modes and menus, using which it is possible to control a variety of parameters, from the focus of camera, zoom and brightness mikrodispleje until after the setting of the algorithms of image processing. The result of this effort is of course dependent on how many semesters of optoelectronics and optical image processing has to operate behind.
Ballistic calculations are characterized by the absolute originality have nothing to do with STANAG 4355 or work Siacciho, Pejsy or where they. Even the terminology used is sometimes different from all the previously known, including the Slovak military standards. According to the requirements of the award of the tender are bal. calculations processed only for the ammo OFIS-T, automatic correction according to the custom of the sensor the barometric pressure and air temperature are not yet implemented.

Source : own photo.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
Servo drives.

Against the functional samples And and M2 took place a process of natural engineering of evolution, in the framework of which took place on the amplification of parts, which have proved to be underpowered, other odlehčeny or even removed as, for example, additional coolers servozesilovačů.
According to the operational knowledge of mechanics was also přepracováná wiring and covers for easier installation and maintenance of the individual elements.
The actuators can be supplied also separately and together with the original sight ZAP-23 or any sight other.

The source system.

The source system is according to the requirements of the tender (that is considering getting with baterovým way, deployment and maintenance) is formed by two rychlovýměnnými blocks olověnných batteries 2x12V/95Ah, which will keep the system in operation for about 12 hours.
Portable charger enables the charging of the second block outside of the ZU-23. This solution also allowed for a better distribution of fuel and easier to transport and handling.
When installed on the BMP or OT it is of course possible connection to the on-board network of the vehicle 24Vdc.

Source: private archive.
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) - Prototyp ZU-23B při střelbě na pozemní cíle.

Prototyp ZU-23B při střelbě na pozemní cíle.
URL : : 0
In 2012, the EVPÚNew Dubnica took part in the fair DEFEXPO 2012 in India, where it was officially announced cooperation with the indian company Punj Lloyd and participation in the tender for the modernisation of 468 pcs ZU-23.
See the second paragraph of the article in PDF.

Resources - prospektové materials Punj Lloyd and EVPÚ of the DEFEXPO 2012..
CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

CZE/SVK - ZU-23-2 M2 (modernizace) -

URL : : 0
Is the project modernizácie still alive? Or are tieto efforts have len hístória?.
URL : : 0