Státní bezpečnost (StB)

State Security - StB

State Security (abbreviation StB, colloquially estébáci, Slovak State Security, ŠtB) was the Czechoslovak political police, intelligence service, which was immediately from its inception in 1945 under the control of the Communist Party, thanks to the occupation of the Ministry of Interior by the Minister Václav Nosk, and served to control positions of power and liquidate opponents of the communist regime. It was established on June 30, 1945 as one of the non-uniformed units of the National Security Corps (SNB). After 1948, it was one of the main tools of communist terror. It ceased to exist on the orders of the Minister of the Interior Richard Sacher on 15 February 1990, and some of its tasks were taken over by the newly established Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Democracy FMV (later BIS).
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"The communist secret police is often perceived as one large monolithic repressive organization, hidden under the name of State Security and the abbreviation StB. However, the reality was very far from this idea. In fact, state security had a relatively complicated organizational structure, consisting of a number of highly specialized police and intelligence units, whether of an operational or purely administrative focus. "[/I] (source of citation - see below)

The very concept of state security was first established and then gradually developed. It was used with both lowercase and uppercase letters S at the beginning. The abbreviation also appeared in official documents in various forms (STB, stb, StB). In the years 1945-1990, this concept had different meanings and contents.

Moreover, over time, the view of which department falls into the area of state security and which, on the contrary, has changed. And it did not only concern the departments, for which the question of classification as a "secret service" will not surprise (security), but also intelligence.

State security cannot be defined as one specific office headed by one person and with competence in the entire area of state security. State security must be imagined as a set of individual departments of the Ministry of the Interior (MNB, FSZS, FMV, SNB) headed by individual chiefs, who were managed by individual deputy ministers or directly by the minister himself. The individual governing bodies also exercised their influence on the management of state security to a large extent communist parties and its leading officials. The intensity of this influence varied according to the social conditions and the size of the ambitions of individual persons.

Between 1945 and 1990, there were several organizations that had the word state security directly in the title, and it might therefore seem that they were the specific office whose non-existence was mentioned in the previous paragraph. However, these bodies (State Security Command, Main Administration of State Security, etc.) did not include all departments of a state security nature.

The situation is further complicated by the fact that agency activities were also carried out at the Border Guard or the Corps of Correctional Education.

The basic building blocks of the State Security were the individual central administrations and special departments, as well as the regional administrations with their departments. The official and cover names of these administrations and trade unions changed, and as part of various reorganizations, they were also merged or divided.
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Centrální součásti Státní bezpečnosti nesly v průběhu své existence tyto přívlastky:

1953–1969 - MV (ministerstva vnitra)
1969–1970 - FSZS (Federální správy zpravodajské služby)
1971–1979 - FMV (federálního ministerstva vnitra)
1979–1990 - SNB (Sboru národní bezpečnosti)
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Zdroj citace:
KOUTEK, Ondřej: X. správa SNB – útvar Státní bezpečnosti určený pro boj proti tzv. vnitřnímu nepříteli, Securitas imperii 14/2006
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