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František Novotný

František Novotný

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  • 88 years of unlimited submarine warfare

    After two and a half years of war, Imperial Germany was much more exhausted than the hostile states of the Allies. Britain and France drew new forces from their colonies and the merchant fleets of neutral states also used the transport of the necessary raw materials ...

    32.658
  • Allah's Prophet

    The emergence and rocket spread of Islam is one of the most interesting phenomena in world history, the causes of which are still not sufficiently clarified. The area of ancient pre-Islamic Arabia was highly fragmented, both culturally and religiously. There were both astral cults and religious pantheons from neighboring areas - Baal from Syria, Coptic Christianity from Ethiopia and the Nabataean Christianism. The priesthood did not exist as a state, certain families only treated traditional shrines, such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Due to its location between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, the germinal urban population could feed on trade. The second, main component of the population was the opposite of civilization - wild nomadic tribes, which saw the robbery as a legal way to earn extra money.

    23.866
  • American war, European peace

    Analysis of the relationship between Europe and the USA and their attitude to the fight against terrorism. Although a year and a half old, this article is far too current!

    11.014
  • American roots of the Soviet T-34 tank

    In the second half of World War I, the tank was created as a support device for infantry, a kind of mobile stronghold, which was to allow the infantry to advance through enemy defensive zones with numerous wire barriers and multiple trench systems. The defensive zone reached a depth of several tens of kilometers and the whole area was shot by machine guns and cannons. During the advance, the slowly crawling tank not only provided the infantry with protection from the enemy's machine-gun fire, but also silenced enemy fireballs with its cannons and machine guns, dug passages in wire barriers and was able to fill the trenches with hats that he carried ...

    64.884
  • American destroyer during World War II

    Destroyers belonged to the most widespread class of warships during World War II. Mass-produced, relatively small and cheap vessels with their universal character have proven themselves in every event. Destroyers in the role of anti-submarine and anti-aircraft means accompanied not only the operational unions of heavy units, but also provided protection for merchant ships in the convoy service ...

    23.161
  • Battle of the PQ-16 convoy

    Immediately after the Nazi attack, the Western Allies offered material assistance to the Soviet Union. The shortest route that could take the material to the Russian front led by sea from the British Isles around German-occupied Norway to the only non-freezing Soviet port of Murmansk in the Gulf of Kola. The convoys that sailed on it were code-named PQ.

    38.598
  • The battle of Moscow

    The conquest of Moscow was part of the "Barbarossa" plan, and the German Army Group Wednesday entered Moscow on September 30, 1941 with converging maneuvers from the north and south. 80 divisions were set aside for the operation, of which 14 were tank and 8 motorized. On October 2, the Germans broke through the Russian defense in the most important directions (Vyazma, Bryansk, Orel) and on October 16 they continued the attack ...

    84.547
  • Fratricidal July 1940

    According to Article 8 of the Franco-German armistice, signed on 22 June 1940 in Compiegne, the French fleet was to assemble at collection points designated by the German Kriegsmarine and disarm and demobilize militants there under German or Italian supervision. The vessels themselves were therefore theoretically to remain under the control of the skeletal French crews. Although the Vichy government led by Marshal Petain and French naval chief Admiral Darlan have stated several times that no French warship will ever fall into the hands of the Germans, the question was whether Vichy had the power to prevent the Germans from taking over the ships. The British, newly led by Bulldog Churchill, decided not to leave anything to chance.

    24.094
  • He was also Czech

    18.876
  • Czech legend in the English sky

    He was a pilot who did not exist before and will not exist. He alone engaged in a duel with the predominance of the enemy. He flew alone, unexpectedly attacking the Germans. He was the best shooter - whenever he pulled the trigger of his machine gun, a German crashed down ...

    31.038
  • Churchill's "tanks"

    The current war has swept away all existing military theories. The machine gun fire is so strong that it is enough for a hundred meters to stop any attack by the enemy, who, in order to escape the artillery fire, digs trenches in the rear ...

    29.789
  • Conquest of Guam

    If, on June 6, 1944, General Eisenhower feared the invasion of Allied troops into the depths of France on the newly opened Western European battlefield, in the Pacific his commanding colleagues Admiral Nimitz and General MacArthur had similar concerns about Operation "Forager," which they entrusted to Admiral Spruance. At the beginning of the summer of 1944, the situation became so mature that American Pacific forces could dare to attack the Marianas Islands - an "inner barrier" leading to further progress to the Japanese home islands.

    17.417
  • Supplement to the celebrations of the Great October Socialist Revolution

    Long before November 7, newspapers from the Elbe to Sakhalin launched a propaganda campaign every year, and socialist commitments began to be made in honor of the Great October Socialist Revolution. In Czechoslovakia, as an act of devotion, the Month of Czechoslovak-Soviet Friendship followed, in which the Czech and Slovak people, respectively, learned to love the Soviet Union, and after 1968 in meetings with Soviet occupation officers.

    23.092
  • Islamist Nazism

    Palestinian terrorism and the Shiite "insurgency" in Iraq have about as much in common with the struggle for freedom of the Palestinian and Iraqi people as SS extermination Sonderkommando had with the liberation of the Russians from the Stalinist yoke. Taking hostages from civilians who came to Iraq to help and other atrocities of Islamist terrorists are not the only coincidence. In addition to these practices, there are ideological similarities between the teachings of fanatical Islamic clerics such as Yassin and Muktada Sadr and Nazism.

    12.841
  • The fall of Paris

    After the May disaster in the north the French had some 61 divisions, covering the line of length 300 km from the Maginot line to the east up to the sea on the west. Learning from the defeats, the French command was trying to build a defense in great depth using the support points are adapted to a circular defense.

    19.862
  • One and a half century of steel coffins

    The first proven combat deployment of the submarine took place in 1776 during the American Revolution. Sergeant Lee of the Washington Army was locked in an egg-like miniature single-seat Turtle submarine by US inventor Bushnell and tried to manually "drill" (using a crank a primitive propeller) underwater under the hull of Lord Howe's English flagship, anchored in front of New York. Surprisingly, he succeeded, but as he tried to attach a primitive mine to the enemy's hull somewhere at the helm, a hand-powered drill hit the iron reinforcement again, and the breathless sergeant, who had higher air consumption, began to choke.

    28.330
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 1

    The missile was used as a weapon at least 500 years before the cannon. Her invention practically coincides with the invention of gunpowder, and the first mentions of both come from China, from the 7th century AD. In the Chinese manuscript "Complete lift of military classics" from 1045, it is mentioned in the section on weapons that black dust and perhaps even missiles were deployed as early as 960.

    26.783
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 2

    Is it a coincidence that the first steps, the smallest but the most important, were taken in regimes that are among the most monstrous in human history?

    25.322
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 3

    At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the gap between the theory and practice of rocket " technology " was most widespread. After backward Russia shut down reactive missiles in 1890 and rockets were to become drugstore once and for all, in one sunken province, the geeky high school professor K.E. Ciolkovsky came to the conclusion that the reactive principle of the rocket was the only way to penetrate space. While Paris danced a cancan to fire fireworks and the nobility of the three empires enjoyed the last years of their privileges, the geeky professor was looking for a mathematical support for his crazy dream.

    29.621
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 4

    The German general, frustrated by the defeat in World War I, saw in the rockets a means by which she could be rehabilitated. When, in 1930, the later General W. Dornberger, as an assistant to the Armaments Office, was commissioned to lead the development of powder missiles, he also set up a testing laboratory for liquid rocket engines at the Kummersdorf shooting range. Here begins the rocket ace, which the Germans in the spring of 1945 tried to defeat the Allied successes. In 1932, rocket projects at TPH could already be handed over to production plants, especially to Rheinmetall-Borsig. R. Nebel played a significant role in the development of the powder missiles, although he was later banned from working in the arms industry due to racial reasons and was imprisoned in a concentration camp. He is author of missiles of 100, 150 and 210 mm caliber.

    28.969
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 5

    Britain was still an empire, and despite drastic cuts in military spending in the 1920s and 1930s, it could not neglect to defend the integrity of its empire. The Spanish Civil War drew attention to the danger of aerial bombardment by masses of aircraft, which, as a surface target, could be vulnerable to inaccurate missiles if fired in a sufficient volley. And that was the direction the British Missile School took.

    24.501
  • Katyusha and their liquid-based cousins 6

    Perhaps no country has ever been as un-prepared for war as the United States in 1941. Of course, a totally neglected defense could only dream of military missiles. R.H. Goddard's work was in the public interest and for the soldiers he was just a madman and a harmless fool.

    25.328
  • Summer 1943 - defeat of wolf packs

    The German naval offensive, launched immediately in September 1939 by the Kriegsmarine, was named the Battle of the Atlantic. Because its goal was to cut off Atlantic shipping lines to Britain and cut off the country from raw materials and food. The main German weapons of this battle were submarines, although the Kriegsmarine initially deployed surface vessels, from battleships to auxiliary cruisers, and Luftwaffe and aircraft. However, after the British sank the isolated surface invaders (Graf Spee, Bismarck, Scharnhorst) or blocked the bases (Tirpitz), the weight of the whole battle lay on U-boats from 1942.

    19.843
  • Malbruk goes to war

    Legend has it that Marie Antoinette once heard a nurse sing the song "Malbroug s´en va t´en guerre" to a little dauphin. She then became a hit all over all Versailles and Beumarchais used it in the play "The Marriage of Figaro".

    22.012
  • Metternich

    On May 15, 1773, Klemens Lothar Wenzel's son was born to the Governor General of the Rhineland, Metternich. If we used today's national criteria, the future foreign minister and Austrian chancellor were German, but the Rhineland was administered by the Habsburgs, so the family belonged to high-ranking Austrian officials and young Klemens spoke better (and rather) French than German. He was one of the rationalist children of the Enlightenment, sympathetic to both Voltaire and Kant, and delighted in the moral lessons and honed epigrams with which he trampled on adversaries. In 1824 he wrote to Wellington - for a long time Europe has belonged to me, so today he would undoubtedly be one of the zealous followers of a uniting Europe.

    34.143
  • A man with an indian name

    The future general did not receive a Christian name until he was nine years old. After his father's death, he was adopted by Whig politician Thomas Ewing, and his wife placed a solid William ahead of the Tecumseh Indian, so a 16-year-old boy like William Tecumseh Sherman entered the West Point Military Academy. Four years later he ended as one of the best in the year ...

    30.894
  • Man with pilot license No. 64

    Igor Sikorski was born on May 25, 1889 in Kiev. Both parents were doctors, but the mother never practiced. She had artistic interests and was one of Leonardo da Vinci's great admirers. Books with illustrations of this Renaissance giant were lying everywhere in the apartment, so it is not surprising that twelve-year-old Igor built a model of a helicopter powered by a rubber harness. He did not yet know that he had just found his lifelong content.

    15.378
  • The myth of Yalta

    To understand what the Big Three in Yalta met in February 1945, or rather, it was necessary to go back to the very beginning of US history. The American settlers, who had to pay British troops on the North American continent to protect themselves from the French and Indians, were convinced by the battle of Monongahela that they were just wasting money.

    23.258
  • Uncertainity around uranium munitions

    According to the scientific dictionary, uranium is a silver-white, rather soft, heavy metal with a density of 18.7. Compared to steel (iron) with a density of 7.86, uranium is more than twice as mass. This density with softness then makes it possible, without the use of explosives, to start a similar cumulative effect even at a small volume, and to use this ammunition in small-caliber air cannons.

    29.307
  • Germans on the Volga

    After the frontal attack on Moscow failed in the autumn of 1941, Hitler decided on a side bypass from the south as part of the planned summer offensive of 1942. On June 28, 1942, the German Army Group "A" launched an attack on Voronezh, and the advance then turned south along the Don. Before its mouth into the Sea of Azov, this river forms a large bend to the east, which at the extreme point approaches up to 45 km to the Volga, just in the Stalingrad area. One of Stalin 's buildings of "communism" was the Volga - Don canal, which in these places crossed the neck and amplified the importance of the city as a transport hub and a massive industrial base.

    32.815
  • A clumsy Pacific War worker

    During World War II, the Allies deployed around 10,000 special pontoon vehicles not only in the Pacific but also in Europe, which was officially classified as LVT (Landing Vehicle Tracked), although soldiers did not call it anything other than amtrac in transporter version and amtank in the support version with cannon armament. It was also known by the combat name "Alligator" or "Buffalo", and its journey into the US Marine Corps is so colorful that it is worth telling.

    27.270
  • The Nibelungs on air

    Indeed, it is true that Adolf Hitler enjoyed the music of Richard Wagner, especially in the opera Rienzi, and that regular radio protectorate reports on the successes of the Wehrmacht and the number of sunken Allied cargo were given by Wagnerian fanfares ...

    18.984
  • About one pacifistic delusion

    The belief that wars are provoked by armourers to sell out warehouses belongs to the credo of every pacifist, and the communists took them into their ideological arsenal as part of the so-called "fight for peace", but with the adjective "imperialist" (armourers). This belief, with the subtext, "what do you want to persuade me to," appears here and there in the comments on my articles, so it is out of the question to see what is true about it.

    20.890
  • Operation Bagration

    37.016
  • Operation Hydra

    31.268
  • Operation Zitadelle

    Stalin's optimistic belief that after the Stalingrad defeat, where Hitler's Germany lost its entire field army, the Wehrmacht was defeated , was proven false in mid-March 1943, when the German-reorganized army group "South" struck from the south against the overstretched Soviet troops of the Southwest Front. Followed by a break through Voronezh front that forced the Red Army to evacuate the conquered Kharkov and Belgorod again at the end of winter. For Stavka, the high command of the Red Army, it was a cold shower, which meant that the strategic initiative was again on the side of the Germans. However, the Voronezh front maintained the so-called "Kursk" salient, the northern flank of which was supported by Kursk, the western by Suma and the southern by Belgorod.

    45.097
  • Pearl Harbor paradoxes

    Given the amount of literature, from purely technical to popular, and the two feature films about the attack on Pearl Harbor, "Tora, tora" and "Pearl Harbor," it is unnecessary to describe in more detail the course of the action, American failure and subsequent shock (although there is speculation of intent). President Roosevelt, who reportedly knew about the attack), who aroused the American public from pacifism and caused the United States to enter the war, sealing the fate of the Axis powers. It will be more helpful to mention the paradoxes that have accompanied this turning point throughout history more generously than any other.

    25.686
  • The Polish submarine Orzel belongs to the Kilo class

    Recently, there was a report in our press that the police had uncovered a gang of arms dealers. Among other things, he had Russian Kilo class submarines in his catalog. This article was created for those interested in buying :)

    33.319
  • A note on the Iraq problem

    What led the US to the war in Iraq?

    9.614
  • Half a millennium of European conquests

    To the question of what happened in 1492, most respondents would certainly answer correctly that Columbus had sailed to the New World at that time. Many would also know that in 1498 Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India, but probably no one would remember what happened in 1502. Because this event is not mentioned much in school history, or it merges with previous ones, although it had for practical action many times greater reach than the two previous ones - and is still present today.

    16.036
  • They called her Hiroshima

    By the mid-1950s, the Cold War was already gaining momentum. The existence of nuclear weapons forced both major rivals to look for new weapon systems both for the first strike and for retaliation. On September 16, 1955, the Soviets achieved significant success when they managed to detonate a ballistic missile from a surfaced diesel-electric submarine B-67 (project "611", in the NATO code "Zulu") - and a few days later, on September 24, 1955, laid the keel of the first nuclear-powered submarine.

    19.398
  • They were called Higgins

    In 1970, the Mladá fronta publishing house published the book "Battle of Guadalcanal" in the Archive edition, written by a direct participant in the fighting, USMC officer Samuel B. Griffith II. It was the first time that the Czech reader received an authentic account of an operation that had the same significance for the Pacific as Stalingrad for the Eastern Front. I suspect it was in this book that I came across the name Higgins or Higgins' Boat, but I had to wait more than a quarter of a century - for the fall of the Iron Curtain - to find out what was behind this nickname.

    15.027
  • Year 1943 in the air

    Plans for air warfare against the Axis powers for another war year were born at a conference in Casablanca in January 1943. Among them was an agreement on a combined bombing offensive by the CBO of the Anglo-American Air Force against German targets with the following priorities: submarine bases and shipyards, aviation industry, major transport hubs, refineries and synthetic gasoline production, ball bearing plants and the armaments industry.

    22.022
  • Knights of Heaven I

    In 1903, the Wright brothers made the first demonstrably successful flight of a plane heavier than air, made no secret its a business, and, of course, saw the most important customer in the military. In 1908, they held a large demonstration tour of Europe with the " Flyer A " model, especially for military audiences, with a contract already signed in their pockets for $ 25,000 for the delivery of one aircraft to the US military. They launched an avalanche, at the air week in August 1909 in Reims, the representatives of the military administrations abounded and to have a flying " apparatus " in their arsenal became a prestigious matter for all European armies.

    25.992
  • Samurai against destiny

    Although it sounds like a cliché, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto and one of the greats of maritime history was actually born in 1884 to the ancient samurai family Takano. He was a child from his father's second marriage, and the proud Mr. Takano, who was 56 when he was born, called him a " fifty-six-year-old " - Japanese Isoroku. The Takano family were out of favor, as Isorok's father fought on the shogunate's side against the new " Meiji " government, which opened Japan wide to Western technology and modernization in the late 19th century. So he had no choice but to make a modest living as a swordsman in Nagaoka in the north of Honshu.

    22.926
  • The clutches of the American eagle I

    23.464
  • The clutches of the American eagle II

    The militia system of the army, which the United States preferred after its inception, did not allow the creation of a unified rear service. When war broke out with the Seminoles in Florida in 1818, engineering units had to be decommissioned to supply field units because civilian contractors failed to fulfill contracts. This led War Minister Calhoun to put pressure on Congress to release funds for intendant administration ...

    17.161
  • The clutches of the American eagle III

    At the end of the 19th century, the United States found itself in a special position. The country had no external enemy, after the defeat of Mexico, other American states recognized it as a hegemon, and the long sea borders were protected by the British navy. Due to mineral wealth, which also included oil on the list (fields in California and Texas), the US government had no ambition to gain control of foreign resources. This led to the fact that there was no strategy, no concept of defense, no plans against potential adversaries, that is, everything that was a matter of course in Europe ...

    18.331
  • The clutches of the American eagle IV

    At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States resembled a sleepily contented boa constrictor. The success of the US Navy in the Spanish-American War opened the bag to Congress, and T. Roosevelt had no problem raising funds for the construction of new heavy units of the fleet. Suddenly, everyone seemed to understand the importance of the ocean fleet in the sense of the Mahan Doctrine - it was evident that the British fleet did not intend to cover the new US overseas economic interests of the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico, although it de facto still ensured US security.

    19.787
  • The clutches of the American eagle V

    19.087
  • The clutches of the American eagle VI

    Until World War II ended, President Roosevelt anxiously avoided any negotiations on postwar borders or state institutions. In December 1941, when he was badly oppressed, Stalin wanted to act and would allow the return of eastern Poland and the evacuation of the Baltic countries, but with the Red Army's advance to the west, his willingness faded to zero.

    16.552
  • The clutches of the American eagle VII

    14.888
  • One Hundred Years of a Heartfelt Agreement

    This year is exactly 101 years since the history of Europe has changed irreversibly. To the amazement of the whole world, on April 8, 1904, Great Britain and France signed a cooperation agreement in which the two powers agreed on spheres of influence. To demonstrate the consensus that was a heavy blow to German foreign policy, the signatories called the Entente cordiale - the Heartfelt Agreement.

    15.334
  • The secret of Kursk will remain a secret until the next century

    Atomic submarine cruiser 1st class "Kursk", as the designation of the nuclear submarine class "Oscar II" with guided missiles in Russian nomenclature, was launched in 1995 and within the 7th Division of the 1st Submarine Fleet was sent on regular patrol cruises with sharp ammunition around the world ...

    33.896
  • The secret of Saint Exe

    There is perhaps no language into which the Little Prince of Saint Exe (as his pilots' friends called him) has not been translated. In that magical book about the meeting of a pilot and a little alien prince, he captured his own experiences of a failed long-distance flight when he had to make an emergency landing in the desert. Saint Exe was one of those unique artists for whom the world of technology was not only foreign, but also a source of inspiration.

    14.737
  • Jan Žižka

    One of the few facts of his life, which we know 100%, is the day of his death, October 11, 1424. However, we no longer know what disease Jan Žižka of Trocnov succumbed to during the unnecessary and militarily meaningless siege of Přibyslav Castle after only seven days. Plague is usually cited as the cause, but it is an epidemic disease, and the plague epidemic did not occur in the Czech Republic at that time.

    45.191
  • Campaign on the Red River

    The cause of the American Civil War, which broke out in 1861, was a dispute over the nature of the newly annexed territories west of Mississippi, whether slavery would be allowed or not. Initially, the war brought numerous victories to the breakaway Southern Confederation, but by 1863, the greater economic potential of the industrial North was already evident. The fighting has been fought over a vast area, a fact that Europeans densely miss. It fought from the Potomac River to the Gulf of Mexico, from Memphis on the Mississippi to Charleston on the Atlantic coast, on an area of 1500 x 1000 km ...

    11.618
  • That American general

    Immediately since the founding of the United States, the politician's darkest nightmare for American political life was when the Father of the Nation himself, George Washington, was tempted to disperse Congress and be declared a military dictator by the military (suggested by some officers of his staff). On the continent itself, since the mid-19th century, the United States has had exclusively military dictatorships as neighbors.

    24.538
  • 311th (Czechoslovak) Bomber Squadron RAF celebrates its birthday

    After the Czechoslovak pilots fled from demoralized and defeated France to England in the early summer of 1940, the Churchill spirit of defiance that prevailed in this country did not allow them to pursue defeatist ideas for a long time. After the 310th Fighter Squadron (established on 10 July 1940), the first Czechoslovak bomber squadron has been assembled, armed with much more complicated aircraft than the Hurricane fighters ...

    19.774
  • Tiger and dragon in ex-Soviet armor

    19.596
  • The great wizard of technology

    On the one hand, the design of the famous VW "Beetle", which with 22 million units produced became the absolute most successful vehicle in the history of car, on the other hand, a dedicated Hitler armorer who designed one of the most difficult versions of the heaviest tank "Königstiger" and "Elephant", nicknamed "Ferdinand" in honor of the creator - this is not only the technical but also the human scope of the story of this great wizard of technology, which thus agrees with the Faustian fate of another German, Wernher von Braun.

    21.841
  • Winner from Tsushima I

    Heihachiro (according to other sources Heichahiro) Togó was born in 1848 on the island of Kyushu. At the time, Japan was a feudal state in which it was not allowed to travel abroad, and any foreigner who landed on the Japanese coast risked execution. After the Portuguese landed in Japan in 1542, Shogun Hideyoshi understood the risk of colonization brought by Europeans, expelled the Portuguese Jesuits from the country in 1587, and then in 1616 his successor Hidetada declared war not only on European missionaries but also on baptized Japanese .

    11.993
  • Winner from Tsushima II

    The war electrified the whole world, correspondents from both Europe and America came to Manchuria, and Togó, who withdrew his ships, soon developed a serious prestige in his prestige when the Tsar entrusted Admiral Makarov with the command of the Portarthur fleet. But even Admiral Makarov (by the way, the designer of the icebreaker "Jermak") did not manage to break the Japanese blockade during the whole spring, and the Japanese again destroyed the Russian fleet ...

    20.943
  • Victory in the Atlantic

    None of the battlefields of World War II were closer to a pure mathematical model than the Battle of the Atlantic, in which Nazi Germany tried to block Allied shipping lanes. Due to the predominance of Allied surface vessels, the entire burden of this task soon rested on the submarine weapon, and both sides had precisely calculated limits, beyond which Allied shipping would collapse or, conversely, the German submarine offensive. The Battle of the Atlantic thus became a duel of economic and technological maturity of both opponents.

    14.544
  • Make your cannon

    Every Catholic church had to have a bell, and the bell-casters produced also the first cannons. Initially, the same technology was used - cannons were poured into disposable clay molds buried in the ground. When naval powers such as the Netherlands, England, France, and Spain established themselves in the 17th century and began building navies with thousands of guns, the need arose to increase the "productivity" of production and to organize calibers. The French regulations from 1689 stipulated 7 different calibers for ship cannons, the British regulations from 1716 stipulated 11 in 28 variants differing in the length of the barrel and the weight of the cannon.

    37.306
  • Wellington - the man who defeated Napoleon

    The Duke of Wellington has twice entered world and English history - as a great military leader who defeated Napoleon and as the worst prime minister Britain had in the 19th century.

    38.775
  • The mystery of Novorossiysk explained?

    In 1947, the USSR took the battleship "Giulio Cesare" from the booty of the Italian fleet and, under the name "Novorossiysk", included it in the Black Sea Fleet based in Sevastopol. There, also on the evening of October 28, 1955, the ship docked after a one-day artillery exercise. Since Captain Kuchta was on vacation, the anchor maneuver was led by his deputy, Lieutenant Commander Khurshudov. He did not have the ship in his hand, he misjudged its length and the time the anchor was lowered. As a result, the "Novorossiysk", the bow of which held the anchor, lay much closer to the stern of the mooring buoy than usual. However, Churshudov agreed with the technical staff of the base that the position of the battleship will be corrected in the morning.

    24.242
  • Do you know the difference between commandos, rangers and green berets?

    The country where the first modern special forces were born was Great Britain. (I emphasize the word "modern"!) In 1940, ten special units were set up for the Norwegian campaign with the mission of preventing the Germans from building submarine bases in Norway. This is how the famous commandos were created. The name was taken over by the British from the Portuguese through the Boers, who used it during the Boer War in South Africa to name their militias ...

    49.483

Medals and awards

Řád redakce www.valka.cz s diamantovou stužkou

Řád redakce www.valka.cz se zlatou stužkou

Řád redakce www.valka.cz se stříbrnou stužkou

Řád redakce www.valka.cz


& bar (35)

Medaile Cti k titulu Hrdina serveru www.valka.cz

Hrdina serveru www.valka.cz

Zlatá hvězda www.valka.cz

Stříbrná hvězda www.valka.cz

Bronzová hvězda www.valka.cz


& bar (36)

Velký kříž čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

Komander čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

Důstojník čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

Rytíř čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

Čestná legie serveru www.valka.cz

Řád Přemysla Otakara II.

Legionářský kříž

Medaile J.A. Komenského

Medaile Svornosti

Ehrenblatt Spange der Luftwaffe

Ehrentafel Spange der Kriegsmarine

Ehrenblatt Spange des Deutschen Heeres

Ehrenkreuz

Kriegsverdienstmedaille

Eisernes Kreuz 2.Klasse (1914)

Eisernes Kreuz 1.Klasse (1914)

Medaile za zásluhy 1900 – 1950

Tanto

Zuihóšó IV. třídy

Kjókudžicušó

Řád Vlastenecké války

Řád Suvorova

Hrdina SSSR

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal


& bar (1)

Civil War Medal

War Medal 1945

Air Force Medal

Navy Medal

Armed Forces Medal

Defence Medal

Military Cross

Navy Cross

Armed Forces Cross

Purple Heart

Bronze Star

Silver Star

Legion of Merit

War Medal 1939-45

Order of St. John

Imperial Service Medal

Distinguished Service Medal

Air Force Medal

Defence Medal

Croix de Guerre 1939-1945

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