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Jan Ešner

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  • US Army in Bohemia

    The liberation of western and southwestern Bohemia in 1945 took place entirely under the direction of the US 3rd Army. It was led by the most famous American general of the whole war, George Smith Patton. Let's try to see what Patton's whole campaign through Czechoslovakia looked like and how the V. and XII. Corps of the 3rd Army made their way forward.

  • Arafat, PLO, Israel and peace?

    The article maps the main attempts and contradictions of the Middle East peace process until 1994. Later events are devoted to the article "Al-Aqsa Intifada".

  • Blockade of West Berlin 1948-1949

    Berlin was divided into four occupation zones. The Western Allies expressed their determination to maintain West Berlin. In June 1948, Stalin had land access roads closed. The Allies set up a grandiose air bridge ...

  • Chao C'yang

    A brief biography of one of the few supporters of the liberalization of the Chinese political scene.

  • Thesis: The War in North Africa 1941 - 1943 from the perspective of the contemporary Nazi press of the Sudetenland

    On June 10, 1940, during the second phase of the Battle of France, which led to a landslide German victory, as the tank divisions of the "Guderian" and "Kleist" groups rolled into southern France, Italian leader Benito Mussolini decided to enter his homeland into the war and invaded southeastern France. He dragged his empire into a war for which it was not sufficiently prepared. After the elimination of the French fleet, he relied on his naval force in the Mediterranean and also on the possibility of using his troops stationed on the African continent. His only major enemy now, after the elimination of France, was Great Britain. He could meet her in the Mediterranean and in Africa ...

  • Long telegram

    Excerpt from a telegraphic message from Moscow on February 22, 1946, sent to President Truman by the Ambassador to Moscow Geoge Kennan. He tried to reveal the "thought processes" of the USSR here.

  • Dwight David Eisenhower

    The life and work of a former commander in chief of Allied troops in World War II and a prominent post-war American president.

  • Helsinki Process and CSCE

    In 1975, 35 countries signed the so-called Final Act at a conference in Helsinki. He was to find a way to coexist between the two blocks. In the final analysis, however, it marked the fall of communism in Europe.

  • Al-Aqsa Intifada

    Events in the Middle East from the Camp David summit in July 2000 to the February 2001 presidential election.

  • Nuclear strategic concept of the West in the Cold War

    The article deals with a brief evaluation of the four most important strategic concepts of the Western Powers (mass retaliation, flexible response, MAD and SDI).

  • Josef Pekař and evaluation of the Hussites

    Josef Pekař was born as a peasant son in 1870 in Malý Rohozec near Turnov. He was one of the most important historians at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and we rank him among Goll's disciples. In his historical works, he always tried to capture time and depict the environment of that time. He took various factors into account. The economic situation, science, customs at the time, morals, speech and religion. His most important work was the four-volume work "Žižka and His Time", published in 1927-1933. The Hussite period is one of Pekař's most watched. Why?

  • When did the Cold War begin and end?

    An attempt to objectively determine a subjective matter - from when to when did the Cold War last.

  • Chronicle of the nuclear age

    The most important data of the nuclear age.

  • Chronicle of the Cold War 1945-1950

    Cold War day after day ...

  • Marshall Plan

    Plan for economic aid to war-torn Europe.

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

  • Metternich's policy during the Napoleonic Wars

    The right diplomat must learn to pretend what he is not and disguise what he is.

  • The fall of communism in Hungary

    Even "goulash communism" had no chance of survival.

  • Beer coup 1923

    After the defeat in World War I , Germany ceased to be a monarchy. The so-called Weimar Republic was created. It was in a huge crisis in the early 1920s.
    As always, the unhappy economic situation was used by extreme forces. The importance of the extreme left represented by the communists has grown enormously. Sharply nationalist forces were formed against them. The struggle between the communists and the so-called Freikorps was a daily phenomenon on the German streets.

  • The beginnings of NATO (1949-1952)

    On April 4, 1949, the North Atlantic Alliance was established, becoming a fundamental pillar of the defense of a democratic Europe. The events at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s were to demonstrate the strength of the transatlantic bond.

  • Political will of Adolf Hitler on April 29, 1945

    The full text of Hitler's will. Please note that if something does not seem right in this text, the fool was not a translator, but the author…

  • Execution in Nuremberg in the diaries of Albert Speer

    How did the Minister of Armament Speer describe the tense days of preparation and the moment of the actual execution of Nazi war criminals? What was going through his head?

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    The history of the war, which had serious consequences for the situation in Europe and affected the Czech lands.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    In the 18th century, when a new phenomenon of Prussia appeared in Europe, the problem of the organization of German-speaking countries arose. Since the Middle Ages, the Habsburg Monarchy has played an important role in this matter. After the Seven Years' War, in which Austria lost the territory of Silesia, it had to take Prussia's position in Europe very seriously.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Despite the fact that the conflict between the two powers threatened to escalate into an open war, they were able to cooperate once again. This was in the case of the so-called Duchy of Zallabia.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    The joint action of the two great powers in resolving the issue of the Dukes of Zallabia could delay the mutual conflict for a maximum of several years. Prussia was already carefully preparing for war. It had almost ideal conditions for that. A new, well-prepared army and led by two very capable managers.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Bismarck knew he had to attack within a maximum of three months. Even the Austrians did not wait for anything and on April 21 they mobilized the Southern Army. In May, the Prussians mobilize, and by the beginning of June, all the armies of both opposing parties are fully mobilized.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Military ranks began to be fully utilized in the 16th century, when military commanders, not rulers, took the lead.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Organization and position of individual armies.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    After Prussia violated the rules of the German Confederation by occupying Holstein, the Confederate states had to punish the violators. The problem, however, was that the Prussian army was too strong. Nevertheless, some states have taken up arms.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    The main burden of the fighting was borne by the territory of Bohemia. On June 22, 1866, the first Prussian troops entered its territory. Units of the Prussian First and Elbe armies are advancing from the north and northwest, respectively. The two are to fight their way to Jičín and unite there. Between 26.-30. In June, there are several dozen battles.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    After June 30, the strategic situation of the Austrian army was catastrophic. The 1st Prussian and Elbe armies occupied Jičín. There was no obstacle on the way to Hradec Králové.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Immediately after the battle, Benedek asks Emperor Francis Joseph I to begin negotiations for surrender. However, he again refuses and at the same time sends troops from Archduke Charles from Italy. They then remain in Hungary. Benedek and his remnants of the northern army retreat to Olomouc.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Mikulov armistice and the Prague Peace.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    The main protagonists of the war.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    Internal and foreign consequences.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    After the war, Austria and Prussia gradually became closer.

  • Prussian-Austrian war

    List of used literature.

  • The rift between China and the USSR

    The two allies from the beginning of the Cold War gradually got into bigger and bigger disputes, which eventually escalated into armed struggles at common borders.

  • A tragedy called the Versailles system

    As early as 1915, it was clear that the main battlefield of the First World War - the Western Front - had a stalemate. As in previous conflicts, especially the wars of inheritance in the 18th century, there may have been hopes that diplomats would eventually solve the problems. Unfortunately, all these hopes soon came to fruition.

  • USA versus Libye

    It was difficult to find greater hostility in the 1980s than between Libya and the United States.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    In my work, I wanted to look at the war in Africa from a different perspective. Most of the work on this issue has been published over time. Even the memories of the participants were often modified for their own benefit after the war. Therefore, I looked for authentic sources that could not be changed for someone's benefit after the war. For this reason, I decided to use the period Nazi press.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    On June 10, 1940, during the second phase of the Battle of France, which led to a landslide German victory, as the tank divisions of the " Guderian " and " Kleist " groups rolled into southern France, Italian leader Benito Mussolini decided to enter his homeland into the war and invaded southeastern France. He dragged his empire into a war for which it was not sufficiently prepared.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Hitler, fully occupied with Operation Barbarossa , was horrified by the development. He had to act quickly and help his ally. As early as January 1941, part of the 10th Luftwaffe Air Corps, under the command of General Geisler, was moved to the Mediterranean. Major General Fröhlich was assigned to lead the air operations. In February 1941, Operation Sonnenblume was launched, moving German troops to North Africa, namely Tripoli, Libya.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    On March 31, Rommel launched his major offensive. Not until May, when the German command expected it, not at the end of April, when the British expected it. His troops, led by the 5th Tank Regiment, before the main attack, occupied the fortress of Marsa al Brega, and on April 2 already held Ajdabiya. After several days of fighting, the ports of Benghazi and Derna fell into German and Italian hands.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Rommel failed to conquer Tobruk in the summer of 1941. However, his siege continued. Churchill, of course, intended to loosen the grip of the fort. He was aware that this would not be possible without sufficient reinforcement of his African troops. A convoy sailed from Britain to Alexandria, which was given the code name "Tiger ".

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    From July to mid-November 1941, nothing significant happened in Africa. The Germans still kept Tobruk under siege, and the British, as far as possible, supplied him by sea.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Rommel retreated, and his opponent tried in vain to cut him off and destroy him. The war in North Africa is once again making more headlines.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    The situation in Africa was extremely unfavorable for Britain. Malta was neutralized, mainly due to attacks by German 2nd Air Force aircraft. Churchill tried to supply it, but the convoys heading for the island suffered heavy losses. Even on the African mainland, the situation was not better for the British. On May 26, Rommel launched an offensive near Gazala so that he could finally conquer Tobruk.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    On June 20, 1942, the second battle of Tobruk broke out. This time, however, it had a completely different course than a year ago. In the evening, Rommel Tobruk was already in control, and in the morning of June 21, he triumphantly entered it to accept the British surrender from the hands of the commander of the fortress. In a single day, he accomplished what he had been pursuing for many long months last year!

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    The fighting for el Alamein marked a turning point in the war in North Africa. Rommel's advance from Tobruk stopped at this obstacle. The situation in the first weeks was stalemate. Rommel could not move on, but the British did not have enough strength for a new major offensive. However, the British Prime Minister was in the worst position.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    October 23, 1942. While Rommel was recovering in the Austrian Alps, the commander of the British Eighth Army, General Montgomery, opened artillery fire on German defensive positions. The British attack began.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    In mid-February, German troops were preparing for the final attack. The situation was not good for Rommel himself. Apart from his poor health, he was most troubled by the new situation regarding high command. Rommel was no longer the one who decided the fate of all units. The new arrivals and parts of Rommel's troops were now commanded by General von Arnim.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    After the total failure of the German February offensive, the fate of Rommel's men was definitively sealed. However, the press also tried to exaggerate some of the successes of the Axis troops and to downplay the achievements of the Allies.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Even in the last fortnight, German soldiers have put up stiff resistance. Most units capitulated after all ammunition was fired. The first balance articles appear. Although Rommel was no longer in Africa, the first of these are mostly dedicated to him.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Of course, most attention was paid to the more than two-year desert campaign at a time when there was no significant fighting on other fronts, but to a large extent also at times when the situation on the major battlefields did not develop very favorably. It was in Africa that every major success was visually apparent, in contrast to the broad fronts of the fighting in Russia. An important role was also played by the popularity that the German commanding general gained, especially thanks to Goebbels' contribution.

  • War in Africa 1940-1943

    Sources and literature

  • War in Africa 1940-1943


  • War in Africa 1940-1943 - Operation Torch

    As Rommel began his retreat to the west, the Allies conducted their first joint amphibious operation. On November 8, 1942, Anglo-American troops landed under General Eisenhower in Northwest Africa.

  • War in North Africa 1940-1943

    The article maps the course of the entire North African war campaign from the Italian attack on Egypt in September 1940 until the surrender of the Axis forces in May 1943.

  • Western European Union

    The British and French wanted to engage the United States in Europe. The condition of the Americans was the creation of a European defense organization. Today, there is talk of its future application.

  • The final battles of Stalingrad as seen by the Nazi press of the time

    The article is devoted to the description of the final battles of Stalingrad, as reported by the Nazi press of the time - specifically the daily Elbetalzeitung.


Medals and awards

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& bar (33)

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Zlatá hvězda www.valka.cz

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& bar (53)

Velký kříž čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

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Spange 1939 zum Eisernes Kreuz 2.Klasse

Eisernes Kreuz 2.Klasse (1914)

Eisernes Kreuz 1.Klasse (1914)


European/African/Middle Eastern Campaign Medal

World War II Victory Medal

War Medal 1945

Armed Forces Medal

Medaile c.k. zeměbrany

Médaille Militaire


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