ITA - Carcano 1891

opakovací puška
Carcano 1891 Carcano M 1891
Originální název:
Original Name:
Fucile Modello 1891
puška rifle
Fabbrica Reale d´Armi di Terni
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost nenabité zbraně:
Weight Unloaded:
3,82 kg 8.42 lb
6,5 mm
6,5 x 52 mm
1290 mm 4ft 2,78in
Délka hlavně:
Barrel Length:
780 mm 2ft 6,71in
Kapacita zásobníku:
Magazine Capacity:
Rychlost střelby:
Rate of Fire:
- ran/min - rpm
Úsťová rychlost:
Muzzle Velocity:
710 m/s 2329.4 ft/s
Uživatelské státy:
User States:
- -
A. B. Žuk: Pušky a samopaly, nakl. Naše vojsko, Praha 1992, ISBN 80-206-0150-3
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Carcano M 1891[/heading]

History and development

The introduction of rifles Lebel 1886 provoked in other european countries starting the development of a new infantry rifles of similar properties. Behind, stayed even Italy, which at that time was in the arsenal rifles Vetterli-Vitali Model 1870/87 to cartridges filled with black powder the caliber of 10.35 mm. They were good rifles, equipped with swivel odsuvným in conclusion, and the center cartridge box, which it was possible to perform from above by a primitive wooden frame. After inserting the rounds into the rifle was then the frame is pulled upward by the string attached to its upper side. Although at his time were these weapons undoubtedly modern, with the arrival of the ammunition in the smokeless powder quickly become obsolete. The Italian army, therefore, began to look around for the rifle a more modern concept.

The development was commissioned by the team led by Salvatore Carcano, designer of the turin factory. The team worked under the supervision of a government commission, headed by general Parravicino from the arsenal in Terni.

As the basic design of the nodes was selected using a rotary odsuvného conclusion and charging using a sheet metal charge frames. This solution was first used by Ferdinand ritter von Mannlicher in their structures. Maybe that is why the resulting weapon sometimes referred to as the Mannlicher-Carcano, although structurally it has with mannlicherovkami very little to do. Officially, the gun was taken into service under the designation Fucile Modello 1891 (rifle model 1891), but is considerably better known under the name of the Carcano 91.

In fact, she had a rifle far closer to the German rifles Kommissiongewehr 1888 - was also used rotary odsuvný conclusion (mannlicherovky should conclusion přímotažný) with a very similar system of locking, and an improved frame charging system. Mannlicher for his arms chose a hub with a rim, which had to be in the frame sorted gradually to each other nezachytávaly the edge of the casing. This caused that the shape of the frame should when viewed from the side the shape of the kosodélníku, and therefore it can be inserted into the rifle only in a single correct position. The germans by contrast used the hub bezokrajové with the groove. This allowed the hub to shift gears and the frame, therefore, could have the shape of a rectangle – it could be made into a rifle inserted and "upside down".

Fundamental differences from most other rifles of this class was the election of a relatively small caliber – only 6.5 mm while the length of the casing of 52 mm. It was dictated by the desire to reduce, if possible, the weight of the ammunition, and so increase both the firing diameter (the amount of ammunition carried by one soldier), so the amount of transported ammunition at the same weight. Italy is at this time increasingly tried to engage in colonial wars on the african continent. From the experience of other european colonial armies suggest that in wilderness is the supply of the operating units is very difficult and slow. Therefore, it was reducing the weight of ammunition one of the essential requirements for a new weapon.

The experience of the colonies also brought a request to change the propelling charge of the new rounds. He was originally elected balistit (a type of smokeless powder, which is želatinace nitrocellulose made nitroglycerin), which, however, caused considerable erosion of the gun barrel and was unstable in hot and humid tropical climate. It was therefore later replaced by more stable type of dust.

To balistitu in connection with a rifle Carcano 91 binds an interesting story. When the Italians searched for a suitable bezdýmném dust (whose production has been in all the states that it already developed in secret), have stumbled on Alfred Nobel, who just developed the right balistit and failed it offered to the French government. The French, however, in the meantime, have introduced smokeless powder, Poudre B, used in the cartridges of rifles Lebel 1886, so a new střelivinu weren't interested. Nobel has agreed to sell his patent to Italy, which against him had risen at home, in France such a wave of indignation (e.g. he was disabled for further research and production of explosives), that he had to move to Italy, where he spent the rest of his life.

The resulting weapon was the year 1891 submitted to the tests and 29. march 1892 officially accepted into armaments. As with other rifles of the time were from the basic model to derive a number of reduced types for cavalry or a special unit (sappers and gunners), as these types of troops needed to lead the fire to a great distance, on the contrary, their main demand was greater compactness and less weight. These variants, however, we're not closer to deal.

Rifle successfully fought throughout the Great war. For us it is of course interesting especially the fact that these rifles were also in service with the czechoslovak. foreign players in Italy.

With a few other minor modifications served rifle M 91 until 1938, when it was supposed to be replaced by more modern weapons. The main change was a requirement for a new hub, as the experience of combat deployment have shown that the bullet caliber 6.5 mm has too high penetration and smaller ranivým effect. The year 1938, therefore, started the production of a modified rifle M 91 now marked as the Fucile Modello 38 in caliber 7,35 x 51 mm. The new rifles, however, was not enough, so the original model 91 in the caliber 6.5 x 52 mm remained in the service. After the outbreak of the 2. world war ii, however, this duality of bullets brought considerable logistical problems, therefore, were rifles M 38 downloaded from armaments and sold for example in Finland, where used in the Winter war against the USSR. The Model 38 was continuing to be produced, but with the main komorovanou for the original charge of 6.5 x 52 mm. This variant was designated Modello 91/38.

Rifle M 91 and their modification to serve in the Italian army until 1959. In some of the less exposed of the armed forces even withstand in the armor of up to 80. years. Rifles were produced around 3 million pieces and after the war were rifles Carcano widely sold in the commercial sector as hunting and sporting weapons. One of them (Model 91/38 the serial number C2766) was, according to the official version of the shot L. H. Oswald the american president J. F. Kennedy. During the recent fighting in Libya, is it possible to catch a glimpse of in the hands of the rebels, so this weapon even 120 years after its creation still "singing his war song".

Technical description

Rifle Carcano M 91 is a six-gun repeating rifle with a fixed center cartridge box charging nábojovými frames and pivot odsuvným conclusion.

The barrel is long, 780 mm and has a calibre of 6.5 mm. In the bore are four right-handed grooves.

The conclusion is a cylindrical rotary odsuvný, locked two symmetrical barbs on the head of the breech bolt hole. The lever end is perpendicular to the axis of the body, the conclusion and in the locked end is in a horizontal position, while the fits into the recess in the housing end so it acts as a third locking element. To unlock the conclusion should be a lever to lift up and the conclusion to pivot about 90° to the left, so they come out the barbs on the head of a breech bolt hole of the grooves in the rear part of the barrel. Downloading conclusion, the reverse occurs, pulling the empty casing from the chamber and its ejection from the nábojiště. Pressure on the lever to the conclusion way forward the conclusion of the ejected charge from the frame and then inserted into the chamber. The feeder at the same time the hub in the frame moves up, so nábojiště gets another charge. Tilting the lever to the conclusion the right is then the conclusion will be locked again.

The fuse has the shape of wings on the rear end of the conclusion. For arming or disarming the rifle need this wing to move a little bit forward and turn either to the right or up.

Charge rifle is carried out by inserting the ammunition box with six bullets in an open conclusion into the clipboard. The lower the charge in doing so compresses the spring loaded arm of the feeder. Frame its pressure is not kicked back, because with a special projection onto the claw retainers in the cartridge box. By pressing the button on the back side of the clipboard (inside the trigger guard of the trigger), it is possible to this trap release and the frame with the hub again from the clipboard to cut, and so the rifle discharged. The frame has when viewed from above the shape of the letter U, wherein the upper and lower edges of the frame (when viewed from the front) are bent so that the hub can slide only forward (are held in place by prolisovanou groove in the wall of the frame, fitting into the groove of the shell). The arm of the feeder is mounted on the front wall of the mailbox, while its width is less than the spacing of the side walls of the frame. The shoulder thus acts only on the hub, not on the frame itself. Therefore, after inserting the last cartridge into the cartridge chamber, frame its own weight falls down through the opening in the bottom of the cartridge box.

Pažbení is a two-piece. Butt, her neck and handguard are made of one piece of wood; before the case concludes and the visor is a separate nadpažbí, covering the rear half of the barrel. In the cavity of the handguard is under the main placed the cleaning rod.

Sights are classic open with a fixed front sight and adjustable sight. Front sight is fixed on a wide base. The visor is sectoral, the button to control its flap is on the left side. After pressing, it is possible to tilt upward the lever on the right side and thus increase the distance of firing up to a distance of 2000 meters For firing at short distances (300 m) it is necessary to flap the visor to flip the direction from the shooter and aim using a fixed notch rear sight, which so appear.

Included with the rifle is a knife bayonet with steel středohrotou blade length of 30 cm. Blade has a sword type of cut, while at her back is on both sides of the rectangular vylehčovací groove. The gun is equipped with a cross-auspices of a length of 9 cm, with a shoulder on the side of the blade ending in a knob, and on the dorsal side of the circular clamp (awith an outer diameter of 18 mm and an inner diameter of 13 mm) to push onto the barrel of the rifle. The hilt's wooden grip panels, attached with two rivets. Its warhead is a 3.5 cm long slot in the shape of a T intended for accommodating the weapon under the barrel of the rifle. To release bodáku button on the right side of pommel hilts. The total length of the bodáku is 41 cm. During 1. world war I made also simplified cheaper bayonets.


A charge of 6.5 x 52 mm, has a cylindrical casing of a length of 52 mm with the groove and the mounting cone. Since the year 1895 was a matchstick in her bed ensured a circular crest line around the matches. The original dust filling formed balistit, which was in 1900 replaced by another type of nitrocelulózového dust. Since 1932, was shot in the place of establishment to the neck of a casing provided with a groove. The shot was originally plášťována alloy of copper and nickel, in the course of the 2. sv of war was this alloy replaced by steel, plátovanou tombakem. Also the casing was from the year 1942 is manufactured from lacquered steel. The charge was also sold commercially as a hunting and sports. The initial velocity of the projectile of a weight of 10.36 g reaches 720 ms-1.

Production rifles Carcano 91:

Manufacturerproduction PeriodNumber of items
Terni1892-1918, 1932-1936, 19412 820 000
Roma1917-1918233 000
Turin1892-1900184 000
Torre Annunziata1894-1900148 000
Mida1916-1918129 000
Brescia1895-189751 000
Beretta1937-194022 000


J. Hýkel, In. Malimánek: Ammunition for small arms, nakl. Our troops, Prague 2002, ISBN 80-206-0641-6
And. B. Žuk: Rifles and submachine guns, nakl. Our troops, Prague 1992, ISBN 80-206-0150-3].
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Carcano M-1891

Technical details
Kaliber: 6,5x52 mm Mannlicher Carcano.
Magazine: integrated gas -.
Capacity: 6 nábojov.
Type weapons: opakovacia, with odsuvným valcovým záverom.
Mode streľby: single shots.
Uzaknutie conclusion: the two-uzamykacími ozubmi breech bolt hole (type Mauser).
Total dĺžka: 1290mm (rifle), 920mm (karabína).
Dĺžka mostly: 780mm, respectively. 450mm.
Hmotnosť: 3.9 kg, or 3,0 kg.
Mieridlá: otvorené sliced mieridlá 500 to 1500 m (rifle 500 to 2000 m).
Manuálna poistka: krídelková in its part of the conclusion.
Stock: drevo.
Dalšie details: the Gun has a bore with progresívnym stúpaním (smerom to ústiu especially sa zrýchľuje). Karabína Carcano M-1891 is equipped dlhým sklorným špicatým bajonetom. Models vyrábané from 1891 used strelivo caliber 6,5x52 mm Mannlicher Carcano. Konštrukcia weapons Mannlicher Carcano mala many weak miest. One of them was the charge pásik, ktorý spôsoboval fast znečistenie nábojovej the clipboard. Vzhľadom to a series of new koncepčných modifikácii (v rokoch 1895, 1897, 1907, and 1912) is the weapon known in niekoľkých prevedeniach..
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I'll add a picture of the equestrian "muschetonu" M91 from the year 1941. And I might add, that the only weak point of this weapon is the use of brass ammunition box. Has it tiž little rigidity and when charging it curls and does not hold charge as it should. Much better are the steel later produced frames, then everything is fine.

Source: Own a gun.
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The military history institute 30.9.12, own photo

The rifle is mounted rifle grenade Benaglia..
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