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Beck-Rzikowsky, Friedrich von

     
Příjmení:
Surname:
von Beck-Rzikowsky
Jméno:
Given Name:
Friedrich
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
Hodnost:
Rank:
generálplukovník
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
-
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
hrabě
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
21.03.1830 Freiburg im Breisgau
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
09.02.1920 Vídeň
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
náčelník generálního štábu
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
-
Související články:
Related Articles:
Zdroje:
Sources:
Antonio Schmidt-Brentano: Kaiserliche und k. k. Generale (1816-1918), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, 2007
de.wikipedia.org
upload.wikimedia.org
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Beck-Rzikowsky-Friedrich-von-t60301#417421Version : 0
MOD
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
von Beck-Rzikowsky
Jméno:
Given Name:
Friedrich
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Friedrich von Beck-Rzikowsky
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
DD.MM.RRRR-DD.MM.RRRR
Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
DD.MM.1846-DD.MM.RRRR Ženijní škola
DD.MM.1852-DD.MM.RRRR Válečná škola
Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.MM.1846 poručík
DD.MM.RRRR nadporučík
DD.MM.1854 setník
DD.MM.1861 major
DD.MM.1865 podplukovník
DD.MM.1867 plukovník
23.04.1873 generálmajor
01.05.1878 polní podmaršál
01.01.1889 polní zbrojmistr
15.11.1908 generál pěchoty
26.02.1916 generálplukovník
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
Automaticky vyplněné položky:
DD.MM.1881-DD.MM.1889 Velitel : Generální štáb
DD.MM.1889-DD.MM.1906 Velitel : Generální štáb

Ručně vyplněné položky:
DD.MM.1881-DD.MM.1906 náčelník generálního štábu
Vyznamenání:
Awards:
undefined.undefined.undefined
Poznámka:
Note:
-
Zdroje:
Sources:
Antonio Schmidt-Brentano: Kaiserliche und k. k. Generale (1816-1918), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, 2007
de.wikipedia.org
upload.wikimedia.org
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Beck-Rzikowsky-Friedrich-von-t60301#417424Version : 0
MOD
General Beck-Rzikowsky - restorer of the army


Friedrich von Beck was born on 21. march 1830 in Freiburg im Breisgau in the grand Duchy of bádenském. In 1846 he entered the austrian army and served in the infantry, sappers, and in staff of the general quartermaster. In the revolutionary years 1848-49 took part in the fighting in Hungary and operations of Radetzky's army against Sardinia. Among other things in infantry regiment velkovédody bádenského no 59. In the crisis year of 1850, during the mobilization was in the Czech republic. After having served in Vienna, where among other things he graduated from the War school. Then he was in the rank of centurion deployed as part of the austrian forces, which occupied Moldavia and Wallachia during the the crimean war. In 1857 undertook a cartographic expedition to the southern Hungary. In 1859 he was jmenovánem the chief of staff of the division Area', which was stationed on the austrian territory on the Apennine peninsula. Found that the staff is not even the only map of Piedmont, and so have procured all that could find in local stores. Beck has distinguished himself in the battles at Candie and Magenta. And it's the battle of Magenta almost didn't get a chance, since due to problems in the connection arrived its division late. Beck personally rushed troops forward and sustained a leg injury, although the division did not explain in the battle a more important role. For your injury came about participation in the the battle of Solferino. However, for their bravery he has been given the order of the iron crown III. class with war decorations. In 1861 he was raised to the austrian knighthood.

In 1860 he traveled Beck to the Frankfurt am Main, where he had to take over the position of head of protocol of the military commission of the German confederation. At the same time he helped to the austrian representatives in the common German army, generálmajorovi Rzikowskému von Dobrzicz. At the same time observed the tension that grew between Austria and Prussia, which wanted him to replace in the position of hegemon in the Empire. Beck had the opportunity in more detail to get acquainted with by the prussian military authorities and their methods and approaches. Beck prussian military machine, and especially the general Moltkeho, admired. Didn't want to but the growth of the prussian power to stand idly by. In 1862, advocated the conclusion of military conventions with the Hannoverskem, which would allow the location of the federal troops (mainly austrian) along the rivers Elbe and river weser spanned. This grouping could quickly intervene in the event of a French invasion, and at the same time, militarily separated the eastern and western parts of Prussia. It would bring the austrian forces to great advantage in the case of a mutual conflict. History knows no "if", however, the initial phase of the battle of Langensalzy suggests that this step could have resulted in a different outcome of the war of the years 1866, if to her for this condition at all. In 1864, Beck helped general Ludwig von Gablenzovi with the military preparations for war against Denmark. That ended with the victory of the common German troops. Austria and Prussia then invaded Schleswig and Holstein. Beck assumed that Prussia is with this state of long-term satisfied and will want to both provinces, if not more. After returning to Vienna, was entrusted with drawing up the plan for war with Prussia. Beck rightly assumed, that the Prussians burst into Bohemia, and through Jičín to head to Vienna. Beck additionally, personally persuaded the saxon king and the prime minister, to stand on the side of Austria. In addition, convincing the general Benedeka, commander North army that, before the arrival of the Prussians concentrated their forces in the Jičín. Unfortunately, Benedek has left his chief of staff general Heniksteinem and operating chief von Krismanicem to convince to leave a large part of the forces in Moravia for the case of the prussian invasion of Silesia. It did not happen. The prussians according to beck's expectations of the invaded (partially through Saxony) into Bohemia and Benedeka beat. The austrians suffered heavy losses. Beck at least managed to get Benedeka to withdraw all their forces from the Czech and Moravia and the focus is north of Vienna. The army was exhausted and shaken, but at least not destroyed. It appeared, however, the danger of rebellion in Hungary, and so the politicians managed to defend only the relative independence of Saxony. The main problem of the monarchy in the post-war period became the Hungarian question. As for military matters, the supreme commander archduke Albrecht was known protimaďarským position and in addition, after the revolutionary years 1848-49 straitened Pimples. The reich minister of war Franz von John had his hands full with, to put together the shattered army. And so had the main share in the military part of the negotiations with the Hungarians just Beck as the head of the emperor's military office. On the basis of the compromise was created joint military, austrian zeměbrana and Hungarian honvéd.

Beck wanted to introduce conscription after the model of Prussia, but came across the old pain of the monarchy - scheming. Ambitious reich minister of war, general Franz free the lord of the Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld stand against, because with such a program went hand in hand a significant emancipation general staff, which would be almost independent of the reich ministry of war, which would weaken the right Kuhnovu position. And this is on the contrary managed to get rid of the archduke Albrecht function of the commander in chief and instead appointed him general inspector, which position was subordinate to the minister of war. Kuhn has trimmed general staff. On him with Beck agreed, if at the same time nebujela bureaucracy at the ministry of war, which, moreover, stáel more blended into the activities he has to perform is general staff. Secretary of war broke the neck of the prussian-French war. Kuhn demanded a general mobilization against Prussia, and against Russia. It's suspected that, if Austria would help France, so it attacked Russia in the role of prussian allies. However, the military machine is adjusted according to his reforms proved unable to make even a partial mobilization. The result of the attempt of its implementation was just a general confusion. In addition, he was emperor horrified Kuhnovými requirements for the position of a huge field army. So much of the funds of the monarchy shouldn't. The inability to properly carry out a partial mobilization and the tragic performance of the French army meant that the emperor decided to war not. Although Kuhn embarrassed, remained at the head of the ministry. Beck against him continued to fight, often together with the archduke Albrecht. Both in his faults and shortcomings of his steps repeatedly warned the emperor. Beck has advocated for an independent general staff. Only in 1874 he resigned. Replaced him Alexander von Koller, which you personally selected by the archduke Albrecht. Chief general staff he was appointed general von John. This function nepřebírala easily, as Beck merit was the role of the chief of staff significantly different from the role he had in the sixties. General staff he was independent, but his plans were not compatible with the plans of the ministry of war. The armed forces were for some time threatened litigation in their supreme command, since John was in a dispute with Koller on the one and Beck (the latter in 1874 became the emperor's chief adjutant) and Albrecht on the other side. After a time the situation calmed fortunately. Beck and John have worked out the definition of the mutual relations of both the authorities and John then in 1876 he died.

Beck also had to pay the development on the Balkans. In 1874 there was a conflict between Turkey and montenegro once, what here was murdered a Turkish diplomat. Beck drew up the plans for the invasion, which should be implemented in the event that there is a threat to the austrian position in Dalmatia. Beck managed to get the emperor to visit Dalmatia and thus improve the relationship of local residents to Vienna. Shortly after there was a disturbance in Herzegovina and in Bosnia. Montenegrins were destroyed, Bosnians massacred and Serbs, who came to help, pushed back to Belgrade. Beck believed that Vienna could win the favor of the Slavs in Austria, if austria-Hungarian empire freed from the Turkish rule their slavic brothers. He therefore asked Koller to in Dalmatia focused units, which should liberate Bosnia. In 1876 they rose up the Bulgarians and their subsequent slaughter zatíhlo to war with Turkey, Russia. In a moment of threat to the southern borders of the monarchy died the chief of the general staff von John and from the post for health reasons resigned the reich minister of war von Koller. Given this situation, should the main word Beck and archduke Albrecht, as the new minister Bylandt-Rheidt and the chief of the general staff of the von Schönfeld needed time. The russians quickly advanced against the Turks, but in Plevna with their progress stopped. Beck even thought about it, that it is a Russian scam to cover up their real intention - the attack of Austria-Hungary. He feared that after that he would join Italy and Romania. Austria-Hungary would have fought at the front from the Stelvia after Krakow. Beck proposed the retention of mobilised troops on the border and waiting. In the meantime, it should be vyčeprání of the Russian army, and subsequently to her possible defeat. However, relied primarily on diplomats. The solution was the berlin congress.

On it acquired Austria-Hungary consent to the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to establish order. The emperor has commissioned Beck to draw up plans. The actual invasion of the then commanding field master-at-arms Joseph Philippovich von Philippsberg. He had a task to occupy key cities and humáními methods to establish order. There was, however, to what Beck most feared. 13. choir he came into conflict with the rebels, who attacked his rear, and connection. Austro-Hungarian troops were in Sarajevo, but his surroundings have taken over the rebels. In a lot of trouble to get masters in other areas. Austria-Hungary invaded with relatively small forces, to make it look more like an act of liberation and not cast. Now about it but got into difficulties. In addition to Philippovic made no secret of protimuslimskými views and contempt for the soldiers of Hungarian nationality, which the situation only got worse. Beck him at the end of October he visited and relieved him of command. When the supply of reinforcements and the introduction of reforms in the area of zpacifikovalo. The number of deployed forces and financial costs vastly exceeded the original assumptions. In this case Beck the development of events too well misjudged. Despite this fact became a major military figure of the monarchy. He was considered to be a single person able to carry out real reform of the army, which, as it turned out in Bosnia, still had a lot to improve. In 1881 he replaced general von Schönfelda in place of the chief of the general staff. But, before this offer from the emperor accepted, submitted, not just a short list of conditions. The emperor and the archduke Albrecht has yet agreed that Beck is the only suitable candidate, and his conditions accepted. Beck gained considerable freedom in the implementation of reforms. Function, to which he joined the 1. June 1881, then he held until 1906. Thus after a quarter of a century.

The ministers of war talk about him being an unguided missile, as painted outside each the wishes of the ministerial bureaucracy as its predecessors. Beck focused on improving the training of officers and improve the course of the maneuvers, which at the same time took on still larger proportions, especially those of the so-called imperial. Here, however, ran into financial limits. Also, the international context was ignored. The concentration of several corps on both sides of the led neighbouring countries to suspicion from the hidden moblizace and to be sure and place your own concentration of troops. During his tenure reform the functioning of the general staff, being inspired by the prussian model. And to the extent, up to him, some suspected of being a German spy. Beck, however, their action was not based only on your own beliefs, but also on the fact that Germany was an austrian ally. Cooperation between the two staffs, therefore, was a necessity. Beck often traveled to Berlin and Zossen. During his travels he had the opportunity to thoroughly familiarize yourself with the internal operation of the prussian military machine, which was considered to be the most effective in Europe. With one-sided orientation on Germany and the open planning of the war with Russia did not agree the archduke Albrecht and seemingly won, when he convinced the emperor to restore the league of the three emperors. But the emperor has commissioned Beck to the consultations continued, but quieter. Beck and his German counterpart, von Waldersee work out a plan, which envisaged a dual strike German and austrian forces from East Prussia and Galicia to the Russian forces in the so-called congress Poland. While he was in power, the chancellor Bismarck, he could avert all the Walderseeho efforts for a war with Russia, however, the general influenced the heir to the throne, the future emperor Wilhelm II.

Even beck's plan for the so-called teritorializace army stumbled on Albrechtův disagreement. Beck wanted to make conscripts have served in the provinces from which they came. They would stop so wander around all corners of the monarchy. This measure should especially save a significant amount of funds. Albrecht, who well remembered the course of the revolution in Hungary, but countered the belief that e.g. the Hungarian soldiers refused to suppress a possible uprising in Hungary. Beck defended this step as the financial aspect, and the belief that the next conflict will be the origin in abroad and in domestic issues. The result of the debate was the adoption of changes to the organisation of the army, which meant the division of the monarchy from a military point of view on the territory of the sixteen councils. These councils formed the basis for the collection of conscripts and training. The effect of the Beck reforms had already manifested itself in 1885. Then in Plovdiv started protiturecké uprising. The Serbian king Milan, who was leaning against a secret alliance with Austria-Hungary, suggested that it is a Russia-inspired conspiracy to the creation of a Large Bulgaria, which was for Serbia unacceptable. Serbia has declared the Bulgarians war, and his army surged to Sofia. But the serb forces were defeated and now have to change the Bulgarian troops were advancing on the Belgrade. In this moment took place in Austria-Hungary mobilization and Bulgarians was sent an ultimatum. Mobilization, which is related to several congregations, this time to go smoothly. Bulgarians your progress to the west stopped.

Beck had to pay also attention to the progress in transport and still review the time allocation for each stage of mobilization. The time required for the execution of the mobilization was one of the main aspects of the rivalry of the powers. Here but alluded to the financial limits and the austro-Hungarian army lagged behind. After the death of archduke Albrecht in 1895 remained the Beck the only real military authority. For his position with the public earned the nickname "viceroy". However, even Beck was no longer enough to keep pace with the rapid technology developments, which meant the need for further reforms. When he was the heir to the throne archduke Franz Ferdinand in the year of 1903 witnessed the screwed-up maneuvers on the dalmatian coast, he asked the emperor about the use becks appeal due to the lag of the army behind the development in Europe. The emperor was Beck much obliged and appreciated him, that he was able to build an army back to his feet. It was therefore easy for him now Beck to get rid of. But after a time left to convince that it is necessary to replace him by someone younger and more energetic. Beck replaced the Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, arcivévodův protége. Beck was appointed captain of the the first body guard harcířů, the emperor's honorable personal guards. When she was in 1916, introduced the rank of was to hold, he was also appointed Beck. In the following year he was pensionován. Friedrich graf von Beck-Rzikowsky died 9. February of 1920 in the Vienna.




Sources:
https://www.oocities.org/veldes1/beck.html
de.wikipedia.org
https://www.aeiou.at/aeiou.encyclop.b/b233050.htm
daten.digitale-sammlungen.de
Scott W. Lackey: The Rebirth of the Habsburg Army: Friedrich Beck and the Rise of the General Staff, Greenwood Press, 1995.
URL : https://www.armedconflicts.com/Beck-Rzikowsky-Friedrich-von-t60301#417429Version : 0
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