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Radoslav Turik

Radoslav Turik

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  • Activities of the Beskydy Military History Club in 2011 (January-June)

    Since its founding, the Beskydy Military History Club has set itself the goal of engaging in research into the military history of northeastern Slovakia and the practical rescue of war cemeteries from the First World War. Beneath these goals lies the pursuit of the widest possible range of activities. Most of the activities of our association are aimed primarily at fulfilling the set goals. In this article, I would like to point out the most important activities and events that we have organized or participated in so far in 2011. Like every interest group, we have set a plan of activities for the calendar year on which the core of our activities is based. Of course, many unplanned activities emerge during the year, which we will then include in our program. The result is a wide range of diverse events and actions.

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  • Assyrian Empire

    One of the most militant civilizations of antiquity was undoubtedly the Assyrian Empire. The article presents a brief overview of the history of this great civilization.

    31.624
  • Athens state system

    In the period from the 8th to the 6th century BC, a new type of organization of human society was created on the territory of Greece, the Greek city-state - the polis. Polis symbolized independence, self-sufficiency and a degree of democracy that allowed citizens to participate in the administration of public affairs.

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  • The Babylonian Empire

    Over the course of three millennia, several dominant state units have changed in Mesopotamia. One of them was the Babylonian Empire. Like other government departments, the state has experienced periods of success and growth, but also periods of decline. I divide the history of the Babylonian Empire into the periods of the Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian and New Babylonian empires.

    53.203
  • Battle of Rozhanovce

    Governing the medieval monarchy was certainly not an easy task. Many medieval monarchs were convinced of this. The power of the king was constantly trying to limit some strata in society, especially the high nobility. Rich oligarchic families did not respect royal power in the state. It was this problem that led the Hungarian king Karol Róbert of Anjou to the battlefield near the village of Rozhanovce in 1312.

    34.070
  • Böhmisches Dragonerregiment Lichtenstein

    history of the regiment

    6.461
  • Bratríci

    The fraternal movement is a kind of ending of Hussite times in Slovakia. It took hold in Hungary at the time of the disintegration of central power and existed as a state within a state.

    35.578
  • Work at the Pod Kobylou war cemetery in Výrava (September 24, 2011)

    Another successful working event of volunteers from KVH Beskydy, who are trying to save war cemeteries from the First World War.

    10.059
  • Andrej Hadík from Futak's Hussar Regiment No. 3

    History of the regiment.

    8.090
  • Caesar von Hofacker

    Profile of a member of the military anti-Nazi opposition in Germany.

    8.984
  • The Hittite Empire

    The Hittites are among the least known peoples of antiquity. About 3,400 years ago, they established an empire in Asia Minor that competed with Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Chetites created a society that lived from a regular expansion to its neighbors, but also an amazing culture. The Czech scientist Bedřich Hrozný, who deciphered the script of this civilization, has a large share in the discovery of this civilization.

    43.618
  • Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians I.

    Surely no one doubts that the First World War was a terrifying conflict that left traces behind. The remnants of fierce fighting were obscured by nature or human activity. It is no different here in the Carpathian mountains. At the turn of 1914-1915, a large part of today's northeastern Slovakia became the scene of heavy fighting. As I mentioned, the traces of this cataclysm have faded, but something remains ... The last memento of the terrible war are dozens of military cemeteries in our region. The tooth of time was also signed on them. For decades, these sad monuments to the devastating war fell into disrepair and gradually disappeared from the face of the earth. It's time to change this unhappy state. The following lines are devoted to a brief introduction to the issue of military cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    22.139
  • Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians II.

    The First World War left a number of military cemeteries and graves in our territory. The successor state of the former monarchy had to take care of these graves. In difficult conditions, the Czechoslovak authorities tried to fulfill their international obligations in the field of care for war graves. As time later showed, the interwar era was the only period until today, when military cemeteries from the First World War were well taken care of.

    19.275
  • Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids I.

    In ancient times, one of the most amazing civilizations in human history was created in the northeastern part of the African continent. This civilization was essentially dependent on the river Nile and the wealth that the river brought to it every year in the form of deposits of fertile mud. The original territory, where the Egyptian civilization originated, formed the Nile basin from the city of Jeb (Aswan) to Mennofer (Memphis) in the delta of the river Nile.

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  • Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids III.

    In the 16th century BC, the most famous and successful period of the Egyptian state begins. This period is chronologically dated around 1560-1080 BC It began with the overthrow of Hyksos domination and the restoration of Egyptian sovereignty.

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  • Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids II.

    During the millennia of the Egyptian state, this society experienced a period of prosperity and deep decline. In the second part of my article, we will take a closer look at Egyptian society and approach the critical transitional periods of Egyptian history, but also the prosperity of the Middle Kingdom.

    12.593
  • Dragoon regiments in the Habsburg army I.

    In the modern era, cavalry experienced its last glorious times on European battlefields. In all major European armies, several basic types of cavalry were formed. The difficult ride was represented mainly by dragoons. A brief development of their existence in the Habsburg army tries to capture this article.

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  • Dragoon regiments in the Habsburg army II.

    Even during the 18th century, dragoons were among the main cavalry units on European battlefields. The fate of Dragoon troops during the 18th century, until the middle of the 19th century in Habsburg troops follows this article.

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  • Dragoon regiments in the Habsburg army III.

    Dragoon units in the Habsburg army from the middle of the 19th century until the First World War.

    14.447
  • French Revolution I.

    Few historical processes at the end of the 18th century marked Europe, but especially France, like the revolution. When it broke out in 1789, the whole of Europe watched with bated breath the collapse of the regime that until recently ruled in the most powerful state on the continent.

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  • French Revolution II. - "The Revolution Eats Its Children"

    From the ideals of revolution to the rule of terror

    26.321
  • French Revolution III.

    The third part of the characteristics of the basic processes of the French Revolution, which deals with the period of Jacobin terror.

    26.068
  • Colonel General Alois Fürst Schönburg-Hartenstein

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    19.756
  • Colonel General Erzherzog Josef Ferdinand

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    19.701
  • Colonel General Friedrich Freiherr von Georgi

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    17.614
  • Colonel General Josef Freiherr Roth von Limanowa-Lapanów

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    19.698
  • Colonel General Karl Freiherr von Pflanzer-Baltin

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    21.397
  • Colonel General Karl Graf Huyn

    Brief biography of the Colonel General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    16.673
  • Colonel General Karl Graf Kirchbach auf Lauterbach

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    14.660
  • Colonel General Leopold von Hauer

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    11.238
  • Colonel General Paul Baron Puhallo von Brlog

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    13.986
  • Colonel General Rudolf Freiherr Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    14.657
  • Colonel General Samuel Baron von Hazai

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

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  • Colonel General Viktor Dankl Graf von Kraśnik

    A brief biography of the Austro-Hungarian Colonel-General.

    38.855
  • Colonel General Wenzel Freiherr von Wurm

    A brief biography of the Colonel-General of the Austro-Hungarian Army.

    13.577
  • Major General Hans Oster

    Member of the military anti-Nazi opposition.

    8.858
  • Cavalry units of the regular Austro-Hungarian army until 1914

    Cavalry units have been part of armies since ancient times. Ever since man domesticated horses, he began to use them for military purposes. Over the centuries, the importance and use of military cavalry on the battlefield has evolved, but until the outbreak of World War I, cavalry remained one of the main components of the ground armies of all powers. The army of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austro-Hungarian army were no exception.

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  • Cavalry units of the Austrian monarchy during the reign of Maria Theresa

    A brief overview of interesting facts about the cavalry units of the Habsburg army in the years 1740-80.

    25.722
  • Hungarian cavalry units before the First World War

    Honvéd troops were formed on the basis of extensive constitutional changes that affected the Habsburg monarchy and led to the emergence of a dualistic monarchy. These units represented the Hungarian army within the armed forces of the monarchy. One of the basic types of Honvéd units was cavalry.

    22.303
  • Jozef Turanec

    A brief biography of the general of the Slovak army. A controversial character known for his pro-German attitudes.

    13.334
  • Carpathians 1914/1915

    8.312
  • German politics and diplomacy during the reign of Chancellor Caprivi

    A brief outline of Germany's main political and diplomatic activities in the period following the release of Chancellor Bismarck. The article captures the reign of Chancellor Caprivi and the current development of international relations.

    18.713
  • Humenné District in 1945 (situation report)

    The last months in 1944 were a period for the districts of northeastern Slovakia, which ended the Second World War in this area. The frontline fighting moved further west. The war has become a thing of the past, but that did not mean that the problem was over. On the contrary, the inhabitants of northeastern Slovakia destroyed by the war had a difficult period of reconstruction of the destroyed region.

    15.421
  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 1

    In the fierce battles of the Civil War, both sides suffered bloody losses. Death did not shy away from men in command positions either. In this article, I would like to pay attention to the Confederate generals who perished on the battlefields of the Civil War. The list of fallen generals of the Confederation contains 73 names. Among them were talented dukes, but hopeless scoundrels who did not have much success on the battlefields. Let's try to remember, at least briefly, how they fought or how they died.

    29.408
  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 2

    In the first part of the article, we imagined one army commander and three corps commanders who perished during the Civil War. In today's part, we will focus on the generals who fell at the time when they held the functions of division commanders. There are seven names in the list of fallen generals. This list includes Major General William D. Pender, J.E.B Stuart, W.H.T Walker, Robert R. Rhodes, Stephen D. Ramseur, Patrick R. Cleburne, and Brigadier General John Pegram.

    21.887
  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 3

    In the third part of the article, we will take a close look at the fate of brigadier generals who perished in the fighting of the Civil War for the Confederacy. The total list of fallen brigade commanders contains 62 names. In this section, we will remember the brigadier generals who fell right at the beginning of the war.

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  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 4

    In the second block on the fallen generals of the Confederacy, we will recall another 10 brigadier generals who fell on the battlefields of the Civil War.

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  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 5

    In the fifth part of our article, we will present brief profiles of the third dozen of brigadier generals who fell on the battlefields of the Civil War.

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  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 6

    For the sixth time, we will choose to search for the fate of the fallen generals of the Confederate army. Even in today's part, we will approach the fate of ten fallen generals.

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  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 7

    During 1864, it became increasingly clear that the Confederacy had no chance of winning the war. Nevertheless, the Southern army did not give up and fiercely resisted in bloody battles, slowing down the advance of Union troops into the interior of the southern states. Thousands of Southern soldiers and officers perished in these furious clashes. Among them are 11 brigadier generals. We will recall their fate in today's article.

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  • Died in the name of Confederacy - Part 8

    The last part of a series about Confederate army generals killed in the Civil War.

    12.313
  • Died in the name of Union - Part 1

    In my previous series of articles on the Civil War, I dealt with the fate of the generals of the Confederate army who found death on the battlefield in this conflict. There were a total of 73 of them. Death did not escape even the general in the blue uniform of the Unionist army. 67 were killed or mortally wounded throughout the war. 67 In several articles, we recall their stories and the circumstances of their deaths.

    5.874
  • Infantry units of the joint Austro-Hungarian army before the First World War

    As in other European armies of this period, the Austro-Hungarian army was the largest component of the ground forces. In 1903, 63% of the army were infantry units. The important role of the infantry and its mission was also captured in the main military laws of 1868, 1889 and 1912.

    28.938
  • Infantry units of the Hungarian homeland defense before the First World War

    Honvéd troops were formed on the basis of extensive constitutional changes that affected the Habsburg monarchy and led to the emergence of a dualistic monarchy. These units represented the Hungarian army within the armed forces of the monarchy. The origin and development of these units is dealt with in the following article.

    23.804
  • The fifth year of the traditional Carpathian event 1914/1915

    We invite all fans of military history.

    6.140
  • Memorial actions in war cemeteries from the First World War (October 12-14, 2012)

    Report from reverential actions at the reconstructed war cemeteries of northeastern Slovakia.

    9.194
  • Plans of the Austrian General Staff for the Defense of the Carpathians from 1811

    A brief overview of probably the first sketch of the defense of the Carpathian arc in the plans of the Austrian General Staff. The plan deals with the possibilities of defending Upper Hungary from the attack of the Russian army across the Carpathians.

    16.544
  • Field Marshal Hermann Free Lord Kövess von Kövessháza

    He was the last commander in chief of the Austro-Hungarian army. He accepted his appointment on November 3, 1918, knowing that he had a difficult and unpleasant task of commanding the defeated army on the eve of the surrender. This imperial crown loyal officer accepted his appointment and led what remained of the Austro-Hungarian army until December 20, 1918. Who was actually Field Marshal Kövess. I will try to answer this in the following article.

    18.600
  • Auxiliary historical sciences I. - Heraldry

    In examining historical processes, the historian encounters a fundamental problem. The subject of his research cannot be explored directly, but only by a wide range of historical sources. The Auxiliary Historical Sciences (AHS) assist the historian in such research. In a series of articles, I would try to briefly outline the subject of research of individual AHSs and the basic concepts associated with them.

    40.101
  • Auxiliary historical sciences II. - Sphragistics

    In today's society, we can no longer even imagine any legally relevant document without being confirmed by the appropriate stamp. The forerunners of modern stamps that confirm the authenticity of the document were seals of various kinds. They have been used in society since ancient times. Their significance for the knowledge of the history of society is dealt with in another auxiliary historical science - sfragistics.

    28.628
  • Garrison towns in the monarchy I.

    Throughout the historical development of human society, cities have played important roles. Usually, in the past, cities used to be characterized as centers of crafts and production. They played a very important role, especially in the economic sphere. Economic importance increased even more in modern society as cities became centers of industry. Equally important were their roles as social or political centers of individual territories. Cities were also of great importance in connection with military issues.

    18.023
  • Garrison towns in the monarchy II.

    In modern times, the interdependence of cities and the army has developed. Cities were of strategic importance to the army not only in the area of unit accommodation, but also in the area of logistics and other areas. The importance of the interconnectedness of cities and the army is explained in the second part of the article Garrison Cities in the Monarchy. At the end of the article, the Corps areas IX.-XVI are presented.

    14.528
  • Working event at the cemetery in Veľkrope (October 28-29, 2011)

    The seventh working event of KVH Beskydy in the largest war cemetery from the First World War in Slovakia in the village of Veľkrop.

    7.389
  • Working event at the Výrava - Pod Kobylou cemetery (15.10.2011)

    Working event of volunteers from KVH Beskydy.

    49.969
  • Working event at the Snina I.-Giglovo war cemetery (25.7.2012)

    Report from the reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War. Snina I. - Giglovo.

    11.985
  • Working event at the war cemetery in Velkrop (3-4 August 2012)

    Report from the reconstruction of the largest war cemetery from the First World War in Slovakia in the village of Veľkrop.

    4.544
  • Working event at the war cemetery in Velkrop (3-4 August 2012)

    Report from the reconstruction of the largest war cemetery from the First World War in Slovakia in the village of Veľkrop.

    8.133
  • Working brigade at the Snina-Giglovo war cemetery (June 22, 2012)

    Reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War Snina-Giglovo.

    11.149
  • Working camp of the Beskydy Military History Club at the Hostovice War Cemetery (24.03.2012)

    The long winter season is finally over and there is a pleasant spring weather outside. For members of KVH Beskydy, this signals the beginning of a new season of reconstruction work on war cemeteries from the First World War in the region of northeastern Slovakia.

    11.966
  • KVH Beskydy Work Camp at the Veľkrop War Cemetery (August 18-20, 2011)

    Reconstruction of the largest war cemetery from the First World War in Slovakia continues in August. About 10,700 soldiers are buried in the cemetery in Veľkrope. This cemetery is larger than the war cemetery in Slavín, while it is completely anonymous and neglected. For these reasons, members of KVH Beskydy have been working since 2009 on the rescue and reconstruction of the war cemetery in Velkrop.

    14.311
  • Work camp KVH Beskydy in Becherov (July 26-29, 2011)

    Volunteers from KVH Beskydy began to reconstruct the war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Becherov in June this year. Further work was planned at the end of July, when we decided to organize a second labor camp at this war cemetery.

    12.398
  • Work camp KVH Beskydy in Výrava (6-9 July 2011)

    The Club of Military History started dealing with war cemeteries in Výrava as early as 2009. This year, the members of the club, in cooperation with the municipal government, cleaned the Pod Kobylou and Kóta 600 war cemeteries. only from rescue from immediate extinction. However, this situation could not last for a long time. If work on these cemeteries did not continue, they would be in danger of extinction again after a few years.

    11.553
  • VWGMC job camp in Velkrop (June 15-16, 2012)

    After a long winter break, it is time again to move forward with the reconstruction of the largest war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Veľkrop ( Stropkov district ). We started this year with a really big style. The first working event at the local cemetery was a large international working camp of the International Visegrad Working Group for Military Cemetery, composed of representatives of civic associations from all V4 countries.

    8.362
  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné I.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The first part of the series deals with the conditions that influenced the development of agriculture in the Czechoslovak Republic in the period 1945-48.

    21.175
  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné II.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The second part is devoted to explaining the basic concepts related to the concept of building a JRD.

    16.230
  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné III.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The third part of the series deals with the course of the collectivization process in the district of Humenné in the period 1949-52.

    15.605
  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné IV.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The fourth part of the series deals with the course of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1953-1954.

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  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné V.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The fifth part of the series deals with the course of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1955-60.

    14.203
  • The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné VI.

    A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The sixth part of the series deals with the final stage of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1957-60 and the evaluation of this process.

    12.768
  • Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary II. - Gabriel Betlen's uprising

    The defenestration in Prague, May 1618 became a prelude to a long-lasting conflict, which gradually engulfed the whole of Central Europe. The continent became the arena of the extensive power struggle. Two strong coalitions of states. This match did not bypass the territory of today's Slovakia. Hungary was then drawn into the Thirty Years' War during the second anti-Habsburg uprising under Gabriel Betlen.

    24.618
  • Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary I. - The uprising of Štefan Bočkaj

    The seventeenth century in our history was a period of very dramatic events. The Habsburg dynasty sought to build an absolutist state out of Hungary. This meant the liquidation of the vital interests of the Hungarian nobility, which was strongly opposed. In the struggle for the character of Hungarian society, in a confused time full of religious and political conflicts, the two sides met in a persistent struggle that lasted for centuries.

    36.807
  • Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary III. - Uprising of Juraj I. Rákóczi

    The year was 1643, and the grueling conflict, later called the Thirty Years' War in Europe, entered its final phase. The Habsburg army was fully engaged in fighting against Swedish and French troops. This was a good time for another performance by the Hungarian nobility, who felt the strong pressure of imperial absolutism and was once again fighting for their privileges and religious freedom. It was headed by the new Prince of Transylvania, Juraj Rákoczi.

    28.201
  • Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary IV. - The uprising of Imrich Thököly

    In 1664, Hungary began to shake again with political and religious unrest. The Vasvar peace concluded with Turkey, angered the Hungarian nobles. According to them, the Turks did not deserve mild conditions. Many assets remained on Turkish territory in the Hungarian nobility, which they could not access at this time. They considered peace with the Ottomans as an imperial interest in Hungarian affairs on the part of the emperor. They were neither enthusiastic about the presence of mercenary troops or the expulsion of the Hungarian nobility and positions of power.

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  • Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary V. - Uprising of Francis II. Rákócziho

    In the last years of the 17th century, the triumph of Habsburg power in Hungary seemed sealed and irreversible. The Hungarian nobility was subdued and removed from political power. The Hungarian states had to eat more than one hot pill. The right to resist the monarch, which had until then been guaranteed by the nobility of the Golden Bull of Andrew II, was abolished. The nobility was also provoked by the new law on the inheritance of the Hungarian crown in the Habsburg dynasty for all its male members. The social problems and consequences of previous riots and wars have impoverished all sections of society, causing widespread dissatisfaction. Of course, the problems of each social class stemmed from different causes. Nevertheless, Hungary gradually turned into a barrel of gunpowder, which was just waiting for its spark to explode.

    41.892
  • World War I - fighting in the Carpathians (evaluation of the conference in Humenné)

    Brief evaluation of the historical conference First World War - fighting in the Carpathians in Humenné, which took place on the occasion of the christening of the publication Cemetery of the First World War in the Carpathians. The conference was the first successful project of the Beskydy Military History Club in Humenné.

    23.385
  • Reconstruction of a part of the Arpad line in the cadastre of the village of Ulič

    The Arpad line was a defensive fortification built by Hungary during World War II. It is a fortification system, the edge of which extends to the territory of the present-day Slovak Republic (during World War II, it was the territory of Hungary). The Beskydy Military History Club, together with the village of Ulič, is preparing a gradual reconstruction of this part of the fortification system and the construction of an educational trail.

    15.974
  • Reconstruction of the war cemetery in the village of Kružlová (July 23, 2012)

    Report on the reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Kružlová (Svidník district).

    8.914
  • Reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War Snina I. Giglovo

    In October 2012, the reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War Snina I. Giglovo was completed with a solemn ordination. The reconstruction was carried out in the course of 2012 by volunteers from the Beskydy Military History Club and the Slovak Soldiers' Union - Humenné Club. The restoration of the cemetery was supported by the Carpathian Foundation and the town of Snina. In the following report, we will recall the most important moments during the reconstruction.

    8.920
  • Reconstruction of a war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Becherov

    These days, volunteers from the Beskydy Military History Club managed to complete the reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Becherov with a ceremonial dedication. I must point out that all of us who have been involved in restoring this war cemetery feel a huge satisfaction. In the following lines, I would like to summarize the individual stages of the gradual reconstruction of the war cemetery in Becherov.

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  • Reconstruction of a war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Stebník

    Photo report from the reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Stebník.

    14.290
  • Nobility in our territory in the 9th - 13th century

    A part of every society is also a layer that has a specific but in many respects dominant position. Today we would call such a layer the social elite. In the Middle Ages, the function of the social elite was performed by the nobility. The following article deals with the origin and formation of this social class.

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  • Ceremonial ordination of the reconstructed war cemetery in Palota

    Report from the grand opening of the reconstructed war cemetery from the First World War in the village of Palota.

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  • Sparta

    When pronouncing this word, interesting associations emerge before the eyes of every fan of ancient history. A strange and legendary state system, the virtues boasted by the Spartans, but most often the horror of the nephews led by King Leonid in the heroic battle of Thermopylae. What was really behind the phenomenon of the Spartan state? What was the strength, but also the weaknesses of this company, briefly tries to approach this article.

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  • Stolice-counties in Slovakia

    A brief look at the historical territorial division in Hungary with an emphasis on today's Slovakia.

    39.568
  • Strategy for the rescue of war cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia

    There are about 200 war cemeteries from the period of the First World War in the territory of northeastern Slovakia. Most of them are in a catastrophic state and are on the verge of extinction. For many decades, war cemeteries have been on the verge of the interest of experts, the public and the competent authorities. Some of the cemeteries paid for this disinterest with extinction. The article discusses ways to change this situation.

    12.930
  • Tatar invasion of Hungary 1241

    The 13th century is one of the most turbulent periods in the history of Hungary. Undoubtedly a significant event was the Tatar invasion of 1241. You will find out how this invasion affected the life of Hungarian society in the following article.

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  • The Turkish military conquests in the territory of today's Slovakia - part 1.

    The first phase of Turkish military actions related to the territory of today's Slovakia. It captures the period from the battle of Mohács to the peace of Edirna.

    156.166
  • The Turkish military conquests in the territory of today's Slovakia - part 2.

    In the 16th century, life in today's southern Slovakia was not easy. This area was a military border between the Ottoman Empire and Hungary. Ordinary people had daily concerns about the exploitation of Turkish crews or requisitioning for German mercenary crews. These fears have affected generations, as the Turkish threat has haunted the territory of present-day southern Slovakia for more than 150 years.

    43.379
  • The Turkish military conquests in the territory of today's Slovakia - part 3.

    From 1660, the security situation on the Hungarian-Turkish border gradually began to deteriorate again. A new conflict was approaching. The Turkish Empire stabilized internally and once again showed its threatening power. The war began in 1663 and the territory of today's Slovakia immediately felt it.

    43.590
  • War of the Roses I. - The roots of the war

    The War of the Roses is one of the most interesting and at the same time the most complicated conflicts in medieval Europe. The thirty-year struggle for the English throne between the Lancaster and York factions was characterized by bloody clashes, intrigues, and the intricacies of relations between important English aristocratic families. At first glance, the whole conflict is a great chaos, in which some Edwardians and Richards constantly appear. In a series of articles on this war, we will try to introduce the various phases of the conflict and explain the nature and course of the entire conflict.

    38.743
  • War of the Roses II. - The government of Henry VI.

    In this part of the series on the War of the Roses, we will recall the serious events that took place in the final phase of the Centennial War and influenced the emergence of the dynastic conflict in England. At the same time, we will gradually imagine the first important personalities who intervened in the conflict. the main motive, however, is the presentation of the first period of the reign of the weak King Henry VI, who played a large part in the outbreak of the War of the Roses.

    26.241
  • War of the Roses III. - The fall of the Duke of Suffolk

    Failures in the war and the incompetent government of Henry VI. and his advisers constantly deteriorated the state of society in England. It has not been a month before further evidence of incompetence and corruption appears at the royal court. Someone had to take an endless chain of failures. In this section, we will notice the root causes of the unhappy state of the Kingdom of England, just before the Rose War.

    21.672
  • War of the Roses IV. - The kingdom of chaos

    After the fall of one of the privileged men of the royal court, the situation worsened even more. Under King Henrich's incompetent leadership, the country rushed toward anarchy. The desperate state of the kingdom constantly provoked York to action, knowing that the King's favorite incompetent Duke of Somerset was to blame. The conflict between York and Somerset culminated.

    20.800
  • War of the Roses IX. - Warwick's uprising

    The long-running conflict between King Edward IV. and his cousin the Prince of Warwick had been in crisis for a long time. Edward IV he did not allow himself to be controlled by his older cousin, which undermined Warwick's ambitions. Mutual disputes soon escalated into open rebellion. Prince Warwick planned to overthrow King Edward IV.

    17.195
  • War of the Roses V. - The war begins

    The War of the Roses definitely began after the defeat at Castillon. The final defeat of the English in France only hastened the internal boiling in the country. England plunged into anarchy, where everyone did what they wanted. This created an ideal space for strong men who competed in the power struggle.

    19.929
  • War of the Roses VI. - York on the rise

    After a short but intense clash at St. Albans, the royal army disintegrated. The winner, the Duke of York, also fell under King Henry VI. The fate of the English throne was in his hands.

    20.746
  • War of the Roses VII. - Bloody years

    In 1460, the Duke of York lost patience and seized power. For years he tried to be a faithful servant of the throne, and his reward was only insults and debts. But even his followers were surprised by York's demands. His friends assumed that the aim of the uprising was to gain control of King Henry VI. and not deprive him of the throne. However, York uncompromisingly established his claim to the royal throne.

    19.401
  • War of the Roses VIII. - Edward IV and Warwick

    The Battle of Towton marked one of the major turning points in the conflict known as the War of the Roses. On the battlefield, Edward triumphed the prince of March and opened the way to the throne. The article describes the first years of his reign and deals with the problematic relationship between the king and his first nobleman, who went from a sincere friendship to an irreconcilable hatred.

    24.022
  • War of the Roses X. - The End of the Lancasters

    To King Edward IV. managed to obtain in Burgundy the financial support he needed for his return to England. He diligently gathered his strength and managed to land successfully in England, where he soon formed a new army. He was ready and determined to defeat all the rebels and, in particular, to definitively deal with the Duke of Warwick.

    21.416
  • War of the Roses XI. - The end of the Duke of Clarence

    After the defeat of the internal enemies, Edward IV. focused on foreign policy. He carried out a military campaign in France, which ended in a peace settlement between England and France. By the time he thrived on the thorn, the Duke of Clarence began to be angry again.

    20.360
  • War of the Roses XII. - Edward and Richard

    King Edward's last years were marked by peaceful rule, but also by health problems. It was clear that if the king died, Richard, of the Duke of Gloucester, would rule England in his son's age. However, there was a group in the court that thought differently.

    18.792
  • War of the Roses XIII. - The government of Richard III.

    After the death of King Edward IV. a ruthless power struggle broke out. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, played a major role in this fight. After the end of the conflicts of power, he ascended the throne as King Richard III. His accession to the throne, however, was accompanied by a number of crimes that completely ruined his reputation.

    19.382
  • War of the Roses XIV. - Road to Bosworth

    King Richard's reign was neither long nor peaceful. From the beginning, the monarch pitted many people against himself, and the unfortunate circumstances associated with his accession to the throne weakened his position. This rescued him at a time when he had to face Henrich Tudor's attempt to gain the throne.

    21.729
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia I.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    10.711
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia I.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.806
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia II.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    8.045
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia III.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.923
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia IV.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.961
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia IX.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.693
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia V.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.790
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia VI.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    4.657
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia VII.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    3.951
  • War cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia VIII.

    At the turn of 1914/1915, northeastern Slovakia was hit by a series of combat clashes between the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German armies. These difficult battles in the Carpathian mountains left behind thousands of fallen soldiers. The victims of the fighting had to be buried with dignity. Thus began the story of a complex of war cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

    4.023
  • War cemeteries from the First World War in the district of Medzilaborce I.

    Combat activities in the First World War took place in our territory during the years 1914-1915. Thousands of soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian, German and Russian armies were killed in the terrible fighting. They are buried in dilapidated and declining military cemeteries, to which society does not pay enough attention.

    29.925
  • War cemeteries from the First World War in the district of Medzilaborce II.

    4.401
  • Development of the Prussian and German armies until the First World War I.

    Brief chapters from the history of the development of the Prussian and German armies until the First World War. In the first part we deal with the period from the Thirty Years' War to the end of the reign of Frederick II. the Great.

    23.242
  • Development of the Prussian and German armies until the First World War II.

    Brief chapters from the history of the Prussian and German armies. The second part is devoted to the period since the conclusion of the reign of Frederick II. Great until the middle of the 19th century.

    17.159

Medals and awards

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Velký kříž čestné legie serveru www.valka.cz

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Řád slávy www.valka.cz


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Kříž za zásluhy o forum 1. třídy

Kříž za zásluhy o forum 2. třídy

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Medaile za zásluhy o forum 1. stupně

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Kříž za zásluhy o Jednotky


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Kříž za příspěvky do Jednotek

Pour le Mérite

Eichenlaub und Schwertern zum RK des EK

Ritterkreuz des Eisernes Kreuzes


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Ehrenblatt Spange des Deutschen Heeres

Bayerische Tapferkeitsmedaille

Ehrenkreuz

Kriegsverdienstmedaille

Spange 1939 zum Eisernes Kreuz 1.Klasse

Spange 1939 zum Eisernes Kreuz 2.Klasse

Eisernes Kreuz 2.Klasse (1914)

Eisernes Kreuz 1.Klasse (1914)

Civil War Medal

Armed Forces Medal

Military Cross

Bronzová pamätná medaila M.R Štefánika

Rad Bieleho dvojkríža III. triedy

Pribinov kríž II. triedy

Pribinov kríž III. triedy

Imperial Service Medal

Imperial Service Order

Order of the Bath

Order of Merit

Pamětní medaile Leuthen 1757-2007

Pamětní medaile Zenta 1697-2007

Pamětní kříž

Čestná medaile za zásluhy o Korunu

Vojenský kříž

Armádní kříž

Válečná medaile

Medaile c.k. zeměbrany

Vojenská záslužná medaile-bronzová+meče

Vojenská záslužná medaile - bronzová

Zlatý záslužný kříž s korunkou

Zlatý záslužný kříž

Stříbrný záslužný kříž s korunkou

Stříbrný záslužný kříž

Železný záslužný kříž s korunkou

Železný záslužný kříž

Záslužná medaile

Pamětní mince

Mobilizační kříž

Médaille Militaire

Croix de la Valeur Militaire

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