Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG [1916-1928]

Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG
Originální název:
Original Name:
Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG
Historie názvů:
History of Names:
10.06.1913-31.10.1916 Wiener Karosseriefabrik AG
01.11.1916-DD.MM.1928 Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG
10.06.1913-31.10.1916 Wiener Karosseriefabrik AG
01.11.1916-DD.MM.1928 Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG
Obory výroby:
Production Subjects:
karosářství, letectví coachbuilding, aviation
Sídlo hlavního závodu:
10.06.1913-DD.MM.1928 Vídeň /
10.06.1913-DD.MM.1928 Wien /
Názvy a sídla poboček:
Subsidiary Name and Location:
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.1921 Hennersdorf /
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.1921 Hennersdorf /
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R WKF 80.01
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R WKF 80.02
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R WKF 80.03
DD.MM.1916-DD.MM.191R Knoller C.II
DD.MM.1916-DD.MM.1916 Lloyd C.III
DD.MM.1916-DD.MM.191R Lloyd C.IV
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.1917 WKF 80.04
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.1917 WKF 80.05
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 WKF 80.06
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 WKF 80.07
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 WKF 80.10
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R WKF 80.11
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.191R Lloyd C.V
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.191R Aviatik (Berg) C.I (WKF) série 83
DD.MM.1917-DD.MM.191R Aviatik (Berg) D.I (WKF) série 84
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 WKF D.I
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R Aviatik (Berg) C.I (WKF) série 183
DD.MM.191R-DD.MM.191R Aviatik (Berg) D.I (WKF) série 184
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 Aviatik (Berg) D.I (WKF) série 284
DD.MM.1918-DD.MM.1918 Aviatik (Berg) D.I (WKF) série 384
DD.MM.1920-DD.MM.1920 WKF Kleinflugzeug
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Desoye, Reinhard Karl Boromäus. Die k.u.k. Luftfahrtruppe - Die Entstehung, der Aufbau und die Organisation der österreichisch-ungarischen Heeresluftwaffe 1912-1918. Diplomarbeiten Agentur, 2000.
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WKF (W.K.F.)
The WKF, i.e. Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik A. G., was founded in the autumn of 1915, when it was transitioning to aircraft production. However, it was not a new company, it was formed from Wiener Karosseriefabrik, founded in June 1913, which originally - as the name suggests - produced car and truck bodies. Due to the workload of the R-U aircraft factories, the Austro-Hungarian Air Force (Luftfahrtruppe) was looking for other manufacturers of aviation equipment. The WFK was first engaged in the licensed production of smaller series of types from other manufacturers (Knoller, Lloyd and especially Aviatik). Experience with licensed production then led to the creation of its own design office in late 1916, headed by chief designer A. Gassner, who had joined the company from the Aviatik factory. The technical advisor was Professor von Mises, who also worked at Aviatik. Since April 1917, the factory has been developing several original designs. The machines were characterized by a bulbous "fish" fuselage with a cross-section of a standing hexagon. The construction of the fuselage, wings and tail surfaces was wooden, covered with veneer and plywood. Only the control surfaces were covered with canvas. The first was a WKF C.I reconnaissance machine 80.04. Although it was tested and even underwent one rebuild, it did not go beyond the prototype stage. It was followed by a fighter triplane WKF Dr.I with designation 80.05. Even it did not go beyond the prototype stage. Both designs used a 200 hp (147 kW) Daimler engine. The triplane also received a four-bladed propeller and the designation Dr. II. It was built in late 1917.

In parallel with the triplane, from October 1917, design work was also underway on a biplane fighter, designated 80.06 - WKF D.I Ba 85. It too had a Daimler engine of the same power and a pair of synchronized machine guns. The factory took a very modern approach to the design, e.g. a wind tunnel was used to verify the appropriate wing profile. The prototype was also tested with built-in armament - two semi-covered Schwarzlose M. 16 machine guns of 8 mm calibre - and achieved very solid performance: for example, it climbed to an altitude of 5000 m in 22 minutes. In an attempt to improve it even further, the designers used a new engine - a Hiero six-cylinder with 230 hp (169 kW). This modified prototype was tested from 30 April 1918 at the airfield in Ospre (Aspern). During the tests it crashed and was practically destroyed.

As a replacement for the destroyed prototype, the factory built a machine designated 80.06B. The design was modified: the nose section was lengthened, the keel was enlarged, the canvas-covered wings got a smaller pitch. In essence, a new type was created. Together with the WKF 80.10 and 80.12 prototypes, it took part in fighter trials at Ospre in July 1918. The latter machines differed mainly in the use of 230 hp (169 kW) Hiero engines. The 80.06B is considered to be the most advanced of these and carried a number of very modern features for the time, such as controlling the engine intake directly on the control stick or even radio equipment.

By 24 August 1918, an order for 48 of the machine, now designated WKF D.I., had been placed. The serial production ran from September 1918. The serial machines differed from the prototypes by the Hiero engine (169 kW/230 hp), slightly enlarged tail surfaces and sideways deflected inter-wing struts. The machine guns were Schwarzlose M.16R 8 mm calibre. For reconnaissance use, the WKF D.I machines could carry a camera with a 70 or 90 mm focal length lens in the fuselage behind the pilot. The pilot's view was also improved by a window in the centre of the lower wing. However, it is uncertain whether the production machines retained the "throttle" control on the control stick, as pilots were not used to this solution at that time. Like all Austro-Hungarian aircraft from the end of the war, the WKF D.I was equipped with a seating parachute. A Gebauer M.18 machine gun, mounted between the engine cylinders, was also to be tested on the machine, but it is not certain whether this happened.

By 31 October 1918, the Luftfahrtruppe had taken delivery of only the first two production D.I's and it was too late to add them to the force. However, the signing of the Armistice did not end production. Production continued after the end of the war and by the end of December 1918, 20 units had been completed as planned. It was not until 1919 that production ceased, and none of the others were completed. As Austria had no military air force after the war, the factory tried to sell the finished production abroad. In February 1919 two D.I flew from Hennersdorf to Vienna New Town to show themselves to the purchasing committee of the Polish Air Force. The expected delivery of 20 WKF D.I for the Polish Air Force did not take place, as both machines were damaged by defects during the demonstration.

The WKF D.I is considered to be the most advanced aircraft design available to the R-U Monarchy at the time of WWI. Unfortunately for it, it came too late to prove its supposed qualities in combat deployment.

Producer: Wiener Karosserie und Flugzeugfabrik A.G., Vienna - Hennersdorf.
Wheelbase - 8,80 m
Length - 7,10 m
Carrying area - 26,20 2
Weight empty - 732 kg
Take-off weight - 1005 kg
Max. ground speed - 195 km/h
Climb to 2000 m - 5 min 26 sec
Climb to 5000 m - 21 min

Production overview by serial number:
serial no. type engine note
80.01-80.03 - no information known
80.04 - WKF C.I. - Daimler 200HP - C-category prototype with crossed struts 1x rebuilt
80.05 - WKF Dr.I. - Daimler 200HP - triplane fighter prototype
80.06 - D.I Ba 85 - Daimler 200HP - prototype fighter, destroyed in crash
80.06/B - WKF - Daimler 225HP -
80.07 - ? - Hiero 225HP -
80.08 - Aviatik D.I. (WKF) - Daimler 185HP - prototype (license)
80.09 - Lloyd C.V. (WKF) - Daimler 185HP - prototype, engine testing
80.10 - WKF D.I. - Hiero 230HP - prototype
80.11 - ?
80.12 - D.I Ba 85 - Hiero 230HP - prototype
81.01-81.24 - Knoller C.II. (WKF) - Daimler 185HP -
82.01-82.48 - Lloyd C.V. (WKF) - Benz 220 (Mar) -
83.01-83.40 - Aviatik C.I. (WKF) - Daimler 185HP -
84.01-84.10 - Aviatik D.I. (WKF) - Daimler 185HP -
85.01-85.48 - WKF D.I. - Hiero 230HP -
183.01-? - Aviatik C.I. (WKF) - Daimler 200HP
184.01-184.24 - Aviatik D.I. (WKF) - Daimler 200HP
284.01-284.24 - Aviatik D.I. (WKF) - Daimler 160HP
384.01-384.40 - Aviatik D.I. (WKF) - Daimler 225HP

Explanatory notes on the type designations used:
B - two-seat unarmed reconnaissance/training biplane
C - two-seat biplane fighter
D - single-seat biplane fighter, from 1918 for any wing configuration
Dr - single-seat fighter triplane, "Dr" = Dreidecker
The number 80 was the code designation of the WKF factory.

L+K 10, 12/2002
Wiener Karosserie- und Flugzeugfabrik AG [1916-1928] - pramen v textu

pramen v textu
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