After World War I, there were fierce battles for Subcarpathian Russia. The fact that they did not always shoot during them does not change anything.
The seventeenth century in our history was a period of very dramatic events. The Habsburg dynasty sought to build an absolutist state out of Hungary. This meant the liquidation of the vital interests of the Hungarian nobility, which was strongly opposed. In the struggle for the character of Hungarian society, in a confused time full of religious and political conflicts, the two sides met in a persistent struggle that lasted for centuries.
The defenestration in Prague, May 1618 became a prelude to a long-lasting conflict, which gradually engulfed the whole of Central Europe. The continent became the arena of the extensive power struggle. Two strong coalitions of states. This match did not bypass the territory of today's Slovakia. Hungary was then drawn into the Thirty Years' War during the second anti-Habsburg uprising under Gabriel Betlen.
The year was 1643, and the grueling conflict, later called the Thirty Years' War in Europe, entered its final phase. The Habsburg army was fully engaged in fighting against Swedish and French troops. This was a good time for another performance by the Hungarian nobility, who felt the strong pressure of imperial absolutism and was once again fighting for their privileges and religious freedom. It was headed by the new Prince of Transylvania, Juraj Rákoczi.
In 1664, Hungary began to shake again with political and religious unrest. The Vasvar peace concluded with Turkey, angered the Hungarian nobles. According to them, the Turks did not deserve mild conditions. Many assets remained on Turkish territory in the Hungarian nobility, which they could not access at this time. They considered peace with the Ottomans as an imperial interest in Hungarian affairs on the part of the emperor. They were neither enthusiastic about the presence of mercenary troops or the expulsion of the Hungarian nobility and positions of power.
In the last years of the 17th century, the triumph of Habsburg power in Hungary seemed sealed and irreversible. The Hungarian nobility was subdued and removed from political power. The Hungarian states had to eat more than one hot pill. The right to resist the monarch, which had until then been guaranteed by the nobility of the Golden Bull of Andrew II, was abolished. The nobility was also provoked by the new law on the inheritance of the Hungarian crown in the Habsburg dynasty for all its male members. The social problems and consequences of previous riots and wars have impoverished all sections of society, causing widespread dissatisfaction. Of course, the problems of each social class stemmed from different causes. Nevertheless, Hungary gradually turned into a barrel of gunpowder, which was just waiting for its spark to explode.
Since the existence of the military conflict between Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the years 1918 - 1919 is completely unknown to most of society today, I decided some time ago to prepare a detailed study on this topic. After several years of hard work with searching in various sources, confronting facts and ways directly to the places of battle, after many difficulties for the general public I present the processed material of this war, which often did not compete with the just ended World War I.
Silence before the storm.
Czechoslovak troops were eventually repulsed by Salgótarján by the superiority of the Hungarian army. Let's look briefly at the causes of this failure. This was followed by a quick and strong Hungarian offensive against the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia, with the subsequent retreat of the Czechoslovak fighting. army. After an unsuccessful defense, Miškovec was also lost at the time. The Hungarian offensive then continued further, towards the interior of Slovakia ...
For political and practical reasons, the Czechoslovak government at the beginning of June 1919 gave the command of troops in Slovakia into the hands of the French military mission. Subsequently, the French General Pellé took command on June 4, 1919 over the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia from the Italian general Piccion. We describe the fight of Czechoslovak units at the turn of May - June 1919 in the western section with the Hungarian V Army Corps.
Fighting in the western section continues and culminates in operations to conquer Levice. The first and second unsuccessful attempt to conquer Levice.
Fighting for Nové Zámky at the beginning of June 1919. Other volunteers come to Slovakia. The third attack on the conquest of Levice on the basis of a plan with the involvement of reserves and its cessation on June 24, 1919. Arrival of II. division of gen. Šnejdárek.
June battles of the home 2nd Division in the area of Zvolen and Bánske Štiavnica. Fights near Tisovec. The advance of the 2nd Division from the direction of Zvolen and Bánska Štiavnica to Levice, to attract the attention of the Hungarian defense and facilitate the advance of the planned third attack on Levice.
In the second half of June 1919, heavy fighting continued at Nové Zámky. These battles were among the toughest battles in the conflict.
The June fighting of 1919 on the eastern Slovakia. Fighting with Hungarian troops in their attempt to break through eastern Slovakia further north to the Russian Red Army. Heavy fight at Kysak.
June hard fights in the area of the Slovak New Town. Thanks to their superiority, the Hungarians made their way through eastern Slovakia almost to the Polish border - weaker Czechoslovak troops retreated through a tenacious fight. The threat of a merger between the Hungarian and Russian Red armies is serious. Fighting around Košice and Prešov. Under the patronage of the Hungarian Republic of Rad, the Slovak Republic of Rad was established in eastern Slovakia in Prešov on 16 June 1919. In a difficult situation, resolutely Czechoslovak troops, often without the necessary equipment, repeatedly try to attack the superiority to stop the Hungarian advance. The situation is critical ...
Intervention of the Paris Peace Conference to stop the war between Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Confirmation of Czechoslovak borders. Armistice June 24, 1919, cessation of hostilities. The Czechoslovak army reoccupies the whole of Slovakia. In Hungary, the Bolshevik government is collapsing and the crisis that has existed for several weeks is in full swing. Occupancy of the Bratislava bridgehead Petržalka on August 14, 1919.
The first volunteers
The Czechoslovak army reoccupied southern Slovakia after the end of the fighting in the summer of 1919. Assistance to the Hungarian Salgótarján in August 1919. Analysis of the situation of the Czechoslovak army in the past battles of the conflict. Losses. The Great Trianon 4. 6.1920.
Occupancy of western and eastern Slovakia by domestic Czechoslovak army
When November 25, 1918 took over Col. Schöbl as the supreme Czechoslovak commander in Slovakia from gen. Štika (who until then had command of all deployed Czechoslovak units in Slovakia), partially reorganized his units into a regular army structure, in which he appointed individual commanders. He also set up backup warehouses of equipment and armament near Uherské Hradiště to support units in Slovakia and took care of equipping his units with at least the most necessary, because the equipment and armament of the units was very weak ...
There were two main bastions of resistance in eastern Slovakia - Prešov and Košice. In addition, in Košice was the seat of Dvortsák's self-proclaimed Slovak People's Republic and the Hungarian Corps Headquarters. The Hungarian side used the time of its operation in Košice to prepare the defense, but above all to transport property of all kinds to Hungary. Thus, often very valuable state property was lost. Already in advance, however, by order of the Italian gen. Piccione's occupation of Košice and Prešov was reserved for Czechoslovak Army Legionary Corps from Italy, which returned to his homeland at the end of the year.
With the planned occupation of southern Slovakia on the demarcation line, the arrival of Czechoslovakia was expected. Army Legionary Corps from Italy. The reason was both the high combat value of the corps, which was well armed, and the fact that for this action of a liberation character was the Czechoslovak corps chosen by the government for a high moral standard ...
After the occupation of Bratislava by the Legionnaire 33rd Rifle Regiment, the II. and III. battalion of the legionary 39th Rifle Regiment, which was so far in Zhoror and Stupava as a backup during the operation to occupy Bratislava ...
Even throughout the spring of 1919, Hungary still tried to present to the world the reluctance of Slovaks to live in Czechoslovakia. There was a riot. However, the Hungarian side also had problems. She quickly organized her army, which after taking over the government of the Bolsheviks transformed into a red army after the Soviet model. In the end, Hungary deployed two-thirds of its forces against Czechoslovakia. In the fighting, this meant more than doubling the superiority of Hungarian troops against Czechoslovak ones.
After securing Slovak territory by the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian army tested the combat capability of Czechoslovak troops with short raids. Other reinforcements were coming then, including Czechoslovak legionnaires from France. Hungarian troops retreated inland, deeper beyond the designated demarcation line than they had to. Czechoslovak commander of army in Slovakia gen. Piccione drew up a plan to occupy "no man's land", which was then implemented. The Hungarian side thus received a welcome excuse to attack. On March 21, 1919, there was also a revolution in Hungary and the Bolsheviks took power. This created the Republic of Hungary after the Soviet model ...
Despite the title, as many might expect, I will not deal with today's situation, which many citizens would probably describe. However, our republic has experienced much more difficult times, which we are forgetting about today's hectic times.
Central Europe 1914-1920 - bloody return from oblivion.
Slovaks as Czechoslovaks.
The annexation of Slovakia was no walk through the rose garden.
Legionnaires, militia, fronts, Czechs, Moravians and Slovaks.
Hooray for Bratislava and Košice!
Czechoslovakia rules in the military-occupied territories as far as Košice.
1918-1920: "Trma-vrma" all around us.
The Bolsheviks are moving to Europe.
Red glow over Komárno.
Lower Moravia today has nothing to do with today's Moravia. Lower Moravia, this little-known name (the name is mentioned in the book by Lubomír E. Havlík: Chronicle of Great Moravia, published in 1993), was once called the area on the lower left bank of the Morava River, namely the territory of today's Slovakia, southern Poland (northern Poland). Orava and northern Spiš, which until 1918 were part of Hungary and then Poland) and northern Hungary (Matra and Bükk mountains and the Tokaj wine region). Lower Moravia has always been a part of our Czech state in certain periods.
Even "goulash communism" had no chance of survival.