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(Not only) Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 2

In this next part we must deviate from purely prehistoric fortifications. This is due to the fact that localities that have so far been identified in our territory as the seat of prehistoric cultures were extensively used at the time of the arrival of Slavs to our territory and new fortifications were again erected on the remains of prehistoric cultures. the first princely and royal castles stood on them in the form of strongholds, and on many of them there are castles or their abandoned ruins to this day. So we will try to transfer to the deep past and, if possible, connect it to the present.

Action D

"It is remarkable that family members, especially the wives of detainees, remained completely calm, accepted the detention of the spouses calmly, so that their actions affected our authorities in the sense that they were prepared for this circumstance and that they explain their detainees' detention more as honors (sic!) than as punishment. "

Part of the evaluation report of the Ministry of the Interior of April 1949, concerning action D

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary I. - The uprising of Štefan Bočkaj

The seventeenth century in our history was a period of very dramatic events. The Habsburg dynasty sought to build an absolutist state out of Hungary. This meant the liquidation of the vital interests of the Hungarian nobility, which was strongly opposed. In the struggle for the character of Hungarian society, in a confused time full of religious and political conflicts, the two sides met in a persistent struggle that lasted for centuries.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary II. - Gabriel Betlen's uprising

The defenestration in Prague, May 1618 became a prelude to a long-lasting conflict, which gradually engulfed the whole of Central Europe. The continent became the arena of the extensive power struggle. Two strong coalitions of states. This match did not bypass the territory of today's Slovakia. Hungary was then drawn into the Thirty Years' War during the second anti-Habsburg uprising under Gabriel Betlen.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary III. - Uprising of Juraj I. Rákóczi

The year was 1643, and the grueling conflict, later called the Thirty Years' War in Europe, entered its final phase. The Habsburg army was fully engaged in fighting against Swedish and French troops. This was a good time for another performance by the Hungarian nobility, who felt the strong pressure of imperial absolutism and was once again fighting for their privileges and religious freedom. It was headed by the new Prince of Transylvania, Juraj Rákoczi.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary IV. - The uprising of Imrich Thököly

In 1664, Hungary began to shake again with political and religious unrest. The Vasvar peace concluded with Turkey, angered the Hungarian nobles. According to them, the Turks did not deserve mild conditions. Many assets remained on Turkish territory in the Hungarian nobility, which they could not access at this time. They considered peace with the Ottomans as an imperial interest in Hungarian affairs on the part of the emperor. They were neither enthusiastic about the presence of mercenary troops or the expulsion of the Hungarian nobility and positions of power.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary V. - Uprising of Francis II. Rákócziho

In the last years of the 17th century, the triumph of Habsburg power in Hungary seemed sealed and irreversible. The Hungarian nobility was subdued and removed from political power. The Hungarian states had to eat more than one hot pill. The right to resist the monarch, which had until then been guaranteed by the nobility of the Golden Bull of Andrew II, was abolished. The nobility was also provoked by the new law on the inheritance of the Hungarian crown in the Habsburg dynasty for all its male members. The social problems and consequences of previous riots and wars have impoverished all sections of society, causing widespread dissatisfaction. Of course, the problems of each social class stemmed from different causes. Nevertheless, Hungary gradually turned into a barrel of gunpowder, which was just waiting for its spark to explode.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (1)

The real history of our state in the twentieth century is basically not taught in schools until 1918. It also ceased to be politically correct to show what happened during the war here in the Protectorate and what happened after the war. In particular, any notes, photographs, or documents about Nazi crimes evaporated like steam over a pot. What a difference, for example, from Germany, where exhibitions are held on the crimes of Nazism, on the crimes of the Wehrmacht, children learn what Nazism or the Holocaust were…

Bloody Spring of 1945 (12)

The first defeat of the idea of Great Germany Three most successful Austrian lies:
1. Mozart was Austrian
2. Hitler was German
3. Austria-Hungary was broken by the Czechs

Bloody Spring of 1945 (2)

In order to further investigate what actually happened, we need to ask ourselves the basic questions that the world has known since ancient Rome and is used by forensic scientists today.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (8)

After the previous chapter, it would be "politically correct" to write something about those "good Germans" who did not participate in Nazi crimes and tried to either oppose or simply survive this terrible time.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (9)

It is not in anyone's power to describe and list all the places of horror that Nazism has brought to the world. Even the description of what happened in the original territory of Czechoslovakia is frightening and extensive, that it goes beyond today's ideas. To show the horror of that time, I will focus in this section only on a small, selected section of crimes, both spatially and temporally.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (4)

Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "

Bloody Years 1938-45 (5)

The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …

Bloody Years 1938-45 (6)

Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (7)

Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...

Bloody Years 1938-45 (8)

Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.

Carpathian "Thermopylae"

In November 1914, Austria-Hungary faced one of the most severe crises during the entire period of World War I. The German ally failed to fulfill its pre-war promises and move its main forces from France to the Eastern Front. The army of the monarchy thus opposed the large numerical superiority of Russian troops, which advanced to Krakow and controlled the Carpathian passes. The most critical situation arose near the town of Humenné, the occupation of which meant the deepest penetration of the Russians into the interior of the then Hungary. Only the last line of Austro-Hungarian defense in the valley of the Laborec River separated the attacking Russian regiments from the East Slovak lowlands.

Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians I.

Surely no one doubts that the First World War was a terrifying conflict that left traces behind. The remnants of fierce fighting were obscured by nature or human activity. It is no different here in the Carpathian mountains. At the turn of 1914-1915, a large part of today's northeastern Slovakia became the scene of heavy fighting. As I mentioned, the traces of this cataclysm have faded, but something remains ... The last memento of the terrible war are dozens of military cemeteries in our region. The tooth of time was also signed on them. For decades, these sad monuments to the devastating war fell into disrepair and gradually disappeared from the face of the earth. It's time to change this unhappy state. The following lines are devoted to a brief introduction to the issue of military cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians II.

The First World War left a number of military cemeteries and graves in our territory. The successor state of the former monarchy had to take care of these graves. In difficult conditions, the Czechoslovak authorities tried to fulfill their international obligations in the field of care for war graves. As time later showed, the interwar era was the only period until today, when military cemeteries from the First World War were well taken care of.

Central Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, that is what I would call the part of Europe where in the years 1852-1918 the legal, monetary, economic and customs union of two states, namely the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was located. This union ended with the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of 1918 after the First World War, although this union lasted legally until 1919, so we can consider its real demise in 1918.

Communists' dissatisfaction with military courts after "Victorious February"

"The Senate of the High Military Court, as composed of the trial of General Karel Janoušek and others, and perhaps the High Military Court in Prague, is simply not enough at all for trials of such importance. It must be stated that the conduct of a process of this kind and significance at the regional court in Pankrác after the February events is completely differently prepared, completely differently managed and conducted in a completely different spirit, corresponding to today and the interest of the state. […] This fact was noticed immediately at the beginning of the main hearing by the lawyer of Lt. Col. Hanuš, who declared that the military penitentiary and the High Military Court in Prague are a "sanatorium" comparing to Pankrác prison. " From the report of Col. gšt. Reindl, a member of the 5th Department of the General Staff of the Ministry of Defense, June 17, 1948

Count János Esterházy

Slovak nobleman of Hungarian nationality, politician, nationalist, but also a savior of many lives, dragged to the USSR after the war and dying in a communist prison.

Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1938 from an economic and legal point of view

The autumn of 1938 is well known from the pens of historians in Czechoslovak history, when the first Czechoslovak Republic ceased to exist as a result of the withdrawal of the borderland and the second Czech-Slovak Republic was established. Therefore, I would not like to repeat all the known facts here. Until now, I would try to empathize with the attitude of a cold-blooded trader whose goal is to survive in the market, and with that let's always approach problems. Therefore, my dear readers for a moment get rid of any ideology. A few years ago, I read a book by the outstanding thinker Master Sun: "On the Art of War." In this book, I was drawn to the idea that everyone was to beat themselves. While victory is the result of the abilities of the winner and the inability of the loser.

Decisive battle in the Carpathians

At the turn of March and April 1915, the Carpathian front shook in the fighting of one of the most important battles of World War I. The Russian command concentrated all available forces in the Carpathians and launched a decisive offensive aimed at penetrating the interior of Austria-Hungary and eliminating it from the war. The most exposed section of the Carpathian front became the area between the valley of the river Laborec and the main ridge of the Carpathians, where Russian troops inflicted the strongest blows.

Eights in our history

In the Czech nation, it is said that in the 20th century, the eight at the end of the century is fatal for us. However, this is not quite true - the eights, which signaled a certain breakthrough, we know from centuries past. For example, in 1348, Emperor and King Charles IV founded University of Prague - today Charles University. In May 1618, the evangelical nobles expelled two imperial governors and a scribe from Prague Castle - this defenestration was the beginning of the aristocratic resistance, which ended with the final subordination of the Czech lands to the Habsburg dynasty and their incorporation into the Austrian monarchy. In the turbulent year of 1848, when a number of uprisings broke out in Central Europe, the inhabitants of Prague also rose - their defeat led to the strengthening of the Austrian government. Ten years later, the National Theater in Prague began its activities - one of the symbols of patriotism. In 1878, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers 'Party was established in Prague - the first workers' party in the Czech lands.

Export of weapons from Czechoslovakia to capitalist foreign countries (1950–1960)

Traditions of the Czech, resp. of the Czechoslovak armaments industry dates back not only to the time of the first Czechoslovak Republic, but much further, to the times of Austria-Hungary. In the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was one of the ten largest arms exporters in the world, and during the Nazi occupation, the sector continued to grow and modernize. World War II did not do much damage to armaments companies in our territory, so it could boldly follow the pre-war parameters of exports.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (1)

Hunger and Poverty From great politics and great struggles, let's look at the ordinary civic life of Austria, including the Czech and Moravian lands in 1917 and 18, until the Czechoslovak Army appeared in the republic as a "black swan". That is, as an unexpected force that ultimately helped resolve the dispute for the future.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (3)

3. Food Wins the War This was reportedly said by Herbert Hoover, later the 31st President of the United States, during World War I. In 1917, when America entered World War II, he was head of the US Food Administration .
Hoover was aware that the most important thing for Europe's future was to provide food for children, as they were more sensitive to malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition affects children under the age of two first and foremost, but children under the age of 15 and adolescents are also at risk. In crisis situations, malnutrition is one of the most common causes of illness and death.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (4)

Law and collective guilt After many centuries, when Czech, Moravian and Silesian Germans were members of the national majority and considered themselves part of everything "German" - including Austria - they suddenly found themselves in 1918 in a situation where they were members of a minority. Czechs and Slovaks, overlooked by their German and Hungarian neighbors and underestimated as they flourished, began to be considered brazen competitors. The war ended and the "nobodys" were suddenly called Czechoslovaks ...

Gate through the Carpathians

The Dukliansky Pass has traditionally had great military significance in the past. Its strategic importance was also confirmed by the fighting of both world wars. While the military operations of 1944 are well known, the fighting of 1914/1915 remains forgotten in their shadows. However, these battles during World War I were just as important and were as difficult and bloody as the later battles during World War II.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 1. Introduction

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 2. Theoretical foundations of the Soviet military

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 3rd Soviet Army in the 1960s

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 4. Organization of the Warsaw Pact

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 5. Soviet interests and geopolitics

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 6. Conclusion

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 7. Information sources

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Great Moravia

Great Moravia was an important period of our nation. Its geopolitical center was Mikulčice, Staré město - Sady and Pohansko, located today in the Czech Republic, in the districts of Břeclav, Hodonín and Uherské Hradiště. Great Moravia was the second phase of our statehood after Sámov's empire and before the Czech Principality, so it is one of the legal predecessors of the Czech Republic.

Heroes who didn't fit (1)

Originally, it was supposed to be just an article about the unveiling of one memorial plaque. But then it turned out that it would probably be small, even in relation to those who were left with only letters engraved in marble. Remember living, brave people. They don't even have a grave. Their ashes were dumped in the dump of the Mauthausen concentration camp and on roads in the surrounding area. Of course, it is a memorial plaque to 294 heroes of the Heydrich's dead revenge (photo: Jiří Wagner) writing long. Who doesn't want to, don't read it. But everyone should ...

Heroes who didn't fit (2)

In order to best clarify our own history and get rid of all the deposits and propaganda purposeful lies, the study also uses documents created by the "other party" - the Nazis ...

Heroes who didn't fit (3)

After the killing of Heydrich, terror began in the Czech lands that had not been practiced here since the 17th century. However, the Nazis were fundamentally mistaken in assessing its impact. The obsession that Hitler obviously suffered towards the Czech nation and personally towards Beneš led in its political consequences to significantly negative results for the Germans themselves ...

Humenné District in 1945 (situation report)

The last months in 1944 were a period for the districts of northeastern Slovakia, which ended the Second World War in this area. The frontline fighting moved further west. The war has become a thing of the past, but that did not mean that the problem was over. On the contrary, the inhabitants of northeastern Slovakia destroyed by the war had a difficult period of reconstruction of the destroyed region.

Hungarization

In the system of dualism, which arose as a result of the retreat of central political power to Hungarian militant nationalism, the process begun in full at the end of the 18th century, namely the process of systematic Hungarianization of individual state and ecclesiastical bodies and institutions. He penetrated into all spheres of life, which had a negative impact on non-Hungarian nationalities living in Hungary.

In difficult times (1/20)

Since the existence of the military conflict between Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the years 1918 - 1919 is completely unknown to most of society today, I decided some time ago to prepare a detailed study on this topic. After several years of hard work with searching in various sources, confronting facts and ways directly to the places of battle, after many difficulties for the general public I present the processed material of this war, which often did not compete with the just ended World War I.

In difficult times (11/20)

Czechoslovak troops were eventually repulsed by Salgótarján by the superiority of the Hungarian army. Let's look briefly at the causes of this failure. This was followed by a quick and strong Hungarian offensive against the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia, with the subsequent retreat of the Czechoslovak fighting. army. After an unsuccessful defense, Miškovec was also lost at the time. The Hungarian offensive then continued further, towards the interior of Slovakia ...

In difficult times (12/20)

For political and practical reasons, the Czechoslovak government at the beginning of June 1919 gave the command of troops in Slovakia into the hands of the French military mission. Subsequently, the French General Pellé took command on June 4, 1919 over the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia from the Italian general Piccion. We describe the fight of Czechoslovak units at the turn of May - June 1919 in the western section with the Hungarian V Army Corps.

In difficult times (14/20)

Fighting for Nové Zámky at the beginning of June 1919. Other volunteers come to Slovakia. The third attack on the conquest of Levice on the basis of a plan with the involvement of reserves and its cessation on June 24, 1919. Arrival of II. division of gen. Šnejdárek.

In difficult times (15/20)

June battles of the home 2nd Division in the area of Zvolen and Bánske Štiavnica. Fights near Tisovec. The advance of the 2nd Division from the direction of Zvolen and Bánska Štiavnica to Levice, to attract the attention of the Hungarian defense and facilitate the advance of the planned third attack on Levice.

In difficult times (17/20)

The June fighting of 1919 on the eastern Slovakia. Fighting with Hungarian troops in their attempt to break through eastern Slovakia further north to the Russian Red Army. Heavy fight at Kysak.

In difficult times (18/20)

June hard fights in the area of the Slovak New Town. Thanks to their superiority, the Hungarians made their way through eastern Slovakia almost to the Polish border - weaker Czechoslovak troops retreated through a tenacious fight. The threat of a merger between the Hungarian and Russian Red armies is serious. Fighting around Košice and Prešov. Under the patronage of the Hungarian Republic of Rad, the Slovak Republic of Rad was established in eastern Slovakia in Prešov on 16 June 1919. In a difficult situation, resolutely Czechoslovak troops, often without the necessary equipment, repeatedly try to attack the superiority to stop the Hungarian advance. The situation is critical ...

In difficult times (19/20)

Intervention of the Paris Peace Conference to stop the war between Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Confirmation of Czechoslovak borders. Armistice June 24, 1919, cessation of hostilities. The Czechoslovak army reoccupies the whole of Slovakia. In Hungary, the Bolshevik government is collapsing and the crisis that has existed for several weeks is in full swing. Occupancy of the Bratislava bridgehead Petržalka on August 14, 1919.

In difficult times (20/20)

The Czechoslovak army reoccupied southern Slovakia after the end of the fighting in the summer of 1919. Assistance to the Hungarian Salgótarján in August 1919. Analysis of the situation of the Czechoslovak army in the past battles of the conflict. Losses. The Great Trianon 4. 6.1920.

In difficult times (4/20)

When November 25, 1918 took over Col. Schöbl as the supreme Czechoslovak commander in Slovakia from gen. Štika (who until then had command of all deployed Czechoslovak units in Slovakia), partially reorganized his units into a regular army structure, in which he appointed individual commanders. He also set up backup warehouses of equipment and armament near Uherské Hradiště to support units in Slovakia and took care of equipping his units with at least the most necessary, because the equipment and armament of the units was very weak ...

In difficult times (5/20)

There were two main bastions of resistance in eastern Slovakia - Prešov and Košice. In addition, in Košice was the seat of Dvortsák's self-proclaimed Slovak People's Republic and the Hungarian Corps Headquarters. The Hungarian side used the time of its operation in Košice to prepare the defense, but above all to transport property of all kinds to Hungary. Thus, often very valuable state property was lost. Already in advance, however, by order of the Italian gen. Piccione's occupation of Košice and Prešov was reserved for Czechoslovak Army Legionary Corps from Italy, which returned to his homeland at the end of the year.

In difficult times (6/20)

With the planned occupation of southern Slovakia on the demarcation line, the arrival of Czechoslovakia was expected. Army Legionary Corps from Italy. The reason was both the high combat value of the corps, which was well armed, and the fact that for this action of a liberation character was the Czechoslovak corps chosen by the government for a high moral standard ...

In difficult times (7/20)

After the occupation of Bratislava by the Legionnaire 33rd Rifle Regiment, the II. and III. battalion of the legionary 39th Rifle Regiment, which was so far in Zhoror and Stupava as a backup during the operation to occupy Bratislava ...

In difficult times (8/20)

Even throughout the spring of 1919, Hungary still tried to present to the world the reluctance of Slovaks to live in Czechoslovakia. There was a riot. However, the Hungarian side also had problems. She quickly organized her army, which after taking over the government of the Bolsheviks transformed into a red army after the Soviet model. In the end, Hungary deployed two-thirds of its forces against Czechoslovakia. In the fighting, this meant more than doubling the superiority of Hungarian troops against Czechoslovak ones.

In difficult times (9/20)

After securing Slovak territory by the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian army tested the combat capability of Czechoslovak troops with short raids. Other reinforcements were coming then, including Czechoslovak legionnaires from France. Hungarian troops retreated inland, deeper beyond the designated demarcation line than they had to. Czechoslovak commander of army in Slovakia gen. Piccione drew up a plan to occupy "no man's land", which was then implemented. The Hungarian side thus received a welcome excuse to attack. On March 21, 1919, there was also a revolution in Hungary and the Bolsheviks took power. This created the Republic of Hungary after the Soviet model ...

In difficult times ...

Despite the title, as many might expect, I will not deal with today's situation, which many citizens would probably describe. However, our republic has experienced much more difficult times, which we are forgetting about today's hectic times.

Inadaptable - Students, hippies and others from the point of view of the Czechoslovak authorities

It was the secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia that gave its consent on February 25, 1965, to the organization of a student majáles in the capital. The unexpected course of the celebrations led him to subsequently organize a nationwide conference of university students. At a meeting held on September 29, 1965, the members of the Politburo came to the conclusion that there was political-ideological activity of the student, stating that the wave of political activity in the university environment did not rise suddenly, but that it had been gathering for many years.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 1

In the history and development of states, individuals who have been the bearers of historical development are often extracted from the comprehensive assessment of the period. Especially in the face of crisis situations, historiography tends to look for leaders. No wonder, then, that this is happening even against the background of the greatest war conflict the world has ever suffered. On a global scale, other personalities than the Slovak President Jozef Tiso translated here were important. However, while in the case of the giants of world politics, the image of personalities is already thoroughly constituted, the image of personalities of regional significance is still undergoing some development.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 2

Introduction In the history and development of states, individuals who have been the bearers of historical development are often extracted from the comprehensive evaluation of the period. Especially in the face of crisis situations, historiography tends to look for leaders. No wonder, then, that this is happening even against the background of the greatest war conflict the world has ever suffered. On a global scale, other personalities than the Slovak President Jozef Tiso translated here were important. However, while in the case of the giants of world politics, the image of personalities is already thoroughly constituted, the image of personalities of regional significance is still undergoing some development.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 3

1. Biographical profile of Jozef Tisa Jozef Tiso came from a large family from the north of Slovakia. As in other Slovak families, some of the descendants had to try a career of clergy for financial reasons. In addition, it combined several advantages at once, but in a strongly Christian country it was mainly a guarantee of considerable social seriousness.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 4

2. The Controversy of Historians After the change of political conditions after November ´89 in Czechoslovakia and the return of some exiled historians, the need for a new reassessment of the period of the Slovak state increased in Slovak society. It was a period in which many historians had already entered ideologically biased, but as with any new beginning, there was a certain presumption of change and success. Gradually, although the clear boundaries between critical and non-critical, even revisionist camps, sharpened, in 1992 it was possible to organize a later, unfortunately, unique event.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 5

3. The Image of Jozef Tiso in Contemporary Society Like historians, contemporary Slovak society cannot fight for a unified, ideologically unadulterated and unmarked personal experience. After November 1989, there was a renewed talk of this period. For some individuals and groups in politics, Slovak statehood before and during World War II was the key to a new independent Slovak Republic. It is paradoxical that such a procedure was adopted by the Slovak National Party, which was absorbed by the HSĽS even during the short Slovak autonomy in the second Czechoslovak Republic. For other political parties, which in the history of independent Slovakia have gone beyond the threshold of election to the National Council of the Slovak Republic, the topic of reconstructing the image of Slovakia in the early 1940s is of very little interest.

Jozef Tiso as a live political issue - part 6

Conclusion Jozef Tiso and the entire regime in general will withstand positive evaluations only in the case of fundamental relief from the evaluators. At other times, the definitely positively perceived act of achieving the nation's independence on its own territory is in this case "tainted" by several negative phenomena of the regime at that time. Also, the undemocratic authoritarian regime, which, through propaganda, wanted to create a uniform mass under the flag of the Hlinka Slovak People's Party, is not a manifestation worthy of following.

Lower Moravia

Lower Moravia today has nothing to do with today's Moravia. Lower Moravia, this little-known name (the name is mentioned in the book by Lubomír E. Havlík: Chronicle of Great Moravia, published in 1993), was once called the area on the lower left bank of the Morava River, namely the territory of today's Slovakia, southern Poland (northern Poland). Orava and northern Spiš, which until 1918 were part of Hungary and then Poland) and northern Hungary (Matra and Bükk mountains and the Tokaj wine region). Lower Moravia has always been a part of our Czech state in certain periods.

Military aspects of the september volunteer expedition

The revolutionary movement that swept Europe in 1848-1849 was a manifestation of the culminating crisis of the existing political and social system, a milestone in the transition from feudalism to capitalism, a profound intervention in the process of bourgeois transformation of most states on the European continent. In the revolutions of this period, unresolved issues of a national nature, the pursuit of national equality, originality, state independence and a freer national life in all its spheres played a major role in many countries, including Hungary. The nation became one of the most important attributes of the time, and the masses tried to enforce their own demands by using revolutionary, especially armed, means. A new era was expected to begin. In this sense, the revolution of 1848-1849 was a real " spring of nations ."

Military aspects of the summer volunteer expedition

The events that Hurban expressed as follows at the Slavic Congress were fulfilled: " If the Hungarians give us what belongs, it is not possible ... to stand against them with a sword. When they allow the Serbs what they want, they also do not draw their sword. For they would be put to shame in front of the whole world. If the Hungarians do not give, then, of course, the fight. "

Military aspects of the winter volunteer expedition

Slovak society entered the revolutionary events in a largely undeveloped form. At a time when the Slovak nobility was being nationalized, the Slovak intelligentsia became the main representative of the national movement. March's revolutionary events also had a strong impact in Slovakia, and Slovaks welcomed the " spring of nations " full of hopes and expectations. The culmination of their efforts and demands became the St. Nicholas Requests of the Slovak Nation, to which, however, the Pest government responded by persecuting the authors of the St. Nicholas Assembly and issuing an arrest warrant for J.M. Hurban, M.M. Hodža and Ľ. Štúr. The alternative of a possible agreement with the Hungarian government has reached a dead end.

Munich Agreement

Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy, in view of the agreement already reached on the withdrawal of the Sudetenland from Germany, have agreed on the following conditions for such withdrawal and the measures resulting therefrom ...

Nobility in Slovakia in the early modern period

In this work I analyze the position, decline and growth of property and the struggle to preserve their privileges of the higher nobility, as well as efforts to establish the middle and lower nobility in Slovakia in the 16th to 18th centuries.

Nothing new on the Carpathian front

In 1915, the Carpathian Front of World War I was one of the most strategically important European battlefields. Rows of trenches and obstacles made of barbed wire also cut through the territory of the then Upper Zemplín and Šariš counties. The territory of six districts of present-day northeastern Slovakia has thus become the scene of intensive military operations. Heavy and bloody battles were alternated with operational breaks, which, however, did not bring officers and soldiers much relief from their demanding and exhausting frontal life.

On enemy side

"Antonín Lipovský, captured by the Americans on August 1, 1944 at Sartilla, as he tried to escape the siege. […] He was called to London for a special interrogation, where he described in detail the organization of the radio service and was able to give the English all the necessary information about the new code, which entered into force on 1 August 1944 (Raste Schlüssel RS 44). I think it would be very useful to gather a facta about the effective assistance of Czechoslovak members by providing the right messages immediately after [their] capture in good faith that they are helping the right party and themselves. I doubt that this help would ever be publicly acknowledged to us. We have not yet fought and it seems that we will be among the last allies in this regard. It will therefore be very important that, on the first occasion of [ground-based] combat success, our participation and participation in the first phase of the invasion be given to English public opinion, at least briefly. Mentions in the English press of the bravely fighting Czechs in the German army have not just benefited us. "

Report of the infantry captain Oldřich Večerek from August 24, 1944 to the MNO in London.

Political and military-historical background of the origin of monuments to the Great War

In the euphoric period, during the march of the emerging Masaryk state law unit, new currents of opinion were formed in all strata of society. Passion, blindness in retaliation for the old order, and political and personal intrigues played unscrupulously the main role. The ostentatious patriotism and the creation of one-sided legends, together with the other factors mentioned above, had a fundamental negative effect on the preservation of the memory of the fallen citizens of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Fallen war deserters and captured soldiers of Czech and Slovak nationality who joined the Czechoslovak legions in France, Russia, Italy and Serbia for various reasons, whether ideological or emergency, voluntarily or not, were especially praised in the struggles for "freedom of the country".

Post-war arrangement influencing the development of construction and preservation of military monuments to the Great War

After the end of the fighting in 1918, former members of the defunct Habsburg army returned to their home villages in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia long after the armistice. First, however, they had to go through Czechoslovakia. newly established acceptance or quarantine camps by the government, in which they underwent thorough political training established as a necessary ideological supervision of the former c. and k. army and its commanders. At that time, it was professionally called the release of the returning field army.

Post-war reverberations from the deployment of Slovak state pilots in the Polish campaign

Slovak pilots continued to accompany German bombers to a depth of 60 to 90 km in Polish territory. On September 17, they accompanied the attack of German pilots on Hluboczek Wielki, whose anti-aircraft defense was entrusted to Czech and Czechoslovak-oriented Slovak pilots who left their own state. Thus, for the first time, but not for the last time, Slovaks fought against Slovaks in World War II.

Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 5: La Tène period - Celts

During the last two and a half thousand years, from today to the past, several waves of settlement and the extinction of various cultures have appeared in our territory. These cultures, or perhaps human communities, built fortified places called fortifications in their defense. Today we will look at the oldest documented period, namely the time of the people of the garbage dumps and the Celtic settlement of our country.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946

Comparison of the presidential elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš played one of the main roles in most of the key turning points in Czechoslovak and European history throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Together with T.G. Masaryk, he contributed to the establishment of an independent Czechoslovakia, during the First Republic he became a successful European politician and after the resignation of Masaryk from the position of head of state also the second Czechoslovak president. During the Second World War, he led a new resistance for the restoration of the Czechoslovak state and after its end he was confirmed in the presidency. What led to Beneš's election as president in those years and under what circumstances and political situation were the elections held?

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - Conclusion

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
The personality of Edvard Beneš provoked and still provokes discussions about his decisions and his role in Czechoslovak politics, especially in 1938 and 1948. But there were also two other years that completely influenced Beneš's life and his subsequent performance in domestic politics. These were the year 1935 and 1946, when he became historically the second Czechoslovak president, respectively. re-elected President of the restored Republic.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - I. E.Beneš in the intellectual and power spectrum of Czechoslovak politics

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš was born in Kožlany on May 28, 1884 as the tenth and youngest child in a peasant family. As a child, he was very receptive and interested in reading, especially historical books dealing with the Hussites. Despite his strongly believing mother, he was not much influenced by religion, thanks to his two older brothers Václav ( teacher and Masaryk's realist ) and Vojta ( socialist ).

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - III. 1946 presidential election

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
After the end of the Second World War, the whole of Czechoslovakia went through a transitional revolutionary period, in which the basic components of state power were gradually restored. It ended on October 28, 1945, when the Provisional National Assembly began its activities for the first time after the war. Elections were held indirectly on the basis of a presidential decree of August 1945.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - Introduction

Introduction to the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš played one of the main roles in most of the key turning points in Czechoslovak and European history throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Together with T.G. Masaryk, he contributed to the establishment of an independent Czechoslovakia, during the First Republic he became a successful European politician and after the resignation of Masaryk from the position of head of state also the second Czechoslovak president.

Reconstruction of a part of the Arpad line in the cadastre of the village of Ulič

The Arpad line was a defensive fortification built by Hungary during World War II. It is a fortification system, the edge of which extends to the territory of the present-day Slovak Republic (during World War II, it was the territory of Hungary). The Beskydy Military History Club, together with the village of Ulič, is preparing a gradual reconstruction of this part of the fortification system and the construction of an educational trail.

Silesia

Silesia, which is now part of the Czech state, is a historically wonderful conglomeration of originally disparate former vassal and other territories, namely the former duchy of Těšín, the duchy of Opava, the principalities of Krnov, Hlučín, the Moravian enclaves and the principality of Nis, ie the remnants of Czech expansion to the northeast.

Strategy for the rescue of war cemeteries in northeastern Slovakia

There are about 200 war cemeteries from the period of the First World War in the territory of northeastern Slovakia. Most of them are in a catastrophic state and are on the verge of extinction. For many decades, war cemeteries have been on the verge of the interest of experts, the public and the competent authorities. Some of the cemeteries paid for this disinterest with extinction. The article discusses ways to change this situation.

Svidník, Dukla pass and Death Valley

When I wrote the first article about the German military cemetery in Malta ( Crete ), I had no idea that another post would be added soon. Together with my friends, we went to the opposite end of the republic to see the places of fighting in Dukla, as we have not had such an opportunity so far. I know that many may not have such a possibility either, so I will try to show them the reality of these places from the summer of 2005. So those who are interested can continue reading.

The defenders of the great moravian fortresses

When watching more detailed maps, we can come across the terms "ramparts", "chances", often with the adjective Hussite, Swedish or Turkish, but also "castle" or "castle", or "hradec", "strážnice", "hradiště", "hradisko "," čihadlo", on foreign-language" gard ", related to the term grad and the Russian" gorod ". These are mostly places where tradition resembles some fortification, the fence, which was abandoned, disappeared, but left behind some, albeit the slightest traces, often visible only in the field.

The forgotten battlefield in the Carpathians

In November 1914, Russian troops first entered the territory of present-day Slovakia. General Kornilov and his 48th Infantry Division crossed the main Carpathian ridge and penetrated the valley of the river Ciroch to Snina and Humenné. The Austro-Hungarian command was forced to improvise and throw all available forces into the counterattack. During this operation, there were intense fighting in the area of the villages of Dara - Príslop - Kolbasov.

The popularity of fascism among young people is growing

European media are sounding the alarm. The far right on the old continent is gaining strength and gaining more and more voters. This fact is evidenced in particular by the electoral success of the Hungarian Jobbik, the Wilders Freedom Party in the Netherlands and the recent historical success of the anti-Islamic Swedish Democrats, who entered parliament for the first time. Political scientists recall that the situation is not only due to the economic crisis, but also to multiculturalism, the long-term inability of moderate parties to solve social problems and the successful promotion of radical ideas among young audiences.

The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné I.

A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The first part of the series deals with the conditions that influenced the development of agriculture in the Czechoslovak Republic in the period 1945-48.

The process of collectivization in the district of Humenné VI.

A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The sixth part of the series deals with the final stage of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1957-60 and the evaluation of this process.

The response of the Great French Revolution in Hungary and Slovakia

The spiritual life of almost all of Europe since the middle of the 18th century has been greatly influenced - after scholasticism, humanism and the Reformation - by a new ideological wave - the Enlightenment, which created cracks in the integrity of feudalism and became the worldview of an advanced, progressive, radical and revolutionary society. Enlightenment scholars had a lion's share in the ideological preparations for the Great French Revolution ( MFF ).

The seven-day war with Poland (1919)

Shortly after the founding of Czechoslovakia in October 1918, a dispute arose over the Těšín region with neighboring Poland. Although the borders of the young republic were internationally recognized by the states of the Agreement and it was a Czech historical territory, Poland did not intend to accept it and after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary occupied this territory militarily. At the same time, the coal wealth of this area and the need to secure coal for Czechoslovakia also played a significant role.

The third foreign intelligence department

Thanks to Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, talk begins again about the third resistance. This is nothing new. We tried to portray it in the television series Czechoslovakia in Special Services, which was broadcast by ČT 2 in 2002, and I included it in the book of the same name.
However, on December 1, 1999, a colloquium on the third resistance was held at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague. There I presented a paper, which I am publishing here for the first time.

The third resistance existed!

It was a parade of heroes who defied the communist dictatorship. They met on Tuesday, November 13, in the Senate Chamber at a seminar called the Third - Anti-Communist - Resistance. All over seventy, many with a wand. They were touching in a way, but when they spoke, they remained tough.

The work deployment of Czech railway workers in Germany 1938 - 1945

Even before the war began, Germany was facing a severe labor shortage. This was due, among other things, to the fact that many people were consumed by the Nazi regime itself - police, army, Gestapo, etc. At the end of 1938, the Empire lacked an estimated one million people, 75% of them in industry and 25% in agriculture. One of the groups that was to replace this shortcoming was members of our blue army - railroad workers.

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