Czech Republic (CZE)
A brief description of the events of 1939 that led to the recognition of November 17 as International Student Day.
On the way from Prague to Hradec Králové on the road I / 11 between Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Nové Město, we pass a statue of a peasant insurgent on the left. The work of sculptor Jakub Obrovsky, which was to be unveiled in September 1938, was not installed until 10 years later - in September 1948, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the abolition of robots. The statue commemorates one episode of the so-called "peasant storms", which erupted in northeastern Bohemia as early as January 1775 and continued with greater or lesser force until the summer of that year. What was its course and result is clear from the established saying: "They landed like the peasants at Chlumec".
It would certainly be a mistake to devote to in the first paragraphs of the work directly to the file's Rights city of the Czech Kingdom, which is not entirely wrongly attributed to Paul Christian of Koldín, though just Christian of Koldín wasn't the only one who is on the compilation of the file involved. Not to include this file into the historical events, or at least not to mention the development efforts on the codification of municipal law, I would consider it a gross mistake. Therefore, the treatise on the file I will leave to the next chapter.
Did the Czech communists and United States diplomacy already know the intentions of the Soviet Union in the winter of 1939?
Introduction “Just retribution to all direct and indirect, active and passive perpetrators of the war to teach all future and - to break up for good! Otherwise, an unprecedented massacre would have to take place between our nations after this terrible war! We can and must prevent this at all costs: ”This is how President Edvard Beneš saw the end of Czech-German coexistence on Czechoslovak territory after the end of the Second World War.
1. Development of Jesenice until 1945 After the end of the First World War in 1918, the local Germans welcomed the creation of an independent province of Sudetenland, which should be part of the so-called German Austria. This step was strongly supported by the German Social Democrats. However, this did not happen, the Czechoslovak government wanted to preserve the historic borders of the republic, which included the Sudetenland, so the province was dissolved in December 1918.
2. Circumstances and course of German displacement With the end of the war approaching, the issue of unfortunate ethnic composition in Czechoslovakia became more and more topical. A significant German minority, which after the census in 1930 made up approximately 21.9% of the population in the Czechoslovak Republic, by its behavior during the 1930s, especially during Munich and the subsequent establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, gave the Czech nations many reasons to accelerate its influence. One of the solutions was her displacement from Czechoslovak territory.
3. Economic and social impacts of the expulsion of Germans Jesenice was one of the few areas where, in my opinion, the main problem was not to ensure the proper expulsion of Germans, but above all how to deal with this high population decline. The drastic loss of almost 85% of the population can already cause the demographic collapse of the region, so I would omit any moral assessment of the displacement of the German population and focus on the economic and social consequences of this process. However, I would like to start the chapter with the topic of the new settlement of Jesenice, which was necessary for the preservation of the district and its economic recovery after the Second World War, and which completely changed its national character.
Conclusion One of the arguments for the expulsion of the Germans was that Czechoslovakia wants to get rid of national minorities that could threaten the position of Czechs and Slovaks in the future. He wants to start a new stage of history with a uniform composition of inhabitants made up of Czech and Slovak citizens. However, Jesenice was settled not only from Czechoslovak territory, but also from abroad. People from Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, re-emigrants from Ukraine and Volyn came here. The local people tried to de-germinate everything they could, while being forced to accept new customs and traditions from other nations. This composition destabilized the Jesenice region not only culturally, but also affected social relations between the inhabitants, who at first had no confidence in each other. I would describe this issue with the phrase "one stranger out the door, another through the window back".
List of used literature;
List of abbreviations;
List of attachments.
The bachelor's thesis focuses on one of the turning points in the history of Jesenice, taking place in the years 1945 - 1947, when most of the local population was displaced from this almost German border area as part of the expulsion of the Germans. The first part of the thesis evaluates the development of Czech-German relations in the Jesenice region. The second part, in addition to the expulsion itself, analyzes in more detail the individual measures against the Germans together with the central Beneš decrees. The aim of the work is to evaluate the consequences of deportation, which is discussed in its third part. The main emphasis is placed on economic and social impacts, supplemented by a practical demonstration of changes in property relations in one of the Jesenice municipalities. The analysis also includes the replacement of the German minority with new settlers in the settlement process. The work is based on unpublished (archival, oral history) and published sources and professional literature, uses historical and economic methods (including statistical, biographical).
In the old, not yet preserved, castle park near the town of Loučeň in the Nymburk region, we can find two memories of the original owner of the Dobrovice and Loučeň estates, Prince Karel Alois zu Fürstenberg, Field Marshal of the Czech Army from the Napoleonic Wars. The memory of two monuments forgotten in the woods, dedicated to the brave general and his men, let us now watch together.
The national flag celebrates its 100th birthday. In the 100 years of its existence, it has "experienced" a lot. It used to be solemnly erected, proudly flowing, and used to be triggered with sadness and tears. As a symbol of victory, it swept over many battlefields of World War II, it fluttered as a symbol of defiance in 1968. Today, fortunately, it no longer has to fly in such turbulent events; Everyone is waving the national flag on hockey. But how many of us know anything about its true history?
When watching more detailed maps, we can come across the terms "ramparts", "chances", often with the adjective Hussite, Swedish or Turkish, but also "castle" or "castle", or "hradec", "strážnice", "hradiště", "hradisko "," čihadlo", on foreign-language" gard ", related to the term grad and the Russian" gorod ". These are mostly places where tradition resembles some fortification, the fence, which was abandoned, disappeared, but left behind some, albeit the slightest traces, often visible only in the field.
Even before the war began, Germany was facing a severe labor shortage. This was due, among other things, to the fact that many people were consumed by the Nazi regime itself - police, army, Gestapo, etc. At the end of 1938, the Empire lacked an estimated one million people, 75% of them in industry and 25% in agriculture. One of the groups that was to replace this shortcoming was members of our blue army - railroad workers.