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Luděk Kratochvíl

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  • BT-1 (Christie M1930)

    According to some authors, these were called two Christie prototypes M1930 (M1931) without towers, which were purchased with the production documentation by the Soviet company Amtorg (representative of IA Chalepsky) for the amount of 160,000 USD.

  • BT-2

    BT-2 was at the time of its inception the modern light tank, which was marked by high speed, throughput and range. The designers were basically with the first prototypes aware of his weaknesses.

  • BT-5

    At the beginning of 1933, less than a year after the start of serial production of the BT-2, a prototype of a modernized two, called the BT-5, was completed. The chassis was strengthened, disc-pressed wheels were used, and the M-5 domestic engine began to be used more.

  • BT-7

    At the end of 1934, two vehicles underwent a demanding test program, prototypes of BT-7 tanks, one with a 45 mm cannon and the other 76.2 mm in welded turrets with round shapes and a machine gun at the head of the hull. The opinion of the commission was unambiguous - the new turret is difficult to manufacture and expensive, the driver cannot drive and operate a machine gun at the same time. Remove the machine gun driver, use turrets from BT-5 or new from T-26.

  • Bystrochodnyj tank BT-2

    Origin, development and variants.

  • Bystrochodnyj tank BT-5

    A monograph of a Soviet BT-5 light tank from the 1930s, which in 1945 also fought against Japan.

  • Bystrochodnyj tank BT-7

    From its inception to the peak of development of the predecessor of the T-34.

  • Garford-Putilov - The first serial cannon armored car

    With the invention of the internal combustion engine, small or larger vehicle manufacturers began to emerge in many countries around the world. The engines were lighter and easier to operate than steam engines and, compared to the standard hippopotamus used at the time, when out of operation with minimal maintenance and space requirements. However, the situation of car production in Tsarist Russia was different from the rest of Europe and North America.

  • Bloody Sunday, January 9 (22), 1905 in St. Petersburg - Part 1

    The Tsar turned away from the people and fired on them ... Thousands of victims in St. Petersburg ... The Cossacks fired a peaceful demonstration with machine guns and cut with sabers ... so the contemporary press wrote, and so far this information is published to be true.
    What actually happened and why? How many were dead? Did Nicholas II give the order to fire? What started the "second" Russian revenge?

  • Bloody Sunday, January 9 (22), 1905 in St. Petersburg - Part 2

    It was Sunday, January 9, 1905, and a bloody drama was brewing in St. Petersburg. Forty thousand members of the army and police stood against the crowd of 150,000 carrying out the petition to their tsar, who was absent at the time, in the Winter Palace, with orders not to let the crowd near the Winter Palace ... It should be noted, however, that the organizers of the march were informed.

  • Bloody Sunday, January 9 (22), 1905 in St. Petersburg - Part 3

    Crowds of residents, men, women and children have been gathering in various places in St. Petersburg since early morning. It is not a single march, but lots of small ones that merge from all directions to a single destination, and that is the Winter Palace. The mood in the individual streams is different, sometimes reminiscent of church processions, other times gangs about to loot and destroy - depending on which leaders took the baton.

  • Bloody Sunday, January 9 (22), 1905 in St. Petersburg - Part 4

    On the evening of January 9, St. Petersburg looked like the boiling cauldron. All parties involved are, to put it mildly, very surprised by today's events and are looking for a solution to what to do next. The accused fall on all sides, arrest, count the dead and the wounded, rumors spread, nervousness grows.

  • KV (prototype)

    The KV tank was originally developed as a lightweight single-tower version of the SMK tank under the leadership of A. Ermolayev and Ž. Kotina. The chassis part was shortened by two wheels on each side, which had the effect of improving maneuverability and lightening the vehicle.

  • Austin armored cars in Russia

    After the outbreak of the Great War, as in other countries involved in the conflict, the production of armored cars began to begin slowly in Russia, and the Supreme Command desperately tried to catch up on the wasted time created by the very regressive approach since the creation of the first armored vehicle in the Russian army ...

  • Gas attacks on the Eastern Front during the Great War (1915)

    If you say "gas attack", most people think of Ypres, the Western Front or Reims. The eastern front is a bit in the shadow of information, so let's try to fix it ...

  • PT-1A

    The project of a floating tracked tank PT-1A, as a successor to the unsuccessful PT-1, was developed in 1933 by the technical department of the OGPU in Moscow under the leadership of N.A. Astrov.

  • RBT-5 - tank armed with torpedoes

    Soviet experimental project from 1934, which tested the armament of the tank with air torpedoes - missiles.

  • Recognition of types and variants of BT tanks

    Basic externally visible distinguishing features of BT tanks and their comparison.

  • SMK

    During the Spanish Civil War, it turned out that there is no tank in the USSR that would be able to break through fortified positions defended by 37 and 45 mm anti-tank cannons. As a reaction to this, two vehicles were developed in 1938 in both Leningrad "Kirov plants" - SMK under the leadership of ing. A. Ermolayev (plant no. 100) and T-100 under the leadership of ing. E.Palej (plant no. 185) . SMK already had more modern suspension (torsion bars), but the designers still remained true to the multi-tower concept. The rear tower was removed from the original three-tower design, so that in the spring of 1939 the two-tower STK prototype with the towers behind it saw the light of day.

  • T-12

    In 1927, a project called T-12 of a "maneuvering tank" was developed at the Kharkov locomotives production plant  "Im.Kominterny".

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 1

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank.

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 2

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank.

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 3

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 4

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank - artillery and flamethrower tanks.

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 5

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank - special construction.

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 6

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank - self-propelled artillery on its chassis.

  • T-26 - the fear of Soviet tankers? - Part 7

    Origin and development of the most produced pre-war tank - special constructions, tractors, transporters and special superstructures.

  • T-27 - tankette - dead branch of development from the thirties

    Ever since Simms's Millitary Scout vehicle, designers and military strategists have toyed with the idea of an armored mobile infantryman or a moving motor-driven machine gun nest.

  • T-28 - three-tower medium tank

    When she visited the Chalepsky Commission in 1930 to buy tanks or license their production in Great Britain, she also encountered prototypes of the A6 Vickers tank, then a "fashionable" multi-tower type. The British side was not inclined to sell this vehicle and further negotiations were not successful. Since the commission always had its eyes on the stopwatch and cameras and gauges always on the lookout, it was decided to "develop" its own type of three-tower medium, in the then terminology of the maneuvering tank, after returning to the USSR.

  • T-35 - the largest among the large

    As with several types of Soviet tanks, the history of this vehicle began with a visit to the Chalep Commission in Great Britain in 1930. The commission members were interested in, among others, the five-tower, thirty-two-ton Vickers A1E1 Independent from 1926, made in a single copy. When it became clear that the structural and production complex tank TG, developed hand in hand by a Soviet-German group of engineers led by E. Grotte, the Soviet industrial complex in the series simply could not produce, the Soviet part of the group of engineers was transferred to work on a heavy tank project.

  • T-37

    When the British Army, after testing two prototypes of the Vickers-Carden-Loyd Amphibian Tank (A4E11 and A4E12), did not accept this vehicle into service and allowed its export, several interested parties appeared. On February 5, 1932, the Soviet trade mission signed a contract with Vickers for the production of eight pieces of this vehicle for testing tanks, which were to form the basis of armored vehicles for DRRA reconnaissance units.

  • T-38

    The T-37 came off the production line for only a year, and factories No. 37 in Moscow and No. 185 in Leningrad were already working on a machine that would replace this unfortunate type. The tank was designated T-43, but both constructions were rejected by the army.

  • TMM-1

    The TMM-1 light tank project was developed together with TMM-2 at the Faculty of Motorization and Mechanization of the Dzerzhinsky Military Technical Academy in 1931. It was a Soviet design of the Vickers-Armstrong 6t MarkE tank, model A, for which a factory was built in Stalingrad ( STZ) with a planned capacity of up to 13,000 tanks and tracked vehicles per year.

  • Uniform of Red Army (1919-1924)

    After the October Revolution in 1917, on November 8, 1917, a draft declaration was proposed to the Soldiers of the Revolutionary Army, the abolition of the former ranks, the titles and decorations of the Russian Army. This proposal was confirmed on December 15, 1917 by the Council of People's Commissars, and thus the Revolutionary Army was deprived not only of badges, ranks and decorations, but also uniform uniforms.

  • Decree of the Fuhrer and the Reich Chancellor of 16 March 1939 on the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

    For a thousand years, the Czech-Moravian lands belonged to the living space of the German nation. Violence and irrationality ruled them arbitrarily from their old historical surroundings and later, by their involvement in the artificial unit of Czechoslovakia, they created a focus of constant unrest. From year to year, the danger has grown that, as in the past, a new immense threat to European peace will emerge from this area. Because the Czech-Slovak state and its holders of power failed to organize the reasonable coexistence of national groups, united in it arbitrarily, and thus to awaken and preserve the interest of all involved in maintaining their common state. However, in this way he proved his inner inability to live and therefore now also fell into real decay.

  • From the T-37 driver's diary

    Something just to shorten a long time ...


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