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Polikarpov I-17

Поликарпов И-17

Polikarpov I-17 - overview of versions

Поликарпов И-17

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
Polikarpov I-17 TSKB-15 the first prototype, powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs, after the crash fixed, but fly with fixed gear
Polikarpov I-17 TSKB-19 the second prototype, powered by a Klimov M-100A, four machine guns, a modified chassis
Polikarpov I-17 TSKB-19bis the third prototype, the engine Klimov M-100P, cannon in the axis of the propeller and two machine guns
Polikarpov I-17 TSKB-33 a fourth prototype, which resembled the TSKB-19, but had surface steam cooling, it is not certain whether he was a fly.
Polikarpov I-19? CKB-25 failed project on the basis of the I-17, engine Gnome-Rhone 14 Krsd or Mikulin M-34RNF
Polikarpov I-17Z CKB-33 unrealized project of a parasitic fighter for unrealized , THE TB-3, reduced margins and thus the bearing area, without chassis and without flaps
Polikarpov I-17 TSKB-43 project with the engine Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs, a cannon between the cylinder of the engine, the calculated speed of 520 km/h

Manufacturer production Period
State aviation plant no. 39, Moscow 1934 – 01. 09. 1934 construction of the first prototype
State aviation plant no. 21, Gorky 1935 – 12. 11. 1936 the construction of the second and third prototype
CKB - Central design office) 1934 - 1939 all project work

Aeronautics and astronautics 1987 / 09, Monograph, Polikarpov I-17, Václav Němeček
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Polikarpov I-17

The year was 1936 and the paris Salon de ľ Aéronautique in the soviet department generated a great deal of attention polished slim low-wing with retractable landing gear, everything on this airplane was pursued to the almost perfect aerodynamic cleanliness. The shapes of the aircraft were known, that the plane reaches very high performances. In Italy was introduced a year later at the exhibition in Milan. Premiere before the public, however, this prototype had on the may day parade of 1936, when he flew over the Red square, behind its wheel sat the legendary soviet pilot Valery Pavlovich Chkalov, which, however, soon retired from this project and started with the preparation for his record-breaking long-distance flight with the aircraft ANT-25. The public thanks to the exhibitions she learned that in the Soviet union there is a fast fighter aircraft Polikarpov I-17, "seventeen" into the overviews of the aircraft and into the facial guides forces of many states. Although the armament of the soviet air force didn't get, it is possible to find reports of pilots that were shot down, or fought with this tank, these reports originate mainly from the initial fighting with the Finnish air force, it was probably a confusion with the aircraft type Mig-1 and the Mig-3. Let's see how this with this type of fighter was actually.

The history of this type began in December 1933, the air force then tested the first prototype of the later famous fighter, Polikarpov I-16, the prototype was marked as CKB 12, his performances have been very promising. Information about such performances were, of course, and immediately reported to Joseph Vissarionovičovi Stalin, the in a good frame of mind said that Polikarpov is able to give the soviet air force aeroplane, which will thwart the speed limit of 500 km/h. Stalin's wish, in the then soviet circumstances would be tantamount to a direct order and so that, after all, understood even the chief of the fighter brigade, the Central design office (TSKB) Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov and in December 1933 he started from own initiative work on a study of such machines. Just a little later (13. 12. 1933), after the approval of the commander of the air force Jakov Ivanovičem Alksnisem, received Polikarpov technical requirements and instructed to start work.

Polikarpov was an experienced engineer, and his team first carried out the detailed calculations and they showed that to achieve a speed of 500 km/h will be required inline engine with a power of at least thousands of horses. The engine with this performance, however, in 1934 in the Soviet union did not exist, but in fact he existed at all anywhere. In the USSR in the license produced the engines BMW VI, the prototype, of this otherwise successful engine was set in motion already in 1926, in the USSR began with considerable difficulty to produce from the year 1930 under the designation M-17, the further development of this engine was in charge of Alexander Alexandrovich Mikulin and in 1934 was launched the production of engine M-34, this engine achieves a power of 800 hp, but at the same time had a mass of 680 kg, thanks to its weight was not too suitable for fighter aircraft. At this time, however, has also had meetings with the company Hispano-Suiza, the aim of which was to purchase the rights for license production of the engine Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs, this engine was modern, the performance was comparable with Mikulinovou M-34 and the extra weight of this engine was more than 200 kg lower. In the USSR was in 1934 already several sample pieces of the French engines.

Polikarpov had to settle with one model of engine and what that engine lacked in power, it had to obtain elsewhere – the new plane had to be aerodynamically what may be the most perfect. The frontal resistance of the aircraft had to be small, this means that the engine was very closely faired, the pilot sat in a tight and uncomfortable cabin, which had a very limited view, because the cabin stood out above the outline of the aeroplane, really just a very little, a transparent cover is pushing forward, on both sides of the cabin there was a small door. The surface of the aeroplane was after page of aerodynamics actually almost perfect. A prototype designated TSKB-15 was completed in August 1934 and he looked very well, the front part of the fuselage was dark blue and the rest was red-red, the whole surface was polished to a high gloss. The power of the engine to transmit two-bladed propeller Ratier with a diameter of 3 to 400 mm, the engine oil cooler was under the engine and the radiator fluid was below the fuselage and was it possible to completely retract. First flight by Valery Chkalov on 1. September 1934. The Pilot spoke highly of the good stability of the new machine, but at the same time he was very satisfied with his dexterity. We must remember that Chkalov zalétával even a short, not very balanced, unstable, and just manufactured "teenybopper". The fatal flaw of the new standing, however, was its chassis, bringing it away from the fuselage to the wings, this solution brought a narrow gauge bogie wheels and thus reciprocally nevelko stability during take-off, landing and taxiing. Retraction was solved mechanically – handle, and the protrusion - own weight of the chassis and the spring. The chassis additionally has not been well designed, netlumil bumps and shocks, causing deformation of the undercarriage legs. The Program of test flights was not even completed, because when one of the test flights occurred when landing to eject only one of the undercarriage legs and the subsequent piruetou on earth is a prototype damaged. After correction, the test flights continued, but already only with the fixed gear and trash podvozkovými shafts. At CKB-15 showed a number of other defects and so the program was terminated. The average speed was 455 km/h at a height of 3 000 m and did not fulfil the assumptions of their creators. The prototype TSKB-15 was carrying the armament of four machine guns, ŠKAS caliber 7.62 mm, the armament, however, was carrying only a short time after the crash, most of the tests flew unarmed, the weapons were installed in the wings and firing outside the propeller.

License production of engines Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs began in the USSR in 1935, the engines were manufactured under the designation M-100, the engine was the performance of the 750 horsepower, this meant that his performance has been only slightly lower, than what were the original engines Hispano-Suiza, production at the soviet ratios of the promising gather momentum. This engine with two-blade two-position propeller was installed in the second prototype, which was designated as the TSKB-19. The most significant change on this aircraft was the landing gear, the breakup of the main wheel was wide enough, the undercarriage legs are cut towards the torso and control the chassis was pneumatic. This solution is N. N. Polikarpov rid of the largest problem, which was characteristic for the previous CKB-15. The truth is that the pneumatic control also wasn't trouble free, but these defects have been almost insignificant compared to the previous situation. Another change concerned the cooling system, the fluid cooler now were in each half of the wing, again it can be continuously be plugged and locked into position in any position, single radiator fluid was merged with the oil cooler, narrow and uncomfortable cockpit did not undergo any changes. Valery Chkalov with this machine at a height of 3 000 metres, reaching speeds approaching 500 km/h, he managed to climb to an altitude of 9 700 feet. Chkalov again spoke highly of the very good stability while shooting, and especially when attacking ground targets. Armament was probably made up by four machine guns ŠKAS, stored as well as the TSKB-15. This aircraft performed Chkalov over the Red square and subsequently was exhibited in Paris and in Milan. The air force however, this aircraft has not taken to your loadout and point to its numerous shortcomings.

The third prototype, which was almost identical with the second prototype, was completed towards the end of the year 1936 and flown by is To. To. Popov on 12. November. A substantial difference was in the version of the engine, was used in the engine of the M-100P, which vychazel from the engine Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs. Engine allowed to be between the cylinder blocks mounted dvacetimilimetrový cannon ŠVAK and in the wings were two machine guns ŠKAS. Another change concerned the canopy, that is pushing backward. Further adjustments confessed landing gear, fixed tail wheel was replaced by a scroll wheel and has been simplified cover of the chassis. During the tests was adjusted the engine cooling system in order to enhance the effect of cooling. Test pilot Popov lauded the flight characteristics and recommend the installation of a more powerful engine and three propeller. His criticisms were related to the too tight cabin. This prototype served primarily to testing equipment. The head of the design team was Dimitri Ljudvigovič Tomaševič.

N. N. Polikarpov, despite the dismissive attitude of the air force tried a more aerodynamic perfection of his machine, and so even in 1935, arises the fourth prototype of the I-17, factory designated as the TSKB-33. This machine had the classic fluid cooler, which stood out beyond the contour of the aircraft, the Polikarpov on this machine used a surface steam condenser cooling, the heatsink was quite a large area of the wings (CKB-33 it was 7 m2). The wing should have two layers of duralumin coating, riveted joints were sealed using paper and shellac, into the space between the two covers was brought the steam formed by the cooling of the engine, the steam on the cold surface of the wings kondenzovala, the resulting condensate was the pump siphon and returned to the engine. This cooling was relatively effective, and in the second half of the thirties of the last century appeared in several foreign prototypes. Structurally this design was certainly interesting, but from a practical point of view, for the combat plane didn't - he shot through the wings and the cooling was taken out of the activity. CKB-33 is visually resembled the older CKB-19, different was the design of the wings. In this type of wasn't the armament installed, considered was the light armament of three machine guns ŠKAS. The performances of this aircraft should be the highest, the maximum speed should not exceed the limit of 500 km/h, but with regard to the method used for cooling was not considered for its manufacture. Some sources indicate that this prototype wasn't fly yet.

Unrealized projects
I-17Z (CKB-33?) – represented a parasitic fighter, who perhaps had to use the original CKB-33, but with a smaller margin. This fighter was to be suspended on a trapeze beneath the bomber TB-3, fighter aircraft should, if necessary, to disconnect, to subvert the attack of enemy fighters, then again to hang up on your trapeze, or he could land on an emergency slide-out skid. The project was terminated.
CKB-43 – again an unrealized project, this time should be the aircraft powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs and between the cylinder blocks should be installed cannon ŠVAK, according to the calculations should be achieved speeds of up to 520 km/h.
I-19 (CKB-25) - the unrealized project, which was based on the type of I-17, but had to be powered by dvouhvězdicovým engine Gnome-Rhone 14 Krsd, the calculated maximum velocity was 475 km/h. Subsequently, the project modified and probably was initiated and the construction of a prototype, this project was, however, already in April 1936 abolished, this type of aircraft should fear powered by Mikulin AM-34FRN.

Type Polikarpov I-17 was thanks to Stalin's note, de facto, the first aircraft of a new generation of jednoplošných fighter aircraft, which come closer to the speed limit of 500 km/h. N. N. Polikarpov then your CKB-15 for the entire year ahead of German types, like Heinkel He-112V-1 and the Messerschmitt Bf-109V-1, or british prototypes hurricane each and Spitfire. The truth is that I-17 reached its prototype stage and Polikarpov further devoted mainly to the fighters with jumo engines.

CBK - Центральное конструкторское бюро

Used springs:
Шавров В. Б. История конструкций самолетов в СССР 1938-1950 гг., М: Машиностроение, 1988, ISBN 59217-00477-0.
Václav Němeček, Monographs of the Polikarpov I-17, L+K 9/1987, vol. LXIII., p. 30-32.
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