|Georges Marie Ludovic Jules|| Georges Marie Ludovic Jules|
|Jméno v originále:|
| Georges Marie Ludovic Jules Guynemer|
|Fotografie či obrázek:|
Photograph or Picture:
|Akademický či vědecký titul:|
Academic or Scientific Title:
|Datum, místo narození:|
Date and Place of Birth:
| 24.12.1894 Paříž / ||24.12.1894 Paris /|
|Datum, místo úmrtí:|
Date and Place of Decease:
| 11.09.1917 Jižně od Poelkapelle || 11.09.1917 South of Poelkapelle |
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
|Jiné významné skutečnosti:|
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
| - druhé nejúspěšnější francouzské stíhací eso 1. sv. války s 53 sestřely|
- padl v boji
| - Second-highest scoring France flying ace of World War I with 53 victories|
- Killed in action
At the end of the summer of 1916 made the German war pilots from sleeping nightmare in the form of a French biplane Fallout With.VII, with the words "Vieux Charles" *) on the upper fuselage, řítícího headlong towards the rear of their aircraft. Málokomu of them really managed to be seen. His pilot, planted on a quick, surprise attack, and the only fatal dose. Those who are meeting him in the air after all the survivors, told that there is only one way how to save a life - in a timely manner with his burning aircraft crash land. In pronouncing his name with the inexperienced young pilots to tremble with terror, and ostříleným mazákům vysychalo in the throat. His name actually appeared to take on the German side of the front suck. Sound - Guynemer.
It seems almost incredible that this legendary fighter, who became a French national hero and at the initiative of the minister of education the pattern of all French schoolchildren, was not, for poor health, twice (!) enlisted. Georges Marie Ludovic Jules Guynemer therefore had to queue to issue a detour. Signed up as a volunteer for the commander of the airport in Pau. Was ranked first as an assistant mechanic, but thanks to its technical knowledge of it in January 1915 accepted into pilot training. Here there is no evidence of the fact, that in his person acquires later the French war, the air force of its greatest fighters. So far, the only breaks when the bad landing several trainer aircraft. In June it is in the rank of caporal (corporal) assigned to reconnaissance escadrille M.With.3 in Vausciennes (later according to the used aircraft renamed to N.3, respectively, of the SPA.3) operating with the aircraft Morane - Saulnier L Parasol.
Guynemer flew on observation flights with Parasolem, who by the help of his mechanics Charles Guerdera armed himself machine gun Lewis. A machine gun was placed on the ingenious swivel was coming in the space of the observer. Guynemer with Guerderem, who flew with Guynemerem as an observer, shot down 19. July 1915 the German's clear. For this offence they were 4. August Guynemer and Guerder honoured Military medals (Médaille Militaire). Forward them to her in Vausciennes, before the eyes of the nastoupených members escadrilly M.With.3, himself commander of the VI. army general Dubois. The distinction was also present Georgesův father.
In September, Guynemer přeškoluje on the new Nieuport 10 and at the turn of September and October twice, landing in the rear of the queue with a secret mission. This earned him a promotion to sergeant (sergent - sergeant). Escadrilla M.With.3 was the first unit formed as the Escadrille de Chasse - fighter squadron, intended to attack the aircraft of the opponent. He commanded her Capitane (captain) Brocard, who was also the 3. July 1915 opened her scores, when he shot down a dvojmístný Albatros C.Also, equipped with a machine gun on the orbital ring, armed only opakovačkou Winchester and automatic gun Mauser! The unit does carry out a survey, but the order of the commander of the VI. army no. 4893 of 17. November were some pilots between them Guynemer) pulled from reconnaissance flights and specialized at hunting enemy aircraft within its own lines. This was the beginning of the French air force.
Guynemer not prompting and on each flight searches for the fight. 29. September came across at the Saint-Quentinu on the Fokker. Get behind him, without hesitation, let go. Guynemer could not fight, because his gun is stuck. Happened to him the first time, but by far not the last. The trouble with a machine gun it will chase to the end of his fighting career. While Guynemer was trying to release a jammed conclusion of the gun, said a terrible fire, which provrtala the whole Nieuport and rozstřílela one wheel of the chassis. Guynemer began to frantically weave and finally, still ostřelován his chastiser, he managed to escape in the clouds.
On Sunday, 5. December saw Guynemer in patrole near compiegne offers ... read more a pair of enemy aircraft. They were Aviation and Guynemer very skillfully vmanévroval your machine between them and the sun. Then at them from the height he jumped and one of them shot down. During the pursuit of the second lost his debris out of sight, and so landed on the field near the house of his parents. But waited on the father, when at noon, started from the church, and requested him to allow him to sestřelené the plane sought. Later found, but because of Guynemer did not direct witnesses, she did not want him to control the commission to recognize the victory. Guynemer get it but did not like it, started indiscriminately hulákat, simply ztropil scene and commission him to prefer the victory of the left, even if she didn't like it very much. Guynemer felt insulted, and now I mostly leave the cabin of his plane. Constantly plowing the sky and sniffed around their victims.
The eighth of December, when returning from a patrol, Guynemer saw the reconnaissance LVG. He attacked again with the sun in the back and from a distance of 20 metres of the German aircraft shot down. Then immediately landed next to the wreckage on the field, this time to his claim no one could challenge it. This was his third certified the victory.
Six days later, on Tuesday, 14. December, attacked together with newcomer Bucquetem on a reconnaissance dvousedadlovku accompanied Eindeckerem. A reconnaissance plane is shot down in the first attack, but the fighter Fokker with Guynemerem interferes in a sharp battle. During the fifteen seconds it's all over. The two rivals after itself burns at a distance of perhaps only ten metres away. Fights in závratném pace, at one point, both planes almost collide. Guynemerovo wheel on the chassis passes the head of the German pilot of less than half a meter. Both the fighter znechutilo, as if get sober, and went each to their line. As the two predators, who resort to the safe to lick their wounds. Both of them were in the fight hit, Guynemerův Nieuport has punctured a suction pump, vyrvané rocker valve, riddled the engine cover, twice naštípnutou propeller and three times prostřelené the right wheel.
Now Georges has scored four confirmed kills and 24. December, on the day of his jednadvacátých birthday, is pasován the knight the legion of honour.
On the other victory you had a month to wait. The third of February reached his first double-a victory, when, during the 40-minute attack on the three LVG. The first two shot down, the third managed to save in the cloud. The second wave reportedly reached a gun Parabellum, when he stuck a machine gun. That day became the first French fighter ace.
And when, two days later, he downed his seventh of the enemy, he got 6. 2. 1916 to the reporting of the general staff. So heard of the France and then the whole world. 4. march is promoted to the rank of Sous-lieutenant (second lieutenant).
In February of 1916 broke out at Verdun, the bloodiest battle . world war ii known as the "Verdunský meat grinder".
If on the ground at Verdun was a "material battle", then in the air it was no different. Here for the first time began to utkávat larger formations of aircraft. The numbers of aerial combat equipment to grow at a dizzying pace. The sharp staccato of machine guns is still neúprosnější. The French here, therefore, moved, inter alia, (i Guynemerovu elite escadrillu N.3, which began, according to the symbols on the hulls of its aircraft, as "Les Cigognes" - Storks. Later this designation of transfer on the whole fighter group GC 12 - Groupe de Chasse 12, which in the four escadrillách (3., 26., 73. and 103.) the focus of the French fighter aces. They were men like Dorme (23 kills), Heurtaux (21 s.), Bozon-Verduraz (11 s.), Marinovitch (22 s.), de Romanet (18 s.), Tarascon (12 s.), Guérin (23 s.), Pinsard (27 s.), Sardier (14 s.), Savage (8 s.), de la Tour (9 s.), de Sevin (12 s.), Deullin (20 s.), Nogues (13 s.), Matton (9 s.), Haegelen (23 s.) and of course, Guynemer (53 p.) and Fonck (75 u.s.). Serve is, of course, solely the esa, but also a wide range of average pilots, who, however, encouraged and morally supported by experienced pilots gave great performances. This elite unit of the then French risking the nejexponovanějších sections of the queue.
Guynemer himself, just kind of by the way for moving to Verdun, sestřeluje its in the order already the eighth plane. It happened 12. march. A day later, however, in the next duel himself badly injured. He jumped when alone on a fleet of five enemy reconnaissance planes. One, although damaged, but then it sesypala from all sides firing. Missiles hitting the cabin, a glass wind deflector front of the face will be thrown into pieces, all around is shattering the wood and tearing the canvas. Two bullets hit him in the arm and face was marked by střepinami of fragmented bullets. One of these střepinek stuck in the jaw, where she could never be removed. Fortunately, Guynemerovi managed to crash-land. Guynemer was taken to the hospital in the paris hotel Astoria. To escadrille coming back up in may.
1. July 1916 the franco - british troops tried to lighten the troops at Verdun a massive offensive on the river Somme. With the rampage on the Somme, of course, can't be missing Storks, who immediately moved. The british in the battle sent 300 of the aircraft and the cost of major losses, they have managed to carve out and maintain air dominance. The French on their section of the sommského airspace managed the same, in particular thanks to a group of Storks and also the new airplanes, which first appeared in the sky just above the sommskou the front. They were Nieuport 17 and in particular Fallout With.VII.
This sturdy biplane namely nevynikal such consummate skill as a German Albatros, but the above is the speed and climb. In combination with a very solid construction, which allow him to carry out the rapid years of headlong, so raised above the Albatros d. the high ground in the vertical plane. Stiffness of the structure of the Fallout of the French pilots also allowed very easy to "zdrhnout". Just lined up the airplane on the nose and disappeared down střemhlavým flight. The germans is on their machines couldn't watch, because Albatrosům in quick dive years easily ulomila wings. Albatros were built according to the same concept as a Lieutenant, when the lightness of the whole structure, even at the expense of the strength of the airframe, was decisive.
The soundness of this construction Spad French pilots particularly appreciated. Nieuport 11 and later versions of the 17, which flew so far, although they were very skillful, but also very fragile, at which a number of paid its fighters and the others were forced to brake your momentum in matches.
Fallouts due to their robustness to withstand incredible damage in the fight. The proof is With.VII Gabriela Guérina, who was with him in October 1917 was able to return to the airport with the lower wing ustřeleným up to the vzpěrám shoulder-fired missiles; artillery.
Spad (Société pour l'aviation et ses Dérivés - Society for aerospace and related areas) was highly stable around all axes, firmly sat in the air and it so perfect aiming. Thanks to all these properties are in the hands of experienced pilots became mortally dangerous opponent.
Armed with was one with a synchronized machine gun Vickers caliber 7, 7 mm british production. Allied designers has finally been brought to a victorious end for the battle of the synchroniser.
In April 1916 they were first armed with the experimental aircraft synchronizátory of various structures such as the british Vickers-Challenger, the Sopwith-Kauper, Ross, Arsiad or French Alcan. All were mechanical přerušovače, which have suffered from many disorders, however, were promptly installed into the new allied fighters.
Allied airmen finally got into the hands of the aircraft, which is able to stand the dreaded Albatrosům. The germans, however, still maintain superiority in the arsenal of fighters, because at the time when the Allies hot hard to implement synchronizátory into the service, were German aircraft commonly armed with two machine guns, and should, thus, due to the cadence of weapons and the quality of the synchronizátorů, more than twice the firepower than the allied aircraft.
The first Fallout, which came to the front, was With.VII, no. With 122 and got it to the Lt. Armand Pinsard of escadrilly N.26, which it reached 23. August 1916 first victory belonging to this type of aircraft.
The other two Fallouts, numbers 112 and 113, were 2. September delivered escadrille N.3 and allocated to the sgt. Paulo Savageovi and Sous-Lt. Georgesovi Guynemerovi, which was at that time already čtrnáctinásobný winner in aerial combat. Guynemer get a new aircraft downright delighted and already at the second flight the With.VII of the downed enemy. Three more kills then added a 23. September. Within five minutes, he shot down two fighter Fokker and one observation aircraft. Right now nato is himself shot down own shoulder-fired missiles; artillery. Falls into a tailspin and only at the last moment with him, it manages to handle. Eventually crashes on the field, a few moments before the ground hits his third victim, and it immediately from the wreck of vyproštěn enthusiastic French soldiers, who carried into the trenches, where all these dirty, tired, but nezlomení the men begin to sing Marseillaisu. Guynemerův the aircraft then took pawns attack, and everyone snapped to commemorate a piece of cover the canvas, so from the new Fallout left only the skeleton of the structure.
This is one of the links Guynemerovy popularity. Has become (for worship), France loved it. One officer of the corps, for example, brought his unit to the airport Storks with the fact that his men wanted to see Guynemer. Sometimes one American woman who did not hesitate to send your maid to make up for any price authorised the at least Guynemerovy worn out gloves.
Guynemer however, this glory rightly deserved. He was actually on the she took really famous fighter. Due to their relatively small body weight was able to ascend to massive heights, often more than 5000 metres (consider that this is the year 1916! Just for the record: for II. the world. of the war were the breathing apparatus mandatory from 4 000 metres above. At the time of the Even. world war, of course, no such device existed), which, itself invisible, by the side of its prey. Guynemer actually polished to perfection the tactics of surprise attack from the rear of the elevation and, if possible, with the sun in the back. In this he differed from most of their colleagues (e.g. Alfred Heurtaux and René Dorme), who were particularly outstanding acrobats. Moreover devoted a great deal of attention to the technical condition of his aircraft. He was in constant contact with the aeronautical design engineers and manufacturers, and keeps them sent all sorts of comments and suggestions for improvement. He was an excellent technician and zbrojířem and became also in its way a test pilot. We already know that he has been entrusted to one of the two first Spad for the unit. With.VII is a more powerful engine receives as the first aviator ever and later on he had constructed a Fallout With.XII.
So far, however, continue to fight on the Somme. The situation is still not improving. It is the terrible destruction of everything. The French attack foundered in the murderous crossfire of machine guns. The English have achieved partial success historically, the first use of tanks. However, rather than their combat value decided psychological effect. In the autumn of 1916 for the first time over the front there are new Albatros D.II Jasta Boelcke. The new aircraft were invented on the class of the earlier Nieuport 17 and coping with Spadům. Fortunately for the French, is Boelckeho squadron deployed on the English section of the front. In November the Germans once again gaining the lost superiority in the air. In December all events on the queue paralyzováno cruel cold.
After what was a squadron of N.3 přezbrojena the new Fallouts, has also been renamed. Becoming a Escadrille SPA.3. Guynemer celebrated the New year with 25 victories to his credit. By the end of January zaokrouhlil the number of their victories on the 30. In February Storks are shifted to Lorraine to defend the city of Nancy, which suffers under the raids of German bombers.
3. 2. 1917 are Guynemer in flight in the clouds I almost collided with an unknown dvoumotorovým plane of massive proportions. It was a German heavy bomber of the type of the Gotha G.II with a wingspan of almost 24 meters, the engines on the performance of the 220 horses and a three-man crew operating the three movable machine guns. Guynemer he didnt hesitate and attacked from the rear to the bottom. Just as he was about to open fire, caught a glimpse of how in the lower part of the trunk the hatch opened, which began firing the machine gun. Guynemer carried out a rapid turnover, with the aim of so fire. Bend in the road came back and fired at the Gothu two short doses, but then he stuck a machine gun. The left engine bomber began to leave out and eventually stopped altogether. He discovered the next Fallout piloted by četařem Chainatem and threw Gothu from your gun. The bomber began to decline sharply and crash-landed near the town of Bouconville. The aircraft was later exhibited at the square, all three German airmen had fallen into captivity. The victory was granted Guynemerovi. It was his only victory in February. All, however, made up for in march, when 16. 3. he shot down three two-seat observation aircraft - two Albatros and one Rumplera. In February Guynemer was promoted to lieutenant and a month later it wore on its stejnokroji výložky captain. At the end of march is the Escadrille "Les Cigognes" again translated.
The ninth of April 1917 launched by the british troops a massive offensive at Arras in order to break the German defense. Followed her to the massive French attack in the Champagne region on the river Aisne. Phalanx infantry once again only to flounder in the hellish fire of the machine guns. In the air full of the fighter. The pilots of the two opposing sides again and again started to kill each other. And Storks, of course, can not stand outside. Struggling with an unprecedented pace, both on the ground and in the air. Every minute is in the battle of Chemin des Dames were killed or wounded 500 men.
Allied pilots were unpleasantly surprised by the new German tactics. The enemy concentrated its entire air force in one section of the front and won in the place of the necessary superiority. Even in these difficult conditions continues to Capt. Guynemer in the accumulation of their victory. The phenomenal success reached 25. may, when he shot down four German aircraft during the three missions. The first two were two-seat observation aircraft. He is during a single minute. First shot off the wing and the other lit the tank. In the second flight are sent to the country next dvousedadlovku. In the third with Guynemer and his two Capt. Auger battled with the six-line Albatros. They scattered them and Guynemer reached its fourth wave. Hung up is a few feet behind the tail of one of the enemy fighter jet. Coincidentally, his gun fired the last bullet, which remained in the tray. The German pilot was this the only shot hit and killed. Shooting of fortune, or the art of shooting? Who knows. But the fact remains that Guynemer once shot down two aircraft of the five wounds.
Guynemerova the joy of success was, however, zkalena tragic event. His great friend René Dorme, a quiet and modest man, třiadvacetinásobný winner, who has never neinkasoval intrusion into their aircraft, on the same day in the battle of the captured wing on the top of the tree and died.
The next day, attacked the Guynemer three observation Albatros C series. Fired at one of them and the first dose hit the pilot. He saw how his head fell limp on the windshield. The aircraft is tilted and began to fall, when there is the Guynemerův With.VII blanketed a hail of missiles and Georges only by a miracle was not injured. Sharply pulled the machine apart and looking for the originator of the fire. To his astonishment he saw the aircraft fuselage řítícího into the abyss with a dead pilot, the aircraft which has just shot down, is an observer in place and firing of the gun the last dose of defiance. My friend wrote about it: "I have to recognize that it was a very impressive gesture from this man, who knew that in a few moments it will just be a fragmented pile of meat and škubajících to the bone, trying not to into the arms of death withdrew and one who him into her sent."
To 5.6. 1917 has already Georges Guynemer 45 kills. The eleventh of June is appointed as an officer in the the legion of honour with the fact that the ceremony honors will be held 5. July. Guynemer in his twenty-three years became the youngest soldier in the French army awarded this distinction.
At the beginning of July, after a long bombardment of requests, finally getting Guynemer to try the first Fallout With.XII. It was for its time, revolutionary-designed aircraft. Its engine has been designed to be among the blocks of its cylinders gave a naval cannon caliber 37 mm Puteaux, whose barrel was going through a hollow shaft of the propeller. The cannon was jednoranný and pilot it nabíjel from their cabins. To allow the fire to focus with confidence, had a more synchronized Vickers machine gun caliber 7,7 mm, nabíjený-round ammunition, which the route could follow. The idea definitely was not bad. For II. the world. the war was the design solution of the ordinary, but in the Fallout of the designers chosen for the beginning of too large a caliber. The dragon of the aircraft, it suffered from a strong rear-impact testing, to cabin after being shot vnikal smoke, and the overall operation of a gun was very difficult.
Guynemer was, however, a new plane excited and wanted him to try out in the fight. At first the combat years took a new Fallout 5. July, just a few hours before the forthcoming festive luxury on the occasion of his honors. Guynemer came across three exploratory DFW (Deutsche Flugzeug Werke - German air races). Tucked behind them, but dare to be too close and just as he was about to detonate the cannon, it sesypala defensive firing of the observers. Guynemer, just miraculously unharmed, he had to drop everything and prostříleným plane crash land. An hour later, in the presence of large ec, senior officers, the press and Guynemerovy families, with general d’Esperey touched a saber Guynemerových shoulders. Guynemer was just promoted to officer of the legion of honour.
The next day Georges Guynemer again plunges into the fight and immediately sestřeluje the enemy. On the next day later sends to the earth fighter Albatros and observation DFW. These two victories consumed 11 of the wounds from the gun. At that time it is already, but Guynemerovi very wrong. His weak physique can no longer continue to endure an enormous burden of continuous combat flights. His psyche is heavily marked by the physical exhaustion, the death of a friend Dormeho and continuous threat to life. The eighth of July it doctor unit sends to the hospital.
At the same time stopped and the offensive at Chemin des Dames. The losses on both sides have tens of thousands of deaths. Morale in the american army is below freezing. Begin to accumulate desertions and propukat rebellion. Allied command handles the situation by the most brutal means.
20. July Guynemer returned to the unit. At the beginning of July started the British the next offensive. This time in Flanders and its aim was to break the German ponorkovým bases flanderském coast. The offensive ended as the previous ones. Still in the blood. Air combat in Flanders is characterized primarily in that time, unprecedented numbers of deployed aircraft. Dog fights dozens of aircraft from both sides were not uncommon, but rather the rule. Time lonely individualistů was gone, the replacement period fighting major and a multitude of air formations. Georges these changes have suffered greatly. I didn't like him, that he should subordinate the needs of the unit and the new tactics of the group fight. He was, after all lone wolf! I continue to fight as an individual, even against the odds.
Therefore started off 27. July once again alone on her With.XII. Came across three brand new Albatros D.In with a very strong engine power of 220 horsepower, which is over the front began to appear from may 1917. The hostile swarm led Theo Osterkamp, nobel the Pour le Mérite, at the end of the war dvaatřicetinásobný winner in aerial combat and the most successful German naval aviator. Osterkamp enemy immediately realizes according to the sign of its aircraft. Fight breaks out at a height of approximately 5800 meters above Roulersem. Guynemer is quickly getting behind the tail of one of the Albatros. From a distance of twenty metres into it vpálil eight bullets from a machine gun and one grenade from a gun. Albatros goes immediately in flames to the ground. Osterkamp's registers and turns for the Fallout. Fights in a very rapid descent. At one time they see Osterkamp crosses the "old man Charles" above the other. Wants to shoot, but it is too late. Guynemer shot like an arrow turns up, rewound and is behind him. Zasype him machine-gun fire, which Osterkampově Albatros de-linked handle to the control lever and the dash the front protective glass. Osterkamp feel that the Albatros swaying and dangerously losing stability, and manageability. One wing starts to vibrate dangerously, the aircraft rapidly losing height. Fighters with the woman for only a mere fifty metres above the ground. Osterkamp closing his eyes and waiting for the coup de grace. She, however, does not come, Guynemer, the flight leaves. Osterkamp crashes in a desperate attempt an emergency landing. For a few moments longer Osterkamp is the middle of the field next to his overturning of the aircraft, salutuje odlétajícímu Fallout and calls: "Danke, Hauptmann Guynemer!"
It is interesting that Guynemer about this the knights ' offense, as well as on the battle of the 6. June 1917, when he spared the life of Ernst Udet (62 kills, the Pour le Mérite), did not mention to anyone. Either didn't want to be considered změkčilce, or perhaps in the Udetově the case of the stuck a machine gun and Osterkampa lost in the smoke of the country. Whatever the truth may be, the fact remains that this action of him in the camp of the opponents earned him great recognition and respect.
A day later, on Wednesday, 28. July 1917, reached Guynemer its the jubilee of the fiftieth victory. The joy, however, was zkalena losses. He was recently wounded in the great Guynemerův friend Alfred Heurtaux, on the same day, when Georges reached his fiftieth kill, was badly hurt by the excellent tactics Albert Deullin and killed the captain of the Auger, which often flew as Guynemerova deuce. All this is signed on the Georgesově, enough already nalomené the psyche. Depression started to deepen. Guynemer your friend in a confidential interview, he said: "so Far I had still luck. One day me but they get."
Later, when he went to visit Heurtauxe to the hospital, to him leaned over and whispered: "you Know, buddy, next time it'll be me."
Guynemerovi is miserable, even with a two-week break imposed by the damage its the Fallout of him did not help. Guynemerův medical condition has not improved, but still continues in the martial years. 17. August sestřeluje the other two spotter planes, while on the other, nor did not use the gun, but he downed it with a single grenade from a gun. Its With The.XII was again damaged, the other combat flights, therefore, starts with the new .XIII. The aircraft had a more powerful engine and because of that, he excelled with great speed and climb. Armed with the two this machine guns.
The new machine Guynemer baptized 20. August, when it shot down one DFW. It was his 53 victory. His state of health is, however, still growing. The crisis culminated in the 10. in September, when the Guynemer started on three different machines and three times he had to crash land for a variety of technical defect or damage in the fight.
The day nato started Guynemer on patrol with podporučíkem Bozon - Verdurazem. At about half ten in the morning, stumbled on a German two-seater aircraft, probably the Rumpler. Guynemer immediately attacked, but when the first attack missed. Returning to the attack repeated. Bozon - Verduraz, meanwhile, saw eight of the forthcoming German fighters. Arya, who is from his commander, but when in about twenty minutes he returned, found after even a trace. What actually happened, no one today does not detect. All are just speculation.
According to the German version of the Guynemer attacked Rumpler, who commanded the observer by hptm. Wissemann (in the German air force were the master of observation aircraft observers. In the american air force, on the contrary, pilots). He had during the shooting of his moving the gun a good aim and Guynemerův Fallout crashed near the war cemetery at Poelcapelle. According to the German report sent by the French, was at the crash site posted a noncommissioned officer and two paramedics. Vyprostili the body of an enemy pilot from the wreck being found, that the aviator has prostřelené forehead and torn off the first on the left hand. At the flyer they found a pilot's license with the name of Georges Guynemer. The form of the dead pilot to match the photo in the card, of which a photocopy was published in the German magazine. Guynemer, however, crashed right into the places that drtilo the fire of the british artillery, could not therefore be buried. After several days of continuous shelling had not discovered nor pilotovo body, nor his plane. They three German soldiers were never found. Probably fell in the fight.
Legend has it that Wissemanna hit the roulette of destiny about two weeks later, when his Rumpler was shot down Guynemerovým successor - Fonckem. But here we have a problem. Now we know that Lt. (not by hptm.) Kurt Wissemann was a national of Jasta 3, he flew fighter Albatros and never did not serve in reconnaissance units. Wissemann, however, actually claimed the victory of the Fallout at Poelcapelle, but the day before. Therefore, who actually shot down the biggest French hero will remain forever shrouded in mystery. However, the fact remains the fact that France just lost its most successful fighter.
The funeral feast to the honour of captain G. Guynemer was held at the airport, from which flew their last flight in Saint-Pol-sur-Mer. Commemorative speech uttered by general Anthoine:
"I Gathered you to give up the death tribute Guynemerovi. Nestojíme here even before his katafalkem, even over his grave. At Poelcapelle was not from his remains nothing found, like the sky, žárlící on your hero, reluctant připustiti to the earth remained after him, which he himself makes claims. Guynemer disappeared us forever and completely, like the miraculous forces was kidnapped into the heavens, into the realm of glory...
The people perish, France remains.
Everyone behind her fell, added one ray of the effulgence of its glory. Happy anyone who reproduces this national wealth, the wealth of záležející in the heroic qualities of the national..."
The chamber of deputies at its inauguration ceremony on may 19. October 1917 unanimously decided that the name of captain Georges Guynemer was engraved on a marble plate in the Pantheon.
In the crypt of the Pantheon, dedicated to the burial of the great men of France, was therefore set marble board with Guynemerovým on behalf of the next of the names of the most famous French generals. On the plate is engraved the last army of the quote:
"Died on the field of honor 11. September, 1917. The legendary hero, who fell after three years of bitter fighting in the full effulgence of his glory. Remain forever the purest symbol of national virtues: the indomitable firmness, explosive energy, and noble courage. Filled with faith in victory, left the French soldier undying pattern in it, always wake up the spirit of dedication and a noble emulation of the palm of victory."
When you do this, the inscription read one of the young aspirant, admiringly noted:
"If I deserved such a tribute, then I would like to died!"
Captain Georges Guynemer, he joined the military service as a volunteer on 21. November 1914. During his service in the air force, he graduated a total of 607 sorties, in which nalétal 665 hours 55 seconds (data from the last flight in the scrapbook is missing). Shot down 53 enemy aircraft. He himself was allegedly shot down eight times (I myself have only found five cases: 13. march 1916 at Verdun, 23. September 1916 own artillery, 6. June 1917 under the fire of the observer, whose pilot was already dead, 5. July 1917, the day when he was promoted to officer of the legion of honour and 11. September, when he was killed. However, it is possible that in those eight cases were included in some of the emergency landing, such as the three landing 10. September, or when you Guynemer 28. July 1916 shot off the propeller, after a failed synchroniser). He was awarded the Order of the legion of honour with the rank of officer (Officier de Légion d'honneur), War of the cross (Croix de Guerre) with more than twenty palm trees, Military medals (Médaille Militaire), the british Distinguished Service Order, Russian the Cross of St George, belgian Order of Leopold I., Romanian Order Michael Chrabrého, the Serbian Order of the Karadžordževiče and the montenegrin Order Danila Even. His last years, took 11. September, 1917.
Dot for his fighting career has made a note in the field book Escadrille SPA.3, the data from the 12. September, 1917, in the last right-hand column, the fine print:
"1 the captain of the lost."
*) - Vieux Charles means French old man Charles. Thus named Nieuport X used Charles Bonnard. After Bonnard walked away from the squadron N.3, took over his aircraft Guynemer, who was convinced that the nickname he wears luck. Therefore, it is not only on the aircraft left, but even then, the thus marked all his later aircraft. For the superstitious be pointed out that the aircraft, which was Guynemer killed, this nickname was not held.
Jules Roy: Guynemer: the Angel of death, and japan. Mustang, Pilsen 1997, ISBN 80-7191-221-2
J. The Estate, Of. Hurt: the Illustrated history of the aviation press. Our troops, Prague 1989, ISBN 80-206-0125-2
magazine ABC (do not know the specific number)
archive for the author.
Gotha – největší Guynemerův úlovek a 31. vítězství. Popisek na fotografii hovoří o 8.únoru 1917, ale zřejmě jde o datum pořízení snímku. Guynemer dosáhl tohoto sestřelu o 5 dní dříve.
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|Period||World War One / The Great War [1914-1918]|
| Plátno / Fabric
Dřevo / Wood
Černá / Black
|Serial No. / Evidence No.||-|
|Tactical Marking / Imatriculation||-|
|Print size / 300 DPI||A4|
|Published with authors permit||Published with authors permit|
Morane-Saulnier type L, na němž 19. 7. 1915 dosáhl u escadrilly MS 3 svého prvního sestřelu budoucí nejslavnější francouzský stíhač Georges Guynemer. Spolu se svým mechanikem Charlesem Guerderem, jenž ovládal kulomet Lewis upevněný na důmyslné otočné lafetě v prostoru pozorovatele. Letoun v továrním zbarvení, poháněný 9válcem Le Rhône. Kryt motoru novějšího typu s rozšířenou spodní částí.
Linked from : https://www.valka.cz/topic/postview/403625
|Period||World War One / The Great War [1914-1918]|
|Type||Nieuport N.17 C.1|
| Kov, stříbrná / Metalic, silver
Zelená tmavá / Dark Green
Hnědá / Brown
|Serial No. / Evidence No.||1530|
|Tactical Marking / Imatriculation||2|
|Unit||Stíhací letka N 3 [1916-1917]|
|Print size / 300 DPI||A4|
|Published with authors permit||Published with authors permit|
Nieuport 17, letka N 3, letiště Cachy. Osobní stroj legendárního G. Guynemera. Sériové číslo bývá udáváno 1530 nebo 1550 (je velmi těžké ho odečíst z fotografií). Stroj bývá někdy označován jako pátý "Vieux Charles", avšak letoun tuto přezdívku nikdy nenesl. Důvodem mohla být krátká doba používání, Guynemer údajně na stroji létal pouze 7.-21.8.1916. 21.8.1916 byl letoun poškozen po nouzovém přistání přímo v liniích. V noci byl "rozebrán" sekerami a dopraven zpět k letce, kde jeho stopa mizí. Letoun nesl nátěr hliníkovou barvou na všech plochách, kromě horní plochy křídel. Zde nesl nátěr tmavou zelenou, doplněný pásem tmavě hnědé. Na horních křídlech shora nebyly kokardy. Na spodním křídle zůstal po celém obvodu shora kolem kamufláže úzký hliníkový pás. Střední část horního křídla byla potažena průhledným potahem. Na pravé části horního křídla byla bílá číslice 2. Čáp a číslice 2 na trupu mohly být také černé. Letoun měl na křídlech a výškovce četné záplaty po průstřelech.
Linked from : https://www.valka.cz/topic/postview/545606 .
Třetí a poslední Spad S.VII Georgese Guynemera (53 s.) na kterém létal mezi jarem a létem 1917.
Tento stroj č. S.254 byl jedním z nejúspěšnějších (ne-li nejúspěšnější) stroj svého druhu. Guynemer na tomto stroji získal 19 ze svých 53 sestřelů. Byl to první Spad S.VII vybavený novým, výkonnějším osmiválcovým motorem Hispano-Suiza 8Ab s výkonem 180 koní (o 30 více než předchozí),
Trup, křídla a ocasní jsou v tovární béžové kamufláži, kapotáž motoru, a kokpit v šedějším odstínu. Na horním křídle a na boku letounu je Guynemerovo osobní číslo 2, před touto číslicí je čáp - znak eskadry SPA 3 "Les Cigognes" a pod výfuky u kokpitu Guynemerův osobní znak "Vieux Charles" (Starý Karel), jenž k smrti děsil všechny německé piloty a pozorovatele obzvlášť.
(Pozn. sériové číslo na obrázku nesouhlasí se skutečností, Guynemer nikdy nelétal na Spadu S.245, létal na celkem třech Spadech - S.115, S.132 a poslední S.254)
Guynemerův Spad S.VII S.254 válku přežil a dnes je v původním stavu k vidění v leteckém muzeu v Le Bourget jako jedna z hlavních součástí sbírky.
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Bernard Barny de Romanet
Mathieu Tenant de la Tour
Joseph de Sevin
Escadrille N 3
Guynemerova radost z úspěchu byla však zkalena tragickou událostí. Jeho velký přítel René Dorme, klidný a skromný muž, třiadvacetinásobný vítěz, jenž nikdy neinkasoval zásah do svého letadla, téhož dne při souboji zachytil křídlem o vrcholek stromu a zahynul.
Toto bych rád opravil dvakrát.
1. ohledně zásahu letadla, to není pravda, jelikož byl Dorme 20. prosince 1916 během souboje zraněn do ruky a poté byl do února 1917 odeslán na vynucenou dovolenou.
2. zahynul v souboji s Heinrichem Krollem od Jasty 9, pro kterého to bylo jeho 5. vítězství, ten souboj popsal takto : Začali jsme kolem sebe kroužit ve výšce 5300 m a postupně klesli až do 800 m, Dormeho Spad se najednou převrátil na nos, narazil přímo do země a vybuchl v plamenech. Dormeho tělo bylo tak znetvořené, že ho bylo možné identifikovat pouze podle hodinek. Kroll byl za odměnu za tento sestřel jmenován velitelem Jasty 24
3. klidný moc nebyl, nenáviděl Němce a chtěl se jim jakkoliv pomstít, proto má tolik nepotvrzených sestřelů, protože se často hnal za nimi i daleko nad jejich území. Když sestřelil svého 17. protivníka, kterým byl dvoumístný stroj, navštívil jednoho z osádky v nemocnici. Do deníku si Dorme zapsal toto: Můj vězeň mě požádal, abych shodil kousek papíru nad jeho domem, který měl vzkázat, že je jen zraněný, ... a že jeho rodiče mohou být obeznámeni. Francouzští otcové a matky trpí kvůli takovým, jako je on. Tak sem si tento vzkaz nechal jako suvenýr.
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Velmi dobře, Jirko!
Článek o Guynemerovi je velmi starý a některé části jsou poplatné mně tehdy dostupným zdrojům, toto konkrétně pochází z knihy Guynemer Anděl smrti, která je sice cennou studnicí citací například Guynemerových dopisů, jinak ale spíše připomíná beletrii, než faktografii.
Bohužel v češtině toho obecně o pilotech z první světové moc nevychází a tehdy jsem nebyl dostatečně technicky a jazykově zdatný, abych to dokázal poshánět z cizojazyčných publikací. Dnes už mám přece jen úroveň trochu jinde... Nicméně se mi nechce tyto staré články znovu přepisovat (to bych nedělal nic jiného, když uvážím, kolik jich tu mám), klidně pojďme touto cestou řekněme "doplňků a upřesnění".
Příspěvek prosím ozdrojuj, ať čtenáři vidí, že si to tu necucáme z prstu...