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Handley Page Hampden

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Handley Page Hampden[/heading:aaaaaa]

Label the Design of the aeroplane - a description
the Handley Page HP.52 of the 1st prototype Sn. K4240, built on the basis of the specifications F.9/32, first flight 21. June 1936, the engines of the Bristol PE 5
the Handley Page HP.52 2nd prototype flew in the summer of 1937, corresponded already to the serial execution engines Bristol Pegasus XVIII
the Handley Page HP.52 Hampden B Mk.I mass-produced bomber aircraft, built 1 430 aircraft of this version
the Handley Page HP.53 one aircraft modified according to Swedish demands, different armament, the 20 mm cannon Bofors and machine guns Colt
caliber 8 mm in the gun turret, the contract has not been implemented
the Handley Page HP.52 Hereford B Mk.I 150 piece series of daily bombers built on the basis of HP.53, the engines Napier Dagger VIII
the Handley Page HP.52 Hampden TB Mk.I 144 modified bombers into torpedo aircraft
the Handley Page HP.62 Hampden B Mk.II two prototypes built in Canada with engines Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G105, retroactively presented in the form of HP.52

Used springs:
Chaz. Bowyer, Hampden Specia, Shepperton, Surrey, UK Ian Allan Ltd., 1976. ISBN 0-7110-0683-0
Nicholas Roberts, Crash Log, Handley Page Hampden & Hereford, Earl Shilton, Leicestershire, UK Midland Counties Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-904597-34-2.
William Green, Famous Bombers of the Second World War, London, Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-356-08333-0.
Philip J. R. Moyes, The Handley Page Hampden, Aircraft in Profile 58. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK, Profile Publications Ltd., 1965.
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the Handley Page HP.52 Hampden B Mk.I[/heading:aaaaaa]

Directive B.9/32

The end of the year 1932 the british Ministry of aviation has drawn up the specifications marked B.9/32, these specifications were formulated requirements for a new bomber aircraft. Yet in the same year, these were the specifications forwarded to the four suppliers of aviation equipment and their design teams began to immediately work on new projects. In may 1933 were ministerial commission selected the projects of the two companies, the first of them was Armstrong Whitworth Limited, which has ordered the construction of two prototypes of heavier bombers with the designation AW.38, later, this type was known as Whitley, this aircraft was considered to be more suitable for night bombing. The other selected company was Handley Page Limited with the project of your daily bomber HP.52 and these two companies join a big british gun company Vickers Armstrongs Limited where dr. Barnes Neville Wallis developed a two-engined bomber, the Vickers Type 271 with the geodetic construction of the fuselage - a later Wellington. We further we will discuss mainly the project of the company Handley Page Limited, headquartered in Cricklewood with the factory designation of HP.52, the Project was the work of dr. Gustav Lachmanna and his design team.

Project Handley Page HP.52

Dr. Lachmann suggested in comparison with the competition light, fast and agile bomber, which, however, range and payload of bombs behind the competition gets left behind. HP.52 was designed completely differently than competitive aircraft, its fuselage was extremely slim (only 3 ft), this match also defensive weapons, all machine guns (Vickers) were stored in the stations and were manually controlled, i.e. passed out the weight of the motor-driven gun turrets, it must be said, however, that the version without the gun turrets definitively decided until in may 1938, by that time it was not the Ministry of aviation fully decided and still pointed to the fact that narrow range greatly limits shooting angles (which later also fully confirmed). The crew was a four piece and each member of the crew had available only their relatively tight space and it was the drawback of such a structure, e.g. the pilot was on the flight depend only on himself, if he was injured in the fight, he couldn't have it no one from the crew to replace - I just did not get into the pilot's seat. On paper, everything looked good, and so the project was HP.52 approved, subsequently ordered the construction of a wooden mock-ups in scale 1 : 20, that was completed in the summer of 1933, and after her blowing off the ministerial committee of the project approved and ordered the construction of two prototypes.


The construction of the prototypes is somewhat late, the delay was caused by the selection of drive units. Originally, the specifications required the engines Bristol Mercury VI or Rolls-Royce Goshawk. The first prototype (Sn. K4240), was powered by a pair of radial devítiválců Bristol PE 5, the final assembly of the aircraft took place in the Radlettu and from the local factory airport prototype flew, it did so on 21. June 1936. Behind the wheel sat the factory šéfpilot J. L. B. H. Cordes. After the factory trials, the aircraft was flown to the Research institute of aircraft and weaponry in the Martlesham Heath (AND&AEA), where he was subjected to further tests, in the meantime he was 6. July of the same year brought to the air show, the present was even king of Edward VIII. Test pilots in the course of the tests found a fairly decent flight characteristics and, as expected, was the prototype of the HP.52 faster and more agile than its competitors. Pilots praised as a very low landing speed, thanks to the slots accommodate offloading of spa and the landing klapkám was around 120 km/h. At the end of the year 1936 the machine received the name of Hampden, and thanks to its narrow fuselage still the nickname of the "Flying Suitcase" (the flying trunk). According to the latest manufacturing regulations changed the arrangement of defence equipment, this change was most visible in the installation of glazed aerodynamically clean the bow, where he had his place navigator-bombardier and front gunner in one person. All required adjustments were made on the second prototype, which was completed in may 1938, this machine represented a sample piece for a mass produced aircraft. In the meantime, however, she was already from August 1936 negotiated delivery 180 serial machines, and this was soon followed by another order for 100 bombers, which had to be delivered "the shadow factory" Short & Harland Limited in northern Belfast.

Mass production Hampdenů

The first mass-produced aircraft Handley Page HP.52 Hampden B Mk.I were designed for the tests and began to leave the parent factory in Cricklewood in mid-1938, the final assembly took place in assembly halls in Radlettu. These aircraft were powered by jumo devítiválci Bristol Pegasus XVIII about the power of 720 kW (965 hp). Tensions in Europe grew and so the production of Hampdenů was soon initiated also by English Electric Co. Ltd. in Preston and Canadian Associated Aircraft Limited in Canada (here was established a total of 160 aircraft of this type).

the Handley Page HP.52 Hereford B Mk.I

Even in 1939 was launched the serial production of the aircraft in "shadow" factory Short & Harland in Belfast. This production was preceded by the test, which was used by Sweden neodebraný prototype HP.53 (Sn.L7271). This modified machine has remained in the Uk, the fly was 1. 7. 1937 and after the end of the tests was handed over to the firm of Short & Harland Ltd. There manufactured aircraft from the other Hampdenů be distinguished by installing the dorsal turret, and above all the drive units. The prototype HP.53 after adjustments made, however, was certainly not successful and finally ended up as a flightless tool designed for training. The ministry of aviation after these experiences definitely left from the gun turrets and there built the machines differed only propulsion units. On the basis of the requirements of the Ministry of aviation have been in the motor nacelles installed just completed air-cooled čtyřiadvacetiválcové engines Napier Dagger VIII on the take-off power 712 kW (955 hp). These engines have been modified so that it can be mounted to the engine bed Hampdenu. This modified version of the Hampdenu bore the designation of the Handley Page HP.52 Hereford B Mk.Even and should be a kind of fuse, for the possible lack of engine the Pegasus. Unfortunately, the engines of the Napier Dagger VIII at all did not succeed, after their installation in Hereford with the full manifestations of fatal problems with the regulation of the temperature of the engine in all modes of flight, these engines couldn't heat efficient at full power and vice versa when the economic engine running this engine has considerably cooled. Problems with these bombers have acquired such a nature, that all the produced aircraft Hereford (150) were transferred to the training, i.e., up to 24 machines, to which were mounted the engines of the Pegasus. First got the Farm to your loadout 35. squadron in the Finningley, later had them in service with one squadron of the 185. squadron in Cottesmore. Only one aircraft of this type get into a single combat action, the other combat actions of the RAF with this bomber, didn't dare.

the Operating activities of the Bomber Command

The first unit armed with the new Hampdeny was 49. squadron RAF, which was in August 1938 the base in the Scampton. By the end of 1938 were Hampdeny armed with three squadrons and to the end of August 1939, i.e. before the outbreak of war was armed with ten squadrons of subject Bomber Command.
Hamdeny B Mk.I started fighting activity already 3. September 1939, because at this stage of the war not to bomb enemy cities and so were a target selected enemy ships for Wilhelmshavenu. The event was attended by 27 bomber Hampdenů from 49., 83. and 144. the squadron, these units belonged to the 5. bomber group RAF (Well. 5 Bomber Group RAF) and to the list of all the aircraft full, I have to mention nine Vickers Wellingtons belonging to the 37. and 149. squadron 3. bomber group RAF. The whole event was rather infamous - over the target area was a large cloud cover and the bombers plus kept coming here already quite late and so their crew could not the German ships found. The return of the unsuccessful action was also challenging, but most pilots in the dark, never been on a plane. The last Hampden lock on the parent airport just after midnight. For the success of so can be considered the fact that the crews of all bombers made it difficult to return at night and avoid any losses. Another important finding was the inadequate level of training of crews of the bombers, I mean, just the fact that the pilots of the bombers never fly in the night, or the fact that Hampdeny in the meantime, never do not bear the full load of bombs, it was the very warning signs. The RAF tried to drive Hampdenú put into daily action, this is, after all, determine their speed and agility, but the lack of armament was causal to their relatively numerous losses (more in the article self-conscious entree... ). In the period of the "phoney war", the units were armed with these machines intensively deployed in the actions, first dropped on the German cities a ton of flyers, and later they were naval mines, and bombs. Over the sea were their losses great, but if they were Hampdeny deployed to remote airstrikes on targets in Germany, their losses were growing. During the service some machines were retrofitted with additional armor protection and machine guns in the dorsal and the bottom střelišti were duplicated. RAF over time shifted unit Hampdenů to the night of the bombing, the crew was subsequently mostly extended by another member. At the Headquarters of bomber command the air force have done a unit armed with Hampdeny significant piece of work - to carry out 16 541 combat take-off on enemy targets toppled 9 100 tonnes of bombs and all this while the total losses of 607 aircraft, from this amount, however, was "only" 413 aircraft lost due to combat activity. Their last major action was the raid on Wilhelmshaven, which took place in the night from 14. 15. September 1942, their fighting activities at the Bomber Command was still hampered but continues to be used for reconnaissance or perform tasks for the meteorological units of the RAF.

Deployment at the Headquarters of the coastal air force

After they were Hampdeny withdrawn from first line service at the Headquarters of bomber command the air force expected is still a service at the Coastal Command, here the discarded bombers operational flying until the end of 1943 and were particularly successful in zaminovávání German shipping routes and ports. Magnetic mines laid Hampdeny the straits between Denmark and Germany was damaged several German ships (the magnetic mines had a weight of 907 kg). These aircraft engage in raids against the battle cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau a victim of them fell submarine U-227. In the years 1942-1943, that is, after completion of bombing operations was 144 Hampdenů B Mk.And regulated by the torpedo bombers with the designation Handley Page Hampden TB Mk.Also, the adjustment mainly involved the bomb bay and also fitting external pylons, after these modifications it was possible in the bomb bay to carry one osmnáctipalcové air torpedo Mk.XII (caliber 457 mm) of a weight of 730 kg. Torpedo Hampdeny mostly not the lower range.

In the foreign services

Hampdeny served almost exclusively in the air force states of the Commonwealth, with the exception of the kingdom of Sweden, which Hampdeny have expressed interest. The swedes demanded plovákovou adjustment and different armament, the 22. October 1938 was for Sweden was being prepared, a prototype designated the HP.53, eventually was delivered one modified aircraft HP.52 Hampden, with a different armament. This aircraft in the Swedish air force subsequently served under the designation P.5 unit Article 11 with the base in Nyköpingu, in November 1945, was sold by SAAB that it was used as a test until November 1947 with the civil registration SE-BAP. A second foreign user was the Soviet union. In the fall of 1942 operated from the airport Vaenga (Ваенга) north of the Murmansk two british troops, have been 144. and 455. wing, their mission was to provide air protection to the convoy PQ-18. After the completion of this task would be the staff of both units shipped back to the Uk and their armament, consisting of 23 Hampdeny was on 12. October 1942 transferred 2. and 3. squadron, 24. mino-torpedo regiment (24. МТАП) of the Northern fleet, Hampdeny here have been for lack of spare parts soon to be consumed. The last combat flight was made 4. July 1943. The Russian pilots did not have these aircraft in the over-popular and used for them the mocking name "Balalaika".

the Handley Page HP.62 Hampden Mk.II

To enumerate the versions of this airplane complete, I will mention even the existence of the two aircraft HP.62 Hampden Mk.II, their construction took place in Canada in 1940 and the reason for their inception, they were concerned about the lack of british engines of the Pegasus. Built were two prototypes, which were installed by the american motors Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G105 about the performance of the 820 kW (1,100 hp). It is not entirely certain whether these aircraft were zalétány, however, it is clear that they have been retroactively adjusted into the form of a serial Hampdenů HP.52.

Used springs:
Chaz. Bowyer, Hampden Specia,. Shepperton, Surrey, UK Ian Allan Ltd., 1976. ISBN 0-7110-0683-0
Nicholas Roberts, Crash Log, Handley Page Hampden & Hereford, Earl Shilton, Leicestershire, UK Midland Counties Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-904597-34-2.
William Green, Famous Bombers of the Second World War, London, Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-356-08333-0.
Philip J. R. Moyes, The Handley Page Hampden, Aircraft in Profile 58. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK, Profile Publications Ltd., 1965.
Jerry Day,.Hurt Hampden, Air Classics, Volume 45, Issue 4, April 2009
Jaroslav Schmid, Aircraft 1939-45 Fighter and bomber aircraft of Great Britain, II. part. Plzeň, The Publishing House Fraus, 1996. ISBN 80-85784-38-6.
Wojciech Holicki, Handley Page Hampden, Nowa Technika Wojskowa, 1999. Nr 2,ISSN 1230-1655.
author archive
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The first prototype Hampdenu marked Handley Page HP.52, serial number K4240. The first years graduated 21.06.1936 from Radlett Aerodrome in Herts, for kniplom saddles main skúšobný pilot factory Handley Page major J. L. H. B. Cordes.

Aviation Archive, the Medium Bombers of World War 2, Issue 31
Handley Page Hampden  -

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