Fokker Universal

Fokker Universal Fokker Universal
Originální název:
Original Name:
Fokker Universal
dopravní letoun passenger aeroplane
DD.MM.1925-DD.MM.1931 Fokker Aircraft Corp., Teterboro
Období výroby:
Production Period:
Vyrobeno kusů:
Number of Produced:
První vzlet:
Maiden Flight:
1 + 4
Základní charakteristika:
Basic Characteristics:
Vzlet a přistání:
Take-off and Landing:
CTOL - konvenční vzlet a přistání CTOL - conventional take-off and landing
Uspořádání křídla:
Arrangement of Wing:
jednoplošník monoplane
Uspořádání letounu:
Aircraft Concept:
klasické conventional
pevný fixed
Přistávací zařízení:
Landing Gear:
kola/lyže wheels/ski
Technické údaje:
Technical Data:
Hmotnost prázdného letounu:
Empty Weight:
1126 kg 2482 lb
Vzletová hmotnost:
Take-off Weight:
1728 kg 3810 lb
Maximální vzletová hmotnost:
Maximum Take-off Weight:
1950 kg 4300 lb
14.55 m 47 ft 9 in
10.82 m 35 ft 6 in
2.59 m 8 ft 6 in
Plocha křídla:
Wing Area:
30.66 m2 330 ft2
Plošné zatížení:
Wing Loading:
? kg/m2 ? lb/ft2
pístový piston
Počet motorů:
Number of Engines:
Wright J-4 Whirlwind o výkonu 149 kW, později
Wright J-5 Whirlwind o výkonu 164 kW
dvoulistá kovová vrtule
Wright J-4 Whirlwind, power 200 hp, later
Wright J-5 Whirlwind, power 220 hp
two-bladed metal propeller
Objem palivových nádrží:
Fuel Tank Capacity:
? ?
Maximální rychlost:
Maximum Speed:
190 km/h v 0 m 118 mph in 0 ft
Cestovní rychlost:
Cruise Speed:
159 km/h v ? m 99 mph in ? ft
Rychlost stoupání:
Climb Rate:
? m/s ? ft/min
Čas výstupu na výšku:
Time to Climb to:
? min do ? m ? min to ? ft
Operační dostup:
Service Ceiling:
3658 m 12000 ft
805 km 500 mi
Maximální dolet:
Maximum Range:
? km ? mi
- -
Uživatelské státy:
User States:

- -
Hegener, Henri. Fokker - The Man and his Aircraft. Harleyford Publications, Letchford 1961.
Munson, Kenneth. Airliners Between the Wars 1919-39, Blandford Press, Poole 1972. ISBN 0-7137-05671.
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The father of the first U.S.-developed transport aircraft brands Fokker were R. B. C. "Bob" Noorduyn, head of the firm, and his colleague And. Francis Archer. Before them stood a pretty fundamental problem - against Europe, aviation was in the U.S. half of the 20th. years greatly retarded, between transport aeroplanes prevailed converted military machines, usually even with open cockpits and little space for passengers or cargo, and as a result created even any real airline or air routes. Similarly, the chaotic look the second important part of the air transport, air mail, which usually also the origin of the military aircraft in 1925 operated by the government. For Noorduyna it mean to decide which area is more promising and for what to adapt to their new project - a light transport aircraft or aircraft for the transport of mail and cargo.

Noorduyn decided for a compromise - a cargo plane with windows to use even for pasažerskou transport. The interior could contain four seats, space with mesh panels for attachment of the cargo, or even a combination of seats and ok. As for the design, totally agreed with zaběhnutými habits of the parent factory - was made up of a combination of wooden wings in the hornoplošném arrangement with the fuselage of steel tubes coated canvas. Wing to bear in Europe at the time already unfashionable the strut. The pilot space, still open, was placed on the bow in front of the wing cover only a small glass the label, although on some later machines appeared fully covered cockpit. For the engine was selected by the air force has already proven Wright Whirlwind J-4, later also a version of the J-5, and some machines may even have a substantially stronger J-6. The new machine received the designation in the Fokker series of F (even if some authors he erroneously give the indication F.9), the factory designation of the sound Model 4 (Models 1 to 3 were conversions DH-4 such as Atlantic DH-4M).

In October 1925 was the Universal exhibited at the National air races at Mitchell Field near New York city. The date of first take-off is not known, but occurred probably shortly before. The press about the new aircraft appeared to be considerable interest, because the summer before was the Ford tour, the reliability, where among other things introduced the similarly conceived Ford funded Stout 2-AT Pullman, the progenitor of the future Ford Tri-Motor. Laudatory articles followed by the first orders from the company Colonial Air Transport, which Fokker was going to use to transport mail between New York and Boston. This was followed by additional orders, including from zahranničních users, and so Universaly flew in Nicaragua, Uk, Kenya, Costa rica, Honduras, Australia and Cuba. Special popularity has commenced in Canada, where it served to transport in the "bush" between settlements in the north, dopravujíc prospectors and their equipment from the golden fields to the field during the ongoing gold rush. Many of these machines were equipped with skis, or even floats. For another customer it was built even machine in its time a unique nose landing gear.

This interest in Universal certainly benefit the overall rise of interest in aviation and the public's confidence in the aircraft, which followed after the Lindbergh crossing the Atlantic ocean. In fact, in 1926, a then unknown Lindbergh, at that time a mere "air postman", interested in just about Fokker Universal, which wanted to use for my travel nonstop across the Atlantic. The company finally decided to risky business, not to go, worried about the reputation of the young american branch in case of failure. Lindbergh, therefore, went to the competition, and used the special Ryan NYP.

Another long-distance flight attempt in may 1932 sure Nat Brown, who planned to fly Seattle - Tokyo. For this years was offered a considerable reward, on the Brown but was expecting a major problem with a range - Universal, while pohl get enough fuel, but wasn't able with him take off. Brown decided to solve by refueling in flight, this method, although in their very early days, was already elsewhere carefully tested. In this case, should take place so that over its Universal ascended Fokker C. IV equipped with a hose. Helper on board hose captured, joined, and after refilling the reservoirs would itself like a waste of time down on the parachute. The aircraft was also further lightened, for example, instead of buckling wings got cables simplified chassis with balonovými tires and the partially covered cockpit. Because the aircraft was also so loaded with fuel to take-off occurred from a sort of ramp. Already at that time the wing dangerously it bent in the moment, when the machine rolled off the ramp to the plane, luckily it lasted, the aircraft successfully took off and in flight no cables worked as expected. But the problem occurred during an attempted overdraft of fuel per flight, when the hose has severely damaged the tail surfaces. Heavily stressed wing almost uncontrollable Universal in the end also looked like it would soon collapse, and Brown and his helper Frank Brooks rather have left the machine on parachutes. He shortly afterwards fell into the seattle bay, followed by two members of the crew. Both fortunately survived.

Universal had two military users, the already mentioned Cuba and Honduras. The cuban machine, even if purchased by the air force, became the first airplane of the cuban navy. In January 1928 it from Teterboro roved zalétávací the pilot of the Fokker Bernt Balchen, a Norwegian, who then became the companion of Richard E. Byrd during his record-breaking years. This machine was equipped with floats and the army air force too did not know of the council what to do with him actually doing until he was finally even with captain Eduardo LaBordem, the only pilot trained on a seaplane, converted the navy. Here captivated so much so that the president Machado recommended the purchase of six other seaplanes. For budgetary reasons from her, but gathered and other aircraft of the cuban navy received (as a sponsor gift from a rich youth, who then could say that naval pilots) until 1935, when it was Universal for a long time already eliminated. In a similar way stood Universal at the birth of the air force of Honduras. In this case, but it was already considerably olétaný the machine was originally flying at the companies Tela Railroad Company, yet, but temporarily lifted the number of honduran military aircraft by 25 %.

As another military user is sometimes claimed, for example, on the wiki, Hungary. In this case, but this is a mistake, a confusion with a different Fokkerem. In 1928, originated in the parent factory Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek Fokker machine is very similar to the concept, which received the designation F.XI and probably because of the use of the success of its overseas cousin, also the name of a Universal. With this, however, had much more in common than the other Dutch single-engine machines, which after all should be the exact same concept. F.XI with slightly larger dimensions, a covered cab, different tail surfaces and many dašími differences from the american Universal was made in only three pieces, one with the engine Lorraine 7A for the swiss company Alpar and two with the engines WM Jupiter VI for the Hungarian Malert. One of these Hungarian machines probably went through military service. When in the 70's. years, the australian company Ansett wanted to get a Fokker Universal, so she could expose as a reminder of the anniversary of its founding with these machines in 1936, found one Universal in Austria. Here, now more a pile of scrap metal than a plane for a long time served as a jungle gym. But now it turns out that it's just about F.XI Alparu - however, the company management had decided that, Fokker Universal as the Fokker Universal, the machine has to be as purchased, restored and exposed. Today, as we can see in the Sir Reginald Ansett Transport Museum in the australian city of Hamilton, the Dutch Fokker F.XI the swiss operator, in the coloring of the different Fokker Universal of the australian operator. None of the 45 of the "right" Universalů is not preserved.

Hegener, Henri. Fokker - The Man and his Aircraft. Harleyford Publications, Letchford 1961.
Hagedorn, Daniel P. Central American and Caribbean Air Forces. Air Britain, Tonbridge 1993. ISBN 0-85130-210-6.].
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Fokker Universal - Universal v barvách svého prvního provozovatele, Colonial Air Transport.

Universal v barvách svého prvního provozovatele, Colonial Air Transport.
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Fokker Universal -

Fokker Universal - Kanadský Bush pilot (pilot létající mezi malými osadami kanadského severu) G.W. Grant McConachie u svého lyžemi vybaveného Universalu.

Kanadský "Bush pilot" (pilot létající mezi malými osadami kanadského severu) G.W. Grant McConachie u svého lyžemi vybaveného Universalu.
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Fokker Universal - Zajímavý stroj s plováky a dodatečně zakrytým kokpitem.

Zajímavý stroj s plováky a dodatečně zakrytým kokpitem.
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