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(Not only) Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 2

In this next part we must deviate from purely prehistoric fortifications. This is due to the fact that localities that have so far been identified in our territory as the seat of prehistoric cultures were extensively used at the time of the arrival of Slavs to our territory and new fortifications were again erected on the remains of prehistoric cultures. the first princely and royal castles stood on them in the form of strongholds, and on many of them there are castles or their abandoned ruins to this day. So we will try to transfer to the deep past and, if possible, connect it to the present.

1920: Bolshevic secret services against Czechoslowak republic

The effort to secretly influence other states belongs to the roots of the Bolshevik Empire, the Soviet Union. It was taken over by retired KGB lieutenant colonel Vladimir Putin, who conducts the successor - Russian Federation. In fact, in both cases it was an imperial conquest - the acquisition of new territories or at least influence.

9cm mortar Škoda "U Cihelny"

The separate infantry bunker KS 14 "U Cihelny", part of the fortifications of the Kralická fortress area, is a two-sided two-winged two-bell army fortress building in the strongest and most durable design (3rd resistance class), situated north of the town of Králíky.

Action D

"It is remarkable that family members, especially the wives of detainees, remained completely calm, accepted the detention of the spouses calmly, so that their actions affected our authorities in the sense that they were prepared for this circumstance and that they explain their detainees' detention more as honors (sic!) than as punishment. "

Part of the evaluation report of the Ministry of the Interior of April 1949, concerning action D

Anti-State Center or Process with Slánský 2.0

Each of us sometimes has a feeling of déjà vu, that is, seen before. It occurred to me at the moment when I read in the news that the anti-mafia unit of the police had been secretly investigating the case of Jana Nagyová for a year as a " suspicion of sabotage ". According to them, an unnamed " organized group " of persons " intentionally damaged the constitutional establishment or the defense of the republic ."
Rostislav Bajgar prosecutor said on May 19, 2012, that on 20 March 2012 (ie two years ago! Sic!) police started "steps to verify the fact the offense of sabotage in the case now known as 'Nagyová and co.'"

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

1. Introduction In this work I deal with the reconstruction of the course of the Regensburg Trail, which, as is well known, led from Prague to Regensburg. It is assumed that the course of the journey in the early Middle Ages led from Prague via Beroun, Rokycany to the important early medieval center of Starý Plzenec, from where the road continued to Dobřany, Hradec u Stoda via Domažlice to Regensburg, Germany.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

2. The development of trails If we realize what the term "long-distance trail" means at all, we will find that it is a route that served for regular human communication at a greater distance, from the very beginning of human existence.)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

3. Status of previous research The interest in the Regensburg Trail began in the 19th century. Initially, the subject was not the road itself, but the border area, specifically the Czech-Bavarian border through which it passes. František Palacký expressed his first interest in leading the way, trying to pinpoint the location of the battlefield where the battle between Břetislav I and Henry III took place. in 1040. According to a study of the sources at the time, he was convinced that the road from Bavaria led through the Všerubský Pass. The same opinion was shared by Hermenegild Jireček, who spoke about the direction from the castle Chauby (Kouby) to Furth via Eschelkam to Neumarkt.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

4. Method of work - model line of the Regensburg trail As already mentioned in the introduction, in this work I focused on the section starting in Starý Plzenec, which continued to the border with Germany. Based on the literature presented in the chapter Status of previous research, I plotted the map in the GIS program, which focused on the territory of four former districts - Pilsen - City, Pilsen - North, Pilsen - South and Domazlice. In order to create a preliminary model of individual sections from this area, which were subsequently examined in the field, it was still necessary to work with several types of maps.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

5. The course of the Regensburg road If we want to consider determining the place where our border could be crossed in the simplest way possible, we must be aware of the landscape in which it is located. The border area with the Bavarian side of Germany is located in the places of the Bohemian Forest. Specifically, in this case, it is the Bohemian-Cubic Highlands, which freely passes into the Jezvinecká Highlands (Vejnar et al. 1984, 10). It reaches very high altitudes. The maximum values can be up to about 730 m above sea level. Therefore, it was very important at that time to choose a crossing point where it would not be necessary to overcome too many natural obstacles. Based on the studied literature and maps, I fully identify with the course of the trail, starting on the German side, which was designed by historian Eduard Maur (based on the studied work Rezenská cesta and the country trail in Domažlice).

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

6. Classification and creation of the database After the end of the field prospecting, all digital coordinates measured by the GPS Trimble device were imported into the Arcmap program, via ArcGIS 9.3. Now all points have gone through the same process as before the model was created. Orthophotomaps, maps of II. military mapping and the RETM raster map provided by the new version of the ESRI map server were used as background maps. Based on this, some imports had to be discarded. This happened when the markings on the map were not accurate enough.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

7. Interpretation As I mentioned above, after the overall evaluation, a total of 55 imports (objects) were analyzed. However, this result represents a small sample that could be used to answer certain questions using formalized methods (Neustupný 2007, 134). Therefore, only non-formalized methods were used.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

8. Dating Currently, several options are used to date the found relics of communication through direct or indirect dating. In case we need to find out the absolute data of individual imports, we can achieve this on the basis of historical reports, which inform about the given sections of a certain road. Another very important source is archaeological artifacts found directly on the site or in its vicinity, which were obtained by accidental finding, archaeological research or using a metal detector (Nový 2008, 12). This last mentioned method was successfully used, for example, in the research of the Golden Trail (Kubů - Zavřel 2009, 61).

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

Summary

The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

11. Summary

The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

In this work I focus on the reconstruction of the Regensburg Trail, which, as is well known, led from Prague to Regensburg. It is assumed that the course of the journey in the early Middle Ages led from Prague via Beroun, Rokycany to the important early medieval center of Starý Plzenec, from where the road continued to Dobřany, Hradec u Stoda via Domažlice to Regensburg, Germany.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region

Aryanization meant the transfer of property of the Jewish population into the hands of non-Jewish administrators and later owners. The "Aryanization" was based on the theory of the superior Aryan race, which was presented by the German nation and where Jews had no right to live, but were still considered enemies of the nation, as well as Roma and Lusatian Serbs. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 to apply the Nazi ideology in full.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region 2.

2. Arization of Jewish property in the Kolín region On March 15, 1939, German military troops invaded the truncated Czech territory. Their task was to break a potential enemy and ensure a peaceful transition of the economic sphere and public administration under German control. According to Hitler's order, all executive power was entrusted to General von Brauchitsch, who then transferred it to his subordinates, General Blaskowitz for the territory of Bohemia, and General List for the territory of Moravia.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the example of the Kolín Region: Conclusion

The Nuremberg Laws deliberately provided for the broadest possible definition so that the administrative authorities had a sufficiently free field of competence to maximize the Aryan profit, which benefited a large part of the German population. However, most of this activity served to fulfill the state coffers and the associated financing of the arms industry.

Arization in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on the Example of the Kolín Region: Introduction

Aryanization meant the transfer of property of the Jewish population into the hands of non-Jewish administrators and later owners. Arization was based on the theory of a superior Aryan race, which was represented by the German nation and where Jews had no right to live, but were still considered enemies of the nation, as were the Roma and Lusatian Serbs. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, nothing prevented him from fully applying Nazi ideology.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (1)

The real history of our state in the twentieth century is basically not taught in schools until 1918. It also ceased to be politically correct to show what happened during the war here in the Protectorate and what happened after the war. In particular, any notes, photographs, or documents about Nazi crimes evaporated like steam over a pot. What a difference, for example, from Germany, where exhibitions are held on the crimes of Nazism, on the crimes of the Wehrmacht, children learn what Nazism or the Holocaust were…

Bloody Spring of 1945 (12)

The first defeat of the idea of Great Germany Three most successful Austrian lies:
1. Mozart was Austrian
2. Hitler was German
3. Austria-Hungary was broken by the Czechs

Bloody Spring of 1945 (2)

In order to further investigate what actually happened, we need to ask ourselves the basic questions that the world has known since ancient Rome and is used by forensic scientists today.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (8)

After the previous chapter, it would be "politically correct" to write something about those "good Germans" who did not participate in Nazi crimes and tried to either oppose or simply survive this terrible time.

Bloody Spring of 1945 (9)

It is not in anyone's power to describe and list all the places of horror that Nazism has brought to the world. Even the description of what happened in the original territory of Czechoslovakia is frightening and extensive, that it goes beyond today's ideas. To show the horror of that time, I will focus in this section only on a small, selected section of crimes, both spatially and temporally.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (4)

Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "

Bloody Years 1938-45 (5)

The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …

Bloody Years 1938-45 (6)

Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (7)

Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...

Bloody Years 1938-45 (8)

Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.

Central Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, that is what I would call the part of Europe where in the years 1852-1918 the legal, monetary, economic and customs union of two states, namely the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was located. This union ended with the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of 1918 after the First World War, although this union lasted legally until 1919, so we can consider its real demise in 1918.

Cheb District

Cheb is the westernmost territory of the Czech Republic and, moreover, remarkable for its historical development. In addition, the Cheb region also became one of the most striking places where the two cultures, both Czech and German, converged and enriched each other. Because not only in relation to the Germans is it bad to remember, but also what is good and what unites us and there is a lot of it, such as a common history, mentality, cultural roots, blood ties, etc.

Chlumec nad Cidlinou 24. - 26.3.1775

On the way from Prague to Hradec Králové on the road I / 11 between Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Nové Město, we pass a statue of a peasant insurgent on the left. The work of sculptor Jakub Obrovsky, which was to be unveiled in September 1938, was not installed until 10 years later - in September 1948, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the abolition of robots. The statue commemorates one episode of the so-called "peasant storms", which erupted in northeastern Bohemia as early as January 1775 and continued with greater or lesser force until the summer of that year. What was its course and result is clear from the established saying: "They landed like the peasants at Chlumec".

City rights of the Czech Kingdom

It would certainly be a mistake to devote to in the first paragraphs of the work directly to the file's Rights city of the Czech Kingdom, which is not entirely wrongly attributed to Paul Christian of Koldín, though just Christian of Koldín wasn't the only one who is on the compilation of the file involved. Not to include this file into the historical events, or at least not to mention the development efforts on the codification of municipal law, I would consider it a gross mistake. Therefore, the treatise on the file I will leave to the next chapter.

Communists' dissatisfaction with military courts after "Victorious February"

"The Senate of the High Military Court, as composed of the trial of General Karel Janoušek and others, and perhaps the High Military Court in Prague, is simply not enough at all for trials of such importance. It must be stated that the conduct of a process of this kind and significance at the regional court in Pankrác after the February events is completely differently prepared, completely differently managed and conducted in a completely different spirit, corresponding to today and the interest of the state. […] This fact was noticed immediately at the beginning of the main hearing by the lawyer of Lt. Col. Hanuš, who declared that the military penitentiary and the High Military Court in Prague are a "sanatorium" comparing to Pankrác prison. " From the report of Col. gšt. Reindl, a member of the 5th Department of the General Staff of the Ministry of Defense, June 17, 1948

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

Introduction The confiscation of Sudeten German property is sometimes referred to as a legitimate property sanction against the enemies and traitors of the Czech nation. On the other hand, in connection with confiscation, the denial of one of the basic democratic principles, which is the inviolability of private property rights, is sharply criticized.

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

1. Expulsion The confiscation of property followed the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans, which was a necessary precondition for it. In the first chapter I want to briefly deal with its course, the legislative aspect of the adopted solution. I want to point out how complicated and sometimes unresolved the process of deportation was and how the forced departure of the German population took place in Rumburk. When did the relocation in Rumburk begin? What was his speed, course? How many German residents were affected by forced departure?

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

3. Rumburk The town of Rumburk is located in the northernmost part of Bohemia in the Šluknov promontory. From 1850 to 1960 it was a district town and in the Sudetenland in northern Bohemia it was one of the most important municipalities. It represents the natural center of the Šluknov promontory, it is an important hub of road and railway transport. Until the Munich Agreement (September 29, 1938), Rumburk as a city in the Sudetenland was considered an indisputable part of the Czech state. Due to its location, however, it was surrounded by a German-speaking population.

Confiscation of industrial property of Sudeten Germans after 1945 on the example of Rumburk

4. RINCO Werke industrial confiscation My initial hypothesis is that the confiscation did not proceed according to a clearly defined plan, but was carried out suddenly, unsystematically, thus giving considerable scope for various illegal transfers of property. I will try to prove my hypothesis on the example of RINCO Werke. Will I try to answer the questions of why the national administration was imposed, the confiscation area and what was the fate of the company as a result? What are the powers of the national administrators, who had real power in the management of the business, in dealing with the confiscated property?

Crime, throat justice and punishments in pre-1621 towns

From time immemorial, like other human activities, a person has been accompanied by crime in his society, whether in the form of minor thefts, murders or even crimes against ideology. It is the latter that we have connected mainly with the time of communism in our republic, but the judgment of this crime goes much deeper into the history of our nation.

Czech Blood

John of Luxembourg was raised according to the best principles of chivalry. No one was born a knight at that time. The title of knight applied only to those who were knighted.

Czech Blood

Explaining the causes of the Hundred Years' War would be difficult and time consuming. Suffice it to say that the death of King Charles IV "The beautiful" of France, third son of Philip IV. (his older brothers, kings Louis X and Philip V died childless) , in 1328 the Capetian royal line died out and the crown passed to Philip of Valois, cousin of Charles IV., ie the descendant of the nearest side branch of the Kapet family. During his coronation as King of France, he adopted the name Philip VI.

Czech Blood

Then John of Luxembourg turned to the knight by his side: "Young Climber, say briefly, remember that you had a good father whom no one blamed for evil, and he did much good. And you're also a knight bold, young, good, kind of adult. Knowing that thou wilt not lead me away, but I trust that thou shalt lead me, and where I will tempt thy sword ...

Czech Blood

So Philip VI returned to Paris, picked up all the troops at hand, and began to pursue the English. Here comes the time of another hypothesis, according to which John of Luxembourg became the commander of the vanguard of the entire French army.

Czech Blood

It is believed that the second French company developed to the left of Alençon and more behind him, opposite the Black Prince's company. The theory of this position is supported by two clues.

Czech Blood

The names of the Czech knights who perished together with Jan of Luxembourg in the battle of Kresčak are mentioned in a later verse poem, but these names are not confirmed by period sources.

Czech money on fire

It was Friday, August 12, 1881, the evening was approaching. The weather did not suggest that summer should culminate at this time. Every now and then clouds came, and rain fell from the leaden clouds. A soldier on duty at the Vyšehrad citadel saw smoke rising from the roof of the just completed National Theater. The same picture was seen about an hour later by the workers of one of the Smíchov factories. Despite all the efforts of the firefighters, the work of destruction was completed after several hours of futile fighting. The roof of the National Theater collapsed, leaving only the perimeter masonry. Even that was in many places cracked by fierce heat.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

1. Introduction For our work, we have chosen to study the time of the First Republic, focusing mainly on the 1930s in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

2. General provisions of the First Republic For our work, we have chosen to study the time of the First Republic, focusing mainly on the 1930s in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

3. The organization of the Czechoslovak police after 1918 For our work we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the thirties, to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

4. Organization of the Czechoslovak gendarmerie after 1918 For our work we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the thirties, to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

5. Other armed forces For our work, we have chosen to study the time of the First Republic, focusing mainly on the 1930s in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of those years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

6. Gendarmerie stations on the border For our work, we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the 1930s, in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

7. Gendarmerie Chronicles from the Cheb Region For our work, we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the thirties, to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

8. Cheb gendarmes during the Munich crisis We chose to study the time of the First Republic for our work, we focused mainly on the 1930s, in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

9. The situation in 1938 and the following events taking place in the Cheb region For our work, we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the 1930s to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

Conclusion For our work we have chosen to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the 1930s in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovak gendarmerie in the Cheb region in the 1930s

For our work, we chose to study the time of the First Republic, we focused mainly on the 1930s, in order to better penetrate the context and understand the events of these years. The work is focused primarily on the armed forces, especially the gendarmerie, but in order to properly approach the function and competencies of the gendarmerie, it was necessary to introduce similarly to the police and other forces that formed a structured network to ensure order in the republic.

Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1938 from an economic and legal point of view

The autumn of 1938 is well known from the pens of historians in Czechoslovak history, when the first Czechoslovak Republic ceased to exist as a result of the withdrawal of the borderland and the second Czech-Slovak Republic was established. Therefore, I would not like to repeat all the known facts here. Until now, I would try to empathize with the attitude of a cold-blooded trader whose goal is to survive in the market, and with that let's always approach problems. Therefore, my dear readers for a moment get rid of any ideology. A few years ago, I read a book by the outstanding thinker Master Sun: "On the Art of War." In this book, I was drawn to the idea that everyone was to beat themselves. While victory is the result of the abilities of the winner and the inability of the loser.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

Introduction “Just retribution to all direct and indirect, active and passive perpetrators of the war to teach all future and - to break up for good! Otherwise, an unprecedented massacre would have to take place between our nations after this terrible war! We can and must prevent this at all costs: ”This is how President Edvard Beneš saw the end of Czech-German coexistence on Czechoslovak territory after the end of the Second World War.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

1. Development of Jesenice until 1945 After the end of the First World War in 1918, the local Germans welcomed the creation of an independent province of Sudetenland, which should be part of the so-called German Austria. This step was strongly supported by the German Social Democrats. However, this did not happen, the Czechoslovak government wanted to preserve the historic borders of the republic, which included the Sudetenland, so the province was dissolved in December 1918.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

2. Circumstances and course of German displacement With the end of the war approaching, the issue of unfortunate ethnic composition in Czechoslovakia became more and more topical. A significant German minority, which after the census in 1930 made up approximately 21.9% of the population in the Czechoslovak Republic, by its behavior during the 1930s, especially during Munich and the subsequent establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, gave the Czech nations many reasons to accelerate its influence. One of the solutions was her displacement from Czechoslovak territory.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

3. Economic and social impacts of the expulsion of Germans Jesenice was one of the few areas where, in my opinion, the main problem was not to ensure the proper expulsion of Germans, but above all how to deal with this high population decline. The drastic loss of almost 85% of the population can already cause the demographic collapse of the region, so I would omit any moral assessment of the displacement of the German population and focus on the economic and social consequences of this process. However, I would like to start the chapter with the topic of the new settlement of Jesenice, which was necessary for the preservation of the district and its economic recovery after the Second World War, and which completely changed its national character.

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

Conclusion One of the arguments for the expulsion of the Germans was that Czechoslovakia wants to get rid of national minorities that could threaten the position of Czechs and Slovaks in the future. He wants to start a new stage of history with a uniform composition of inhabitants made up of Czech and Slovak citizens. However, Jesenice was settled not only from Czechoslovak territory, but also from abroad. People from Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, re-emigrants from Ukraine and Volyn came here. The local people tried to de-germinate everything they could, while being forced to accept new customs and traditions from other nations. This composition destabilized the Jesenice region not only culturally, but also affected social relations between the inhabitants, who at first had no confidence in each other. I would describe this issue with the phrase "one stranger out the door, another through the window back".

Economic and social impact of the expulsion of the Germans in Jesenik area in the years 1945-1947

The bachelor's thesis focuses on one of the turning points in the history of Jesenice, taking place in the years 1945 - 1947, when most of the local population was displaced from this almost German border area as part of the expulsion of the Germans. The first part of the thesis evaluates the development of Czech-German relations in the Jesenice region. The second part, in addition to the expulsion itself, analyzes in more detail the individual measures against the Germans together with the central Beneš decrees. The aim of the work is to evaluate the consequences of deportation, which is discussed in its third part. The main emphasis is placed on economic and social impacts, supplemented by a practical demonstration of changes in property relations in one of the Jesenice municipalities. The analysis also includes the replacement of the German minority with new settlers in the settlement process. The work is based on unpublished (archival, oral history) and published sources and professional literature, uses historical and economic methods (including statistical, biographical).

Eights in our history

In the Czech nation, it is said that in the 20th century, the eight at the end of the century is fatal for us. However, this is not quite true - the eights, which signaled a certain breakthrough, we know from centuries past. For example, in 1348, Emperor and King Charles IV founded University of Prague - today Charles University. In May 1618, the evangelical nobles expelled two imperial governors and a scribe from Prague Castle - this defenestration was the beginning of the aristocratic resistance, which ended with the final subordination of the Czech lands to the Habsburg dynasty and their incorporation into the Austrian monarchy. In the turbulent year of 1848, when a number of uprisings broke out in Central Europe, the inhabitants of Prague also rose - their defeat led to the strengthening of the Austrian government. Ten years later, the National Theater in Prague began its activities - one of the symbols of patriotism. In 1878, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers 'Party was established in Prague - the first workers' party in the Czech lands.

Export of weapons from Czechoslovakia to capitalist foreign countries (1950–1960)

Traditions of the Czech, resp. of the Czechoslovak armaments industry dates back not only to the time of the first Czechoslovak Republic, but much further, to the times of Austria-Hungary. In the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was one of the ten largest arms exporters in the world, and during the Nazi occupation, the sector continued to grow and modernize. World War II did not do much damage to armaments companies in our territory, so it could boldly follow the pre-war parameters of exports.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

Introduction I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans to World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations he was directly affected by it, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

1. Common history of Czechs and Germans in Bohemia and Moravia The first ethnically known inhabitants in the territory of today's Bohemia and Moravia were the Celtic Buoys. They attracted to this territory during the great migration of the Celts, which took place around 400 BC. About three hundred years later, they were expelled by the Germanic Marcomanni. During the migration of peoples, the Slavs settled in Bohemia. Due to the fact that they focused on agriculture, they chose mainly fertile areas in the interior of the Czech basin.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

2. Displacement of the Sudetenland on the basis of decrees of the President of the Republic Edvard Beneš In connection with the Second World War, two ethnic movements based on ethnic principles took place on the territory of the Czechoslovak Sudetenland. The first was the transfer of the Czechs originally living here to the interior of the republic after the Munich Agreement and the occupation of this territory by the Third Reich in 1938. The second was the expulsion of Sudeten Germans to Germany after World War II.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

3. Settlement of the Sudetenland An integral part of the expulsion of the Germans was the settlement of the border with new inhabitants. These were mainly Czech citizens or Slovak nationalities from the interior, which were to a lesser extent supplemented by Czechs coming from abroad, but also foreigners. There were certain Czech enclaves in the inhabited area, which persisted even during the occupation period. It was 10-12% of the total population of the Sudetenland.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

Conclusion In my bachelor's thesis I tried to describe to a given extent the story of the historical coexistence of Czechs and Czech Germans in a common state and the outcome of this coexistence into a tragic collision during and after World War II. The relationship between the two ethnic groups built for centuries did not survive the dramatic crossover of the territorial expansion of a united Germany and the re-search resp. the search for the state-sovereign identity of Czechs and Slovaks as directed by the Central European area of the 20th century.

Expulsion of Sudeten Germans after World War II - economic and political context

I chose the topic of the expulsion of Czech Germans after World War II for my bachelor's thesis because it is still a living topic and fed by many. The alternating statements on the one hand of various Sudeten German expatriate associations and on the other hand of representatives of Czech society and the state must be registered by anyone who regularly reads newspapers and watches TV news. The debatable phenomenon of collective guilt and the even more debatable right to its collective punishment, the historical context of the so-called Beneš decrees, the dispute over the use of the term "expulsion", the obligation reminded by both parties of dealing with the past, they repeat in these statements. It is clear that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans after World War II. marked not only the lives of the generations that was directly affected, but also the political and economic context of the years to come and, in the context indicated above, our presence.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (1)

Hunger and Poverty From great politics and great struggles, let's look at the ordinary civic life of Austria, including the Czech and Moravian lands in 1917 and 18, until the Czechoslovak Army appeared in the republic as a "black swan". That is, as an unexpected force that ultimately helped resolve the dispute for the future.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (3)

3. Food Wins the War This was reportedly said by Herbert Hoover, later the 31st President of the United States, during World War I. In 1917, when America entered World War II, he was head of the US Food Administration .
Hoover was aware that the most important thing for Europe's future was to provide food for children, as they were more sensitive to malnutrition than adults. Malnutrition affects children under the age of two first and foremost, but children under the age of 15 and adolescents are also at risk. In crisis situations, malnutrition is one of the most common causes of illness and death.

Fight for the Republic 1918-1920 (4)

Law and collective guilt After many centuries, when Czech, Moravian and Silesian Germans were members of the national majority and considered themselves part of everything "German" - including Austria - they suddenly found themselves in 1918 in a situation where they were members of a minority. Czechs and Slovaks, overlooked by their German and Hungarian neighbors and underestimated as they flourished, began to be considered brazen competitors. The war ended and the "nobodys" were suddenly called Czechoslovaks ...

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 1)

We've heard a lot about the Hussite wars ( or the Hussite revolution, if you will ). Less about what preceded them and why they actually started. No wonder. These were religious wars, and we went to school at a time when the religion was "scientific" materialism. The following article is a small attempt to at least partially close this information gap ...

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 10)

After the king's death, events took an unprecedented turn. As Vavřinec of Březová writes, the very next day, ie August 17, 1419, “some of the common people, or the common people, gathered and, with the consent of the Old Town Mayor Jan Bradatý, ran without fear of churches and monasteries in the city of Prague and broke and destroyed organs and paintings of churches, especially those in which communion was not allowed in any way ... "

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 11)

Václav Koranda Sr. first appears in the sources in 1414 as a parish priest from Pilsen and an enthusiastic spreader of the ideas of Master Jan Hus. As early as 1417, however, the leading master of the University of Prague, Křišťan of Prachatice, rebuked him in writing that while the followers of the chalice had previously praised and admired him for his eloquence and perseverance in defending the Truth, they now paused to throw images of saints from the church. and omits at worship everything that is not directly documented in the Bible. In short, Václav Koranda put all his eloquence into the service of chiliasm and declared Pilsen the chosen City of the Sun.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 12)

Václav Koranda and his faithful in Pilsen were waiting for the arrival of Jesus Christ more and more impatiently. The supply was dwindling, the royal army made it impossible to replenish them, and the priests were right to fear that even the most fiery sermons on the salvation of souls would soon be drowned out by the rumbling stomachs of the listeners.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 2)

In addition to the nobility, at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, the "secular lords" also included royal cities, which were not only privileged centers of crafts and trade, but in many cases also owners of agricultural land in their vicinity, and thus lordly lords.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 3)

The operation of the three papal courts was, of course, quite expensive. The usual fees and taxes could not be increased or listed indefinitely, and so all the incumbent Holy Fathers began to sell so-called indulgences on a large scale. According to Catholic doctrine, forgiveness is the remission of punishments for sins imposed by the church or God and which are either served on earth or must be served in purgatory. Of course, only those sins that have already been forgiven at confession can be forgiven in this way. For example, instead of fasting on bread and water, a penitent can be cleansed by prayer and almsgiving.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 4)

Not only in England, but also in Bohemia, preachers sought a way to redress the church and society. The German Konrád Waldhauser, who was invited to Prague by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV., Rebuked not only church dignitaries, but also nobles and burghers for its extravagant life. He condemned women's fashion and most of the more pleasant (and therefore sinful) aspects of life. He is said to have been a great success among German-speaking listeners.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 5)

The visit of Hus's sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel became an essential part of most social life for most Praguers. No wonder. The pulpit meant the same for medieval man as the newspaper, radio, television, and the Internet meant for man today. The impressive media productions of the chubby, but allegedly strongly charismatic preacher were visited not only by rich and poor burghers, but also by nobles and prominent members of the royal court. Occasionally, the king's wife, Sophia, came to listen to the popular preacher.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 6)

The spreading reputation of Bohemia as a paradise for heretics eventually led to the intervention of the monarch himself. Wenceslas IV, allegedly at the urging of his wife Zofia, a regular visitor to the Bethlehem Chapel, called on the archbishop to revoke the curse and to compensate the owners of the burned books. In addition, Hus defended himself with several letters of intercession addressed to the Pope.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 7)

In the summer of 1414, King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Roman and Hungarian, agreed with Pope John XXIII. to convene another ecclesiastical council in Constance, where the sad affair with the Triad was to be finally resolved. Apparently they agreed on other things as well, because Sigismund invited Jan Hus to this council and offered him the opportunity to defend his views before the highest ecclesiastical body.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 8)

Hus's death provoked in Bohemia exactly the reaction that Cardinal Zabarella and other more prudent participants in the Council of Constance expected. Resistance and outrage. Hatred. While in May 250 Czech nobles protested in Constance, in September 1415 almost twice as many - 452 - affixed their seals to another protest letter.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 9)

Encouraged by the example of the highest places, Czech lords and knights began to occupy church property. Some to help the church in its return to evangelical poverty, others to help protect it from this help. The consequence was objectively the same in both cases - the church was poor ...

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 1. Introduction

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 2. Theoretical foundations of the Soviet military

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 3rd Soviet Army in the 1960s

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 4. Organization of the Warsaw Pact

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 5. Soviet interests and geopolitics

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 6. Conclusion

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Geopolitical aspects of Soviet aggression against Czechoslovakia in August 1968 - 7. Information sources

The dissertation focuses on the general context of the aggressive action of the five armies of the Warsaw Pact Organization towards Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Unlike historiographies of generally favored ideological contradictions, it seeks explanation of the whole event in the basic aspects of promoting the superpower interests of the Soviet Union, especially in the military-strategic field. However, the problem with processing is the lack of primary information sources, which are still subject to the strictest secrecy. In contrast, information is available, including theoretical analyzes of doctrinal issues in the professional press. Above all, however, it is possible to use information on the practical implementation of organizational and conceptual guidelines, which were based on doctrinal and strategic concepts. Due to the close interconnectedness of the armed forces of the Warsaw Pact Organization, the basic outlines of Soviet strategic concepts can also be observed from their application in Czechoslovak conditions. Given the apparent continuity of Soviet foreign and military policy from the 1930s to the 1980s, geopolitical aspects of active Soviet involvement on the international stage could be defined. The Soviet political and military leadership, regardless of the ideological rejection of the terms "geopolitics" or "life interests," was in principle guided by them. The work thus shows the significant interconnectedness of Soviet superpower ambitions, especially with the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern space.

Great Moravia

Great Moravia was an important period of our nation. Its geopolitical center was Mikulčice, Staré město - Sady and Pohansko, located today in the Czech Republic, in the districts of Břeclav, Hodonín and Uherské Hradiště. Great Moravia was the second phase of our statehood after Sámov's empire and before the Czech Principality, so it is one of the legal predecessors of the Czech Republic.

Guilds in Milevsko

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 1. Development of Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 2. Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted in Milevsko. sufficient attention.

Guilds in Milevsko: Conclusion

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: Introduction

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Heroes who didn't fit (1)

Originally, it was supposed to be just an article about the unveiling of one memorial plaque. But then it turned out that it would probably be small, even in relation to those who were left with only letters engraved in marble. Remember living, brave people. They don't even have a grave. Their ashes were dumped in the dump of the Mauthausen concentration camp and on roads in the surrounding area. Of course, it is a memorial plaque to 294 heroes of the Heydrich's dead revenge (photo: Jiří Wagner) writing long. Who doesn't want to, don't read it. But everyone should ...

Heroes who didn't fit (2)

In order to best clarify our own history and get rid of all the deposits and propaganda purposeful lies, the study also uses documents created by the "other party" - the Nazis ...

Heroes who didn't fit (3)

After the killing of Heydrich, terror began in the Czech lands that had not been practiced here since the 17th century. However, the Nazis were fundamentally mistaken in assessing its impact. The obsession that Hitler obviously suffered towards the Czech nation and personally towards Beneš led in its political consequences to significantly negative results for the Germans themselves ...

Holasic area

Holasicko, surely many of you will be wondering where to look for this area? This is an area in the northeast of the Czech Republic around the city of Opava (Opava, Krnov and Hlučín regions) and the adjacent area in the north, today located in Poland.

I'm worried about our country

Until the early 1990s, Czechoslovakia fell under the curator of the realm of communism, the Soviet Union. After the coup in November 1989, we rejoiced in freedom, but it took some time before we fully realized that the West, including Germany, from which the two world wars had fought, was no longer our enemy. And then we tried to get along with our western neighbors, returning to the forgotten good manners and rules. When we became a little civilized, they brought us to NATO and the European Union

In difficult times (1/20)

Since the existence of the military conflict between Czechoslovakia and Hungary in the years 1918 - 1919 is completely unknown to most of society today, I decided some time ago to prepare a detailed study on this topic. After several years of hard work with searching in various sources, confronting facts and ways directly to the places of battle, after many difficulties for the general public I present the processed material of this war, which often did not compete with the just ended World War I.

In difficult times (11/20)

Czechoslovak troops were eventually repulsed by Salgótarján by the superiority of the Hungarian army. Let's look briefly at the causes of this failure. This was followed by a quick and strong Hungarian offensive against the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia, with the subsequent retreat of the Czechoslovak fighting. army. After an unsuccessful defense, Miškovec was also lost at the time. The Hungarian offensive then continued further, towards the interior of Slovakia ...

In difficult times (12/20)

For political and practical reasons, the Czechoslovak government at the beginning of June 1919 gave the command of troops in Slovakia into the hands of the French military mission. Subsequently, the French General Pellé took command on June 4, 1919 over the Czechoslovak army in Slovakia from the Italian general Piccion. We describe the fight of Czechoslovak units at the turn of May - June 1919 in the western section with the Hungarian V Army Corps.

In difficult times (14/20)

Fighting for Nové Zámky at the beginning of June 1919. Other volunteers come to Slovakia. The third attack on the conquest of Levice on the basis of a plan with the involvement of reserves and its cessation on June 24, 1919. Arrival of II. division of gen. Šnejdárek.

In difficult times (15/20)

June battles of the home 2nd Division in the area of Zvolen and Bánske Štiavnica. Fights near Tisovec. The advance of the 2nd Division from the direction of Zvolen and Bánska Štiavnica to Levice, to attract the attention of the Hungarian defense and facilitate the advance of the planned third attack on Levice.

In difficult times (17/20)

The June fighting of 1919 on the eastern Slovakia. Fighting with Hungarian troops in their attempt to break through eastern Slovakia further north to the Russian Red Army. Heavy fight at Kysak.

In difficult times (18/20)

June hard fights in the area of the Slovak New Town. Thanks to their superiority, the Hungarians made their way through eastern Slovakia almost to the Polish border - weaker Czechoslovak troops retreated through a tenacious fight. The threat of a merger between the Hungarian and Russian Red armies is serious. Fighting around Košice and Prešov. Under the patronage of the Hungarian Republic of Rad, the Slovak Republic of Rad was established in eastern Slovakia in Prešov on 16 June 1919. In a difficult situation, resolutely Czechoslovak troops, often without the necessary equipment, repeatedly try to attack the superiority to stop the Hungarian advance. The situation is critical ...

In difficult times (19/20)

Intervention of the Paris Peace Conference to stop the war between Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Confirmation of Czechoslovak borders. Armistice June 24, 1919, cessation of hostilities. The Czechoslovak army reoccupies the whole of Slovakia. In Hungary, the Bolshevik government is collapsing and the crisis that has existed for several weeks is in full swing. Occupancy of the Bratislava bridgehead Petržalka on August 14, 1919.

In difficult times (20/20)

The Czechoslovak army reoccupied southern Slovakia after the end of the fighting in the summer of 1919. Assistance to the Hungarian Salgótarján in August 1919. Analysis of the situation of the Czechoslovak army in the past battles of the conflict. Losses. The Great Trianon 4. 6.1920.

In difficult times (4/20)

When November 25, 1918 took over Col. Schöbl as the supreme Czechoslovak commander in Slovakia from gen. Štika (who until then had command of all deployed Czechoslovak units in Slovakia), partially reorganized his units into a regular army structure, in which he appointed individual commanders. He also set up backup warehouses of equipment and armament near Uherské Hradiště to support units in Slovakia and took care of equipping his units with at least the most necessary, because the equipment and armament of the units was very weak ...

In difficult times (5/20)

There were two main bastions of resistance in eastern Slovakia - Prešov and Košice. In addition, in Košice was the seat of Dvortsák's self-proclaimed Slovak People's Republic and the Hungarian Corps Headquarters. The Hungarian side used the time of its operation in Košice to prepare the defense, but above all to transport property of all kinds to Hungary. Thus, often very valuable state property was lost. Already in advance, however, by order of the Italian gen. Piccione's occupation of Košice and Prešov was reserved for Czechoslovak Army Legionary Corps from Italy, which returned to his homeland at the end of the year.

In difficult times (6/20)

With the planned occupation of southern Slovakia on the demarcation line, the arrival of Czechoslovakia was expected. Army Legionary Corps from Italy. The reason was both the high combat value of the corps, which was well armed, and the fact that for this action of a liberation character was the Czechoslovak corps chosen by the government for a high moral standard ...

In difficult times (7/20)

After the occupation of Bratislava by the Legionnaire 33rd Rifle Regiment, the II. and III. battalion of the legionary 39th Rifle Regiment, which was so far in Zhoror and Stupava as a backup during the operation to occupy Bratislava ...

In difficult times (8/20)

Even throughout the spring of 1919, Hungary still tried to present to the world the reluctance of Slovaks to live in Czechoslovakia. There was a riot. However, the Hungarian side also had problems. She quickly organized her army, which after taking over the government of the Bolsheviks transformed into a red army after the Soviet model. In the end, Hungary deployed two-thirds of its forces against Czechoslovakia. In the fighting, this meant more than doubling the superiority of Hungarian troops against Czechoslovak ones.

In difficult times (9/20)

After securing Slovak territory by the Czechoslovak army, the Hungarian army tested the combat capability of Czechoslovak troops with short raids. Other reinforcements were coming then, including Czechoslovak legionnaires from France. Hungarian troops retreated inland, deeper beyond the designated demarcation line than they had to. Czechoslovak commander of army in Slovakia gen. Piccione drew up a plan to occupy "no man's land", which was then implemented. The Hungarian side thus received a welcome excuse to attack. On March 21, 1919, there was also a revolution in Hungary and the Bolsheviks took power. This created the Republic of Hungary after the Soviet model ...

In difficult times ...

Despite the title, as many might expect, I will not deal with today's situation, which many citizens would probably describe. However, our republic has experienced much more difficult times, which we are forgetting about today's hectic times.

Inadaptable - Students, hippies and others from the point of view of the Czechoslovak authorities

It was the secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia that gave its consent on February 25, 1965, to the organization of a student majáles in the capital. The unexpected course of the celebrations led him to subsequently organize a nationwide conference of university students. At a meeting held on September 29, 1965, the members of the Politburo came to the conclusion that there was political-ideological activity of the student, stating that the wave of political activity in the university environment did not rise suddenly, but that it had been gathering for many years.

Knightly orders and Bohemia

The symbol of the Middle Ages for the common man is a knight. The symbol of chivalry are knightly orders. There were gradually five of them operating in our territory, one even originated in our country.

Local mobilization statistics and relevant military units in the Poděbrady District

According to the data in Poděbrady, in the territory of the official district of the district governor of Poděbrady, which belonged to the judicial districts of Nymburk, Poděbrady and Králův Městec with more than 80 larger political municipalities and which roughly coincides with the current district only without smaller areas around Lysá nad Labem, Rožďalovice and Českobrodsko, 8,223 men of 21,191 men were called to arms.

Lower Moravia

Lower Moravia today has nothing to do with today's Moravia. Lower Moravia, this little-known name (the name is mentioned in the book by Lubomír E. Havlík: Chronicle of Great Moravia, published in 1993), was once called the area on the lower left bank of the Morava River, namely the territory of today's Slovakia, southern Poland (northern Poland). Orava and northern Spiš, which until 1918 were part of Hungary and then Poland) and northern Hungary (Matra and Bükk mountains and the Tokaj wine region). Lower Moravia has always been a part of our Czech state in certain periods.

Munich Agreement

Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy, in view of the agreement already reached on the withdrawal of the Sudetenland from Germany, have agreed on the following conditions for such withdrawal and the measures resulting therefrom ...

Nisko

Nisko is the only territory of Lower Silesia that is now part of the Czech Republic. Its territory coincides with today's Jeseník district. In the north it is formed by lowlands, which for their fertility are called Slezská Hana, in the south and west by the mountains Rychlebský and Jeseníky.

On enemy side

"Antonín Lipovský, captured by the Americans on August 1, 1944 at Sartilla, as he tried to escape the siege. […] He was called to London for a special interrogation, where he described in detail the organization of the radio service and was able to give the English all the necessary information about the new code, which entered into force on 1 August 1944 (Raste Schlüssel RS 44). I think it would be very useful to gather a facta about the effective assistance of Czechoslovak members by providing the right messages immediately after [their] capture in good faith that they are helping the right party and themselves. I doubt that this help would ever be publicly acknowledged to us. We have not yet fought and it seems that we will be among the last allies in this regard. It will therefore be very important that, on the first occasion of [ground-based] combat success, our participation and participation in the first phase of the invasion be given to English public opinion, at least briefly. Mentions in the English press of the bravely fighting Czechs in the German army have not just benefited us. "

Report of the infantry captain Oldřich Večerek from August 24, 1944 to the MNO in London.

Plzeňský landfrýd

Landfried, or peace, meant a ban on disarmament and the protection of order and the rule of law. It was proclaimed by a monarch or association of feudal lords and cities (collectively also called a landfryd) in times of disturbance of internal order. The Plzeň Landrfrýd was then an association of West Bohemian Catholic towns and nobles who opposed the Hussites.

Political and military-historical background of the origin of monuments to the Great War

In the euphoric period, during the march of the emerging Masaryk state law unit, new currents of opinion were formed in all strata of society. Passion, blindness in retaliation for the old order, and political and personal intrigues played unscrupulously the main role. The ostentatious patriotism and the creation of one-sided legends, together with the other factors mentioned above, had a fundamental negative effect on the preservation of the memory of the fallen citizens of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Fallen war deserters and captured soldiers of Czech and Slovak nationality who joined the Czechoslovak legions in France, Russia, Italy and Serbia for various reasons, whether ideological or emergency, voluntarily or not, were especially praised in the struggles for "freedom of the country".

Post-war arrangement influencing the development of construction and preservation of military monuments to the Great War

After the end of the fighting in 1918, former members of the defunct Habsburg army returned to their home villages in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia long after the armistice. First, however, they had to go through Czechoslovakia. newly established acceptance or quarantine camps by the government, in which they underwent thorough political training established as a necessary ideological supervision of the former c. and k. army and its commanders. At that time, it was professionally called the release of the returning field army.

Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 5: La Tène period - Celts

During the last two and a half thousand years, from today to the past, several waves of settlement and the extinction of various cultures have appeared in our territory. These cultures, or perhaps human communities, built fortified places called fortifications in their defense. Today we will look at the oldest documented period, namely the time of the people of the garbage dumps and the Celtic settlement of our country.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946

Comparison of the presidential elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš played one of the main roles in most of the key turning points in Czechoslovak and European history throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Together with T.G. Masaryk, he contributed to the establishment of an independent Czechoslovakia, during the First Republic he became a successful European politician and after the resignation of Masaryk from the position of head of state also the second Czechoslovak president. During the Second World War, he led a new resistance for the restoration of the Czechoslovak state and after its end he was confirmed in the presidency. What led to Beneš's election as president in those years and under what circumstances and political situation were the elections held?

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - Conclusion

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
The personality of Edvard Beneš provoked and still provokes discussions about his decisions and his role in Czechoslovak politics, especially in 1938 and 1948. But there were also two other years that completely influenced Beneš's life and his subsequent performance in domestic politics. These were the year 1935 and 1946, when he became historically the second Czechoslovak president, respectively. re-elected President of the restored Republic.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - I. E.Beneš in the intellectual and power spectrum of Czechoslovak politics

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš was born in Kožlany on May 28, 1884 as the tenth and youngest child in a peasant family. As a child, he was very receptive and interested in reading, especially historical books dealing with the Hussites. Despite his strongly believing mother, he was not much influenced by religion, thanks to his two older brothers Václav ( teacher and Masaryk's realist ) and Vojta ( socialist ).

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - III. 1946 presidential election

Continuation of the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
After the end of the Second World War, the whole of Czechoslovakia went through a transitional revolutionary period, in which the basic components of state power were gradually restored. It ended on October 28, 1945, when the Provisional National Assembly began its activities for the first time after the war. Elections were held indirectly on the basis of a presidential decree of August 1945.

Presidential elections of 1935 and 1946 - Introduction

Introduction to the article Comparison of the Presidential Elections of E. Beneš in 1935 and 1946.
Edvard Beneš played one of the main roles in most of the key turning points in Czechoslovak and European history throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Together with T.G. Masaryk, he contributed to the establishment of an independent Czechoslovakia, during the First Republic he became a successful European politician and after the resignation of Masaryk from the position of head of state also the second Czechoslovak president.

Silesia

Silesia, which is now part of the Czech state, is a historically wonderful conglomeration of originally disparate former vassal and other territories, namely the former duchy of Těšín, the duchy of Opava, the principalities of Krnov, Hlučín, the Moravian enclaves and the principality of Nis, ie the remnants of Czech expansion to the northeast.

The battle of Hünningen, Stockach and the monument of the "Helmet" on Loučeň estate

In the old, not yet preserved, castle park near the town of Loučeň in the Nymburk region, we can find two memories of the original owner of the Dobrovice and Loučeň estates, Prince Karel Alois zu Fürstenberg, Field Marshal of the Czech Army from the Napoleonic Wars. The memory of two monuments forgotten in the woods, dedicated to the brave general and his men, let us now watch together.

The Czech national flag

The national flag celebrates its 100th birthday. In the 100 years of its existence, it has "experienced" a lot. It used to be solemnly erected, proudly flowing, and used to be triggered with sadness and tears. As a symbol of victory, it swept over many battlefields of World War II, it fluttered as a symbol of defiance in 1968. Today, fortunately, it no longer has to fly in such turbulent events; Everyone is waving the national flag on hockey. But how many of us know anything about its true history?

The defenders of the great moravian fortresses

When watching more detailed maps, we can come across the terms "ramparts", "chances", often with the adjective Hussite, Swedish or Turkish, but also "castle" or "castle", or "hradec", "strážnice", "hradiště", "hradisko "," čihadlo", on foreign-language" gard ", related to the term grad and the Russian" gorod ". These are mostly places where tradition resembles some fortification, the fence, which was abandoned, disappeared, but left behind some, albeit the slightest traces, often visible only in the field.

The popularity of fascism among young people is growing

European media are sounding the alarm. The far right on the old continent is gaining strength and gaining more and more voters. This fact is evidenced in particular by the electoral success of the Hungarian Jobbik, the Wilders Freedom Party in the Netherlands and the recent historical success of the anti-Islamic Swedish Democrats, who entered parliament for the first time. Political scientists recall that the situation is not only due to the economic crisis, but also to multiculturalism, the long-term inability of moderate parties to solve social problems and the successful promotion of radical ideas among young audiences.

The seven-day war with Poland (1919)

Shortly after the founding of Czechoslovakia in October 1918, a dispute arose over the Těšín region with neighboring Poland. Although the borders of the young republic were internationally recognized by the states of the Agreement and it was a Czech historical territory, Poland did not intend to accept it and after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary occupied this territory militarily. At the same time, the coal wealth of this area and the need to secure coal for Czechoslovakia also played a significant role.

The third foreign intelligence department

Thanks to Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, talk begins again about the third resistance. This is nothing new. We tried to portray it in the television series Czechoslovakia in Special Services, which was broadcast by ČT 2 in 2002, and I included it in the book of the same name.
However, on December 1, 1999, a colloquium on the third resistance was held at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague. There I presented a paper, which I am publishing here for the first time.

The third resistance existed!

It was a parade of heroes who defied the communist dictatorship. They met on Tuesday, November 13, in the Senate Chamber at a seminar called the Third - Anti-Communist - Resistance. All over seventy, many with a wand. They were touching in a way, but when they spoke, they remained tough.

The work deployment of Czech railway workers in Germany 1938 - 1945

Even before the war began, Germany was facing a severe labor shortage. This was due, among other things, to the fact that many people were consumed by the Nazi regime itself - police, army, Gestapo, etc. At the end of 1938, the Empire lacked an estimated one million people, 75% of them in industry and 25% in agriculture. One of the groups that was to replace this shortcoming was members of our blue army - railroad workers.

They called him brother "Cultivator"

Biography of the army general in memoriam Karel Kutlvašr (* 27.1.1895 - + 2.10.1961). Commander of the insurgents during the Prague Uprising and a participant in the three czechoslovak resistance.

Until something happens

Andy Šándor celebrated his 50th birthday on Tuesday, July 10, 2007. Many people came to congratulate him at the Military Club in Prague-Ruzyně, many generals in civilian clothes and uniforms, including the Chief of the General Staff, many reporters in active service and in reserve, as well as many civilians. Pleasant environment and nice people. The Chief of the General Staff Vlastimil Picek awarded Šándor the Honorary Badge of the Czech Armed Forces of Přemysl Otakar II, King of Iron and Gold - I think this should be taken as a certain expression of rehabilitation.

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