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(Not only) Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 2

In this next part we must deviate from purely prehistoric fortifications. This is due to the fact that localities that have so far been identified in our territory as the seat of prehistoric cultures were extensively used at the time of the arrival of Slavs to our territory and new fortifications were again erected on the remains of prehistoric cultures. the first princely and royal castles stood on them in the form of strongholds, and on many of them there are castles or their abandoned ruins to this day. So we will try to transfer to the deep past and, if possible, connect it to the present.

17. November – International Students' Day

In late 1939 the Nazi authorities in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia suppressed a demonstration in Prague held by students of the Medical Faculty of Charles University. The demonstration was held on 28 October to commemorate the anniversary of the independence of the Czechoslovak Republic (1918). During this demonstration the student Jan Opletal was shot, and later died from his injuries on 11 November. On 15 November his body was supposed to be transported from Prague to his home in Moravia. His funeral procession consisted of thousands of students, who turned the event into an anti-Nazi demonstration.

1920: Bolshevic secret services against Czechoslowak republic

The effort to secretly influence other states belongs to the roots of the Bolshevik Empire, the Soviet Union. It was taken over by retired KGB lieutenant colonel Vladimir Putin, who conducts the successor - Russian Federation. In fact, in both cases it was an imperial conquest - the acquisition of new territories or at least influence.

9cm mortar Škoda "U Cihelny"

The separate infantry bunker KS 14 "U Cihelny", part of the fortifications of the Kralická fortress area, is a two-sided two-winged two-bell army fortress building in the strongest and most durable design (3rd resistance class), situated north of the town of Králíky.

Anti-State Center or Process with Slánský 2.0

Each of us sometimes has a feeling of déjà vu, that is, seen before. It occurred to me at the moment when I read in the news that the anti-mafia unit of the police had been secretly investigating the case of Jana Nagyová for a year as a " suspicion of sabotage ". According to them, an unnamed " organized group " of persons " intentionally damaged the constitutional establishment or the defense of the republic ."
Rostislav Bajgar prosecutor said on May 19, 2012, that on 20 March 2012 (ie two years ago! Sic!) police started "steps to verify the fact the offense of sabotage in the case now known as 'Nagyová and co.'"


1. Introduction In this work I deal with the reconstruction of the course of the Regensburg Trail, which, as is well known, led from Prague to Regensburg. It is assumed that the course of the journey in the early Middle Ages led from Prague via Beroun, Rokycany to the important early medieval center of Starý Plzenec, from where the road continued to Dobřany, Hradec u Stoda via Domažlice to Regensburg, Germany.


2. The development of trails If we realize what the term "long-distance trail" means at all, we will find that it is a route that served for regular human communication at a greater distance, from the very beginning of human existence.)


3. Status of previous research The interest in the Regensburg Trail began in the 19th century. Initially, the subject was not the road itself, but the border area, specifically the Czech-Bavarian border through which it passes. František Palacký expressed his first interest in leading the way, trying to pinpoint the location of the battlefield where the battle between Břetislav I and Henry III took place. in 1040. According to a study of the sources at the time, he was convinced that the road from Bavaria led through the Všerubský Pass. The same opinion was shared by Hermenegild Jireček, who spoke about the direction from the castle Chauby (Kouby) to Furth via Eschelkam to Neumarkt.


4. Method of work - model line of the Regensburg trail As already mentioned in the introduction, in this work I focused on the section starting in Starý Plzenec, which continued to the border with Germany. Based on the literature presented in the chapter Status of previous research, I plotted the map in the GIS program, which focused on the territory of four former districts - Pilsen - City, Pilsen - North, Pilsen - South and Domazlice. In order to create a preliminary model of individual sections from this area, which were subsequently examined in the field, it was still necessary to work with several types of maps.


5. The course of the Regensburg road If we want to consider determining the place where our border could be crossed in the simplest way possible, we must be aware of the landscape in which it is located. The border area with the Bavarian side of Germany is located in the places of the Bohemian Forest. Specifically, in this case, it is the Bohemian-Cubic Highlands, which freely passes into the Jezvinecká Highlands (Vejnar et al. 1984, 10). It reaches very high altitudes. The maximum values can be up to about 730 m above sea level. Therefore, it was very important at that time to choose a crossing point where it would not be necessary to overcome too many natural obstacles. Based on the studied literature and maps, I fully identify with the course of the trail, starting on the German side, which was designed by historian Eduard Maur (based on the studied work Rezenská cesta and the country trail in Domažlice).


6. Classification and creation of the database After the end of the field prospecting, all digital coordinates measured by the GPS Trimble device were imported into the Arcmap program, via ArcGIS 9.3. Now all points have gone through the same process as before the model was created. Orthophotomaps, maps of II. military mapping and the RETM raster map provided by the new version of the ESRI map server were used as background maps. Based on this, some imports had to be discarded. This happened when the markings on the map were not accurate enough.


7. Interpretation As I mentioned above, after the overall evaluation, a total of 55 imports (objects) were analyzed. However, this result represents a small sample that could be used to answer certain questions using formalized methods (Neustupný 2007, 134). Therefore, only non-formalized methods were used.


8. Dating Currently, several options are used to date the found relics of communication through direct or indirect dating. In case we need to find out the absolute data of individual imports, we can achieve this on the basis of historical reports, which inform about the given sections of a certain road. Another very important source is archaeological artifacts found directly on the site or in its vicinity, which were obtained by accidental finding, archaeological research or using a metal detector (Nový 2008, 12). This last mentioned method was successfully used, for example, in the research of the Golden Trail (Kubů - Zavřel 2009, 61).



The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.


11. Summary

The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.





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