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Antiquity (3000 BC-476 AD)

The period of creation and rise of first civilisations until the fall of the Western Roman Empire


(Not only) Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 2

In this next part we must deviate from purely prehistoric fortifications. This is due to the fact that localities that have so far been identified in our territory as the seat of prehistoric cultures were extensively used at the time of the arrival of Slavs to our territory and new fortifications were again erected on the remains of prehistoric cultures. the first princely and royal castles stood on them in the form of strongholds, and on many of them there are castles or their abandoned ruins to this day. So we will try to transfer to the deep past and, if possible, connect it to the present.

Ancient Warfare I.

The article was written as a seminar paper on " Forms of war conflicts in the ancient world ." It lasts more than 3,000 years between the armed forces of the first states in the Middle East and the Roman legions at the end of the 5th century AD. Imagine how this period changed the face of ancient battlefields, the comparison with the changes on the European battlefields that took place between 1700 and 2000, ie in a ten times smaller period, will help best.

Assyrian Empire

One of the most militant civilizations of antiquity was undoubtedly the Assyrian Empire. The article presents a brief overview of the history of this great civilization.

Athens state system

In the period from the 8th to the 6th century BC, a new type of organization of human society was created on the territory of Greece, the Greek city-state - the polis. Polis symbolized independence, self-sufficiency and a degree of democracy that allowed citizens to participate in the administration of public affairs.

Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids I.

In ancient times, one of the most amazing civilizations in human history was created in the northeastern part of the African continent. This civilization was essentially dependent on the river Nile and the wealth that the river brought to it every year in the form of deposits of fertile mud. The original territory, where the Egyptian civilization originated, formed the Nile basin from the city of Jeb (Aswan) to Mennofer (Memphis) in the delta of the river Nile.

Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids II.

During the millennia of the Egyptian state, this society experienced a period of prosperity and deep decline. In the second part of my article, we will take a closer look at Egyptian society and approach the critical transitional periods of Egyptian history, but also the prosperity of the Middle Kingdom.

Civilization in the shadow of the pyramids III.

In the 16th century BC, the most famous and successful period of the Egyptian state begins. This period is chronologically dated around 1560-1080 BC It began with the overthrow of Hyksos domination and the restoration of Egyptian sovereignty.

Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 5: La Tène period - Celts

During the last two and a half thousand years, from today to the past, several waves of settlement and the extinction of various cultures have appeared in our territory. These cultures, or perhaps human communities, built fortified places called fortifications in their defense. Today we will look at the oldest documented period, namely the time of the people of the garbage dumps and the Celtic settlement of our country.


When pronouncing this word, interesting associations emerge before the eyes of every fan of ancient history. A strange and legendary state system, the virtues boasted by the Spartans, but most often the horror of the nephews led by King Leonid in the heroic battle of Thermopylae. What was really behind the phenomenon of the Spartan state? What was the strength, but also the weaknesses of this company, briefly tries to approach this article.

The Babylonian Empire

Over the course of three millennia, several dominant state units have changed in Mesopotamia. One of them was the Babylonian Empire. Like other government departments, the state has experienced periods of success and growth, but also periods of decline. I divide the history of the Babylonian Empire into the periods of the Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian and New Babylonian empires.

The Hittite Empire

The Hittites are among the least known peoples of antiquity. About 3,400 years ago, they established an empire in Asia Minor that competed with Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Chetites created a society that lived from a regular expansion to its neighbors, but also an amazing culture. The Czech scientist Bedřich Hrozný, who deciphered the script of this civilization, has a large share in the discovery of this civilization.




Ancient Egypt was one of the most important and oldest ancient civilizations in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Gradually, there was a confrontation with the emerging ancient states that the Egyptians could not successfully face in the long run. This led to a rather defensive concept of foreign policy and ultimately to re-control of Egypt by foreign rulers.


Mesopotamia was the cradle of civilization. The first Sumerian population appeared in Mesopotamia at the turn of the 4th and 3rd millennium BC. In ancient times it was divided into northern Assyria and southern Babylonia. The upper part of Babylon was called Akkad and the lower Sumer. In 539 BC, the Persians of the Achaimen dynasty entered Babylon and Alexander the Great in 331 BC, after whom Babylon became part of the Seleucid Empire. Around 150 BC, the Parthians seized Mesopotamia, and Persians again in the 2nd century AD. In 637, Muslim Arabs took over the governments of Mesopotamia.


Ancient Greece includes the period from the arrival of the Greek tribes to the Aegean region in the 2nd millennium BC to the time of the domination of the Roman Empire and the formation of the Byzantine Empire (4th to 6th centuries BC).


Ancient Rome was a civilization emerging from the city of Rome, based on the Apennine Peninsula, probably in the 8th century BC, which expanded to a large part of the ancient world and survived to the 5th-6th century AD. The form of the government of Rome changed over the centuries first from kingdom to republic and finally to an empire. At its greatest extent under Emperor Trajan, the power of Rome spread to all the countries along the Mediterranean Sea, then into Gaul, Britain and large parts in the Black Sea.

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