19th Century (1815-1914)
Let me introduce you to a personality determining the direction of Austro-Hungarian espionage and counter-espionage of the early 20th century.
The aim of this work is to clarify the circumstances of the Austro - Hungarian settlement as well as the essence of the state and government system after 1867, which gave the Hungarian government enormous powers, which began to form the conditions for a new stage of national oppression in our history - Hungarianization.
In the War of 1866, Austria and its German allies, on the one hand, and Prussia and its German allies, together with Italy, on the other, faced each other. Although the decisive clash took place on the northern battlefield, near Hradec Králové, the naval clash that took place on the island of Lissa ( now Vis ) on the southern battlefield was more important for Austrian-Italian relations than the battle of Hradec Králové.
Munich agreement - whose loss was it ?!
History of Germans in Bohemia
A fundamental book about Czechs that Czechs do not know.
Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "
The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …
Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.
Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...
Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.
The brother of the Austrian emperor, Ferdinand Maximilian of Habsburg, was brought to the execution site by his adventurous nature.
Cavalry units have been part of armies since ancient times. Ever since man domesticated horses, he began to use them for military purposes. Over the centuries, the importance and use of military cavalry on the battlefield has evolved, but until the outbreak of World War I, cavalry remained one of the main components of the ground armies of all powers. The army of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austro-Hungarian army were no exception.
After the collapse of the Spanish colonies, Central America wanted to unify and continue as a modern federal state. Unfortunately, the new country has had to face many problems and instability from the outset. This situation was largely artificially provoked by forces that benefited from the colonial backward socio-economic system, which they did not intend to give up without a struggle. For this reason, there is a conflict across America, where there are conservative forces on the one hand, supported by the Catholic Church, and enlightened liberals on the other. The conflict is gradually shifting from the ideological level to the armed struggle, which has been going on with varying intensity for a long time and is gradually seizing the whole of Central America in various ways. In Guatemalan history, there are two great figures who influence events in the whole area, namely the conservative R. Carrera and the liberal gen. F. Morazán. After the fighting, they are gradually consolidating their position in Guatemala in order to establish their regime, which is returning the country to its backward colonial social system. This regime lasted until 1871, when the liberals regained power in a coup.
Central and Eastern Europe, that is what I would call the part of Europe where in the years 1852-1918 the legal, monetary, economic and customs union of two states, namely the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was located. This union ended with the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of 1918 after the First World War, although this union lasted legally until 1919, so we can consider its real demise in 1918.
The dispute between the US, the UK, and Germany over the Pacific islands of Samoa threatened to escalate into armed conflict.
It was Friday, August 12, 1881, the evening was approaching. The weather did not suggest that summer should culminate at this time. Every now and then clouds came, and rain fell from the leaden clouds. A soldier on duty at the Vyšehrad citadel saw smoke rising from the roof of the just completed National Theater. The same picture was seen about an hour later by the workers of one of the Smíchov factories. Despite all the efforts of the firefighters, the work of destruction was completed after several hours of futile fighting. The roof of the National Theater collapsed, leaving only the perimeter masonry. Even that was in many places cracked by fierce heat.
The work deals with the development of relations between Czechs and Slovaks after the Austro - Hungarian settlement as well as a comparison of conditions for the development of both national movements in Predlitavsko and Zalitavsko.