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19th Century (1815-1914)

Wars between the end of Napoleonic wars and the beginning of first world war

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Austrian - Hungarian constitutional settlement

The aim of this work is to clarify the circumstances of the Austro - Hungarian settlement as well as the essence of the state and government system after 1867, which gave the Hungarian government enormous powers, which began to form the conditions for a new stage of national oppression in our history - Hungarianization.

Battle of Lissa July 20, 1866

In the War of 1866, Austria and its German allies, on the one hand, and Prussia and its German allies, together with Italy, on the other, faced each other. Although the decisive clash took place on the northern battlefield, near Hradec Králové, the naval clash that took place on the island of Lissa ( now Vis ) on the southern battlefield was more important for Austrian-Italian relations than the battle of Hradec Králové.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (4)

Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "

Bloody Years 1938-45 (5)

The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "… irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolution… their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolution… The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us …

Bloody Years 1938-45 (6)

Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (7)

Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...

Bloody Years 1938-45 (8)

Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.

Bullet for the emperor

The brother of the Austrian emperor, Ferdinand Maximilian of Habsburg, was brought to the execution site by his adventurous nature.

Cavalry units of the regular Austro-Hungarian army until 1914

Cavalry units have been part of armies since ancient times. Ever since man domesticated horses, he began to use them for military purposes. Over the centuries, the importance and use of military cavalry on the battlefield has evolved, but until the outbreak of World War I, cavalry remained one of the main components of the ground armies of all powers. The army of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austro-Hungarian army were no exception.

Central American Civil War 1838-1871- Guatemala

After the collapse of the Spanish colonies, Central America wanted to unify and continue as a modern federal state. Unfortunately, the new country has had to face many problems and instability from the outset. This situation was largely artificially provoked by forces that benefited from the colonial backward socio-economic system, which they did not intend to give up without a struggle. For this reason, there is a conflict across America, where there are conservative forces on the one hand, supported by the Catholic Church, and enlightened liberals on the other. The conflict is gradually shifting from the ideological level to the armed struggle, which has been going on with varying intensity for a long time and is gradually seizing the whole of Central America in various ways. In Guatemalan history, there are two great figures who influence events in the whole area, namely the conservative R. Carrera and the liberal gen. F. Morazán. After the fighting, they are gradually consolidating their position in Guatemala in order to establish their regime, which is returning the country to its backward colonial social system. This regime lasted until 1871, when the liberals regained power in a coup.

Central Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern Europe, that is what I would call the part of Europe where in the years 1852-1918 the legal, monetary, economic and customs union of two states, namely the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was located. This union ended with the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of 1918 after the First World War, although this union lasted legally until 1919, so we can consider its real demise in 1918.

Controversey of 1889

The dispute between the US, the UK, and Germany over the Pacific islands of Samoa threatened to escalate into armed conflict.

Czech money on fire

It was Friday, August 12, 1881, the evening was approaching. The weather did not suggest that summer should culminate at this time. Every now and then clouds came, and rain fell from the leaden clouds. A soldier on duty at the Vyšehrad citadel saw smoke rising from the roof of the just completed National Theater. The same picture was seen about an hour later by the workers of one of the Smíchov factories. Despite all the efforts of the firefighters, the work of destruction was completed after several hours of futile fighting. The roof of the National Theater collapsed, leaving only the perimeter masonry. Even that was in many places cracked by fierce heat.

Dorr's Rebellion 1842

Dorr's uprising is named after its leader Thomas W. Dorr. Thomas W. Dorr opposed the government of Rhode Island, which administered Iceland under a charter of 1663.

Francis Joseph I

Yesterday, 99 years passed since the day that Francis Joseph I died in Vienna ( August 18, 1830 to November 21, 1916 ), the Austrian emperor, the Czech and Hungarian king of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, ruled for a record 68 years. He ascended the throne at a time when the witnesses of his great-grandmother Maria Theresa were still alive, and ended in the days that our great-grandmothers still remember. He was not only the longest reigning Habsburg, but - with the exception of Prince Johann II of Liechtenstein, who ruled for a total of 71 years ( 1858-1929 ) - also the longest reigning monarch ever. For a generation of our grandparents, he was the ruler of the state in which they lived, and if there is such a thing as historical continuity, he is in a sense a former ruler for our generation. So let's see what kind of monarch it really was ...

Garrisons and barracks in Slovakia in the years 1848 - 1914

The introduction of general military duty, and the related need for accommodation and training of the mass army, had the largest share in the construction of barracks in the 19th century. In the last decades of the 19th century, there was a sharp increase in the construction of new type barracks, which to a much greater extent met modern requirements.

Guilds in Milevsko

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 1. Development of Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 2. Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted in Milevsko. sufficient attention.

Guilds in Milevsko: Conclusion

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: Introduction

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Half a millennium of European conquests

To the question of what happened in 1492, most respondents would certainly answer correctly that Columbus had sailed to the New World at that time. Many would also know that in 1498 Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India, but probably no one would remember what happened in 1502. Because this event is not mentioned much in school history, or it merges with previous ones, although it had for practical action many times greater reach than the two previous ones - and is still present today.

Holasic area

Holasicko, surely many of you will be wondering where to look for this area? This is an area in the northeast of the Czech Republic around the city of Opava (Opava, Krnov and Hlučín regions) and the adjacent area in the north, today located in Poland.

Hungarian cavalry units before the First World War

Honvéd troops were formed on the basis of extensive constitutional changes that affected the Habsburg monarchy and led to the emergence of a dualistic monarchy. These units represented the Hungarian army within the armed forces of the monarchy. One of the basic types of Honvéd units was cavalry.

I. The Mexican Empire and attempts to reconquer Mexico

The Mexican Empire was created immediately after the independence of the new country and lasted relatively shortly from 1821 to 1823, when it was disbanded under the Casa Mata Plan and the emperor was forced into exile in Europe. Subsequently, a republic is created.

Infantry units of the Hungarian homeland defense before the First World War

Honvéd troops were formed on the basis of extensive constitutional changes that affected the Habsburg monarchy and led to the emergence of a dualistic monarchy. These units represented the Hungarian army within the armed forces of the monarchy. The origin and development of these units is dealt with in the following article.

Lots of nonsense bloodshed

There are many candidates with a legitimate claim to gold medals such an embarrassing championship. The criteria differ - the severity of the conflict, its duration, the number of participants, the amount of property loss, health, lives, ongoing socio-economic and psychological impact, and so on.

Masters of life and death

The history of the death penalty, and with it the many secrets of the executioner's craft, is as old as humanity itself. Initially, it was an act of retribution, mostly performed by those closest to the victim. Gradually, with the advent of institutions, this punishment also became institutional. In ancient history, the death penalty was most often carried out by suffocation, slashing with a sword or ax, burning alive, walling up, hitting a stake or crucifixion.

Metternich

On May 15, 1773, Klemens Lothar Wenzel's son was born to the Governor General of the Rhineland, Metternich. If we used today's national criteria, the future foreign minister and Austrian chancellor were German, but the Rhineland was administered by the Habsburgs, so the family belonged to high-ranking Austrian officials and young Klemens spoke better (and rather) French than German. He was one of the rationalist children of the Enlightenment, sympathetic to both Voltaire and Kant, and delighted in the moral lessons and honed epigrams with which he trampled on adversaries. In 1824 he wrote to Wellington - for a long time Europe has belonged to me, so today he would undoubtedly be one of the zealous followers of a uniting Europe.

One Hundred Years of a Heartfelt Agreement

This year is exactly 101 years since the history of Europe has changed irreversibly. To the amazement of the whole world, on April 8, 1904, Great Britain and France signed a cooperation agreement in which the two powers agreed on spheres of influence. To demonstrate the consensus that was a heavy blow to German foreign policy, the signatories called the Entente cordiale - the Heartfelt Agreement.

PROSPERITY: Switzerland - a country of success

Switzerland (the official Latin name of the Confoederatio Helvetica, ie the Helvetic Confederation) is today the world's third to fourth capital power, with a very important market for stocks, bonds, foreign currencies, financial derivatives and gold, with at least an inflationary currency. At the same time, it has approximately half the area (41,285 km2) and a smaller population (7,096,800 inhabitants) than the Czech Republic.

Second French intervention

2. french intervention was, in fact, a free continuation of the War of Reform, during which Mexican Conservative circles seized their second chance. The culmination was for a short time an attempt to establish a second empire, which, however, after the withdrawal of intervention troops quickly ended in the defeat and execution of the leaders of the monarchy.

Shortest war

We know a lot of wars of different lengths from history. Seven days, seven years, thirty years and even a century long. But have you ever wondered how long the shortest war lasted? Believe it or not, it was half an hour. Exactly half an hour and eight minutes. It was not a fight between mafia families or indigenous tribes, but a regular conflict between two sovereign states. It took place more than a hundred years ago on the east coast of Africa, where in August 1896 Great Britain and Zanzibar got into a crossroads, so to speak, (or perhaps crescents - a conflict between a Christian and a Muslim country).

Silesia

Silesia, which is now part of the Czech state, is a historically wonderful conglomeration of originally disparate former vassal and other territories, namely the former duchy of Těšín, the duchy of Opava, the principalities of Krnov, Hlučín, the Moravian enclaves and the principality of Nis, ie the remnants of Czech expansion to the northeast.

The beginnings of theater in the Czech lands

In this work I will try to outline what is happening in the Czech lands in the cultural field, especially in the field of theater. The history of theater in the 18th and 19th centuries is very extensive and was influenced by several factors that I will try to find and illuminate in my work. The whole 19th century is full of social changes and the influence of the theater is very important in this and certainly unmissable in Bohemia.

The first French intervention - the dessert war

The first French intervention in Mexico, also known as the dessert or cake war, is a problem to be named as it is nicknamed Guerra de los pasteles in the original. This conflict took place between April 16, 1838 and March 9, 1839 and was the first armed conflict between the two countries.

The life of a soldier of the Austro-Hungarian army in the period of dualism

The purpose of this article is to give the reader a picture of life in the Austro-Hungarian army in the period between the Austro-Hungarian settlement and World War I. Of course, it was not possible to include all the components of the army, each of which has its own specifics. Globally, I will try to evaluate the conditions of the team in the army from its recruitment to the transfer to the reserve, where I emphasized in particular the approach to living conditions in the barracks, or to clarify the training system. In the second part of the article, I focus on the non-commissioned officer and officers corps, where I emphasize the clarification of the system of education of officers, but also the depiction of the place of officers in society and the relationship between officers and society.

The most famous shootout of the Wild West

There is no struggle in the history of the West that attracts more attention and sparkes the imagination of people than this one. Much has been written about him and he has also been filmed many times. To this day, theatrical versions of it are regularly shown to spectators at the OK fence in Tombstone. Nevertheless, it is difficult to get to the facts today, simply because the few witnesses who actually saw him with their own eyes then described him completely differently. Therefore, by no means do I claim that this version is true - it was created by a careful comparison of different sources, which, however, often differ directly diametrically, and therefore I believe that no one will ever know the real fact again…

The most famous shootout of the Wild West

There is no struggle in the history of the West that attracts more attention and sparkes the imagination of people than this one. Much has been written about him and he has also been filmed many times. To this day, theatrical versions of it are regularly shown to spectators at the OK fence in Tombstone. Nevertheless, it is difficult to get to the facts today, simply because the few witnesses who actually saw him with their own eyes then described him completely differently. Therefore, by no means do I claim that this version is true - it was created by a careful comparison of different sources, which, however, often differ directly diametrically, and therefore I believe that no one will ever know the real fact again…

The mystery of the revolvers of Wild Bill

It is remarkable how little we know about the weapons of the most famous gunslinger in the West. Did Wild Bill Hickok really use the Colty Navy Model 1851, or are the witnesses who said he used 44's right? Where are these weapons today? Did Smith & Wesson really carry him at the time of death? And what about the weapon that accompanied him from this world? Let's follow in the footsteps of probably the most famous revolvers in the West ...

The one-year volunteers Austro-Hungarian army

At least everyone who read Hašek's Švejk knows about the existence of one-year volunteers in the Austro-Hungarian army. After all, Jaroslav Hašek himself was one of them, although he did not do well in this position. This article is an attempt to clarify how the term "one-year volunteer" originated and what its content was ...

The revolution of Ayutla and the end of Santa Anna

The Ayutla Revolution was an armed resistance movement based on the Ayutla Plan, which declared the need to overthrow the self-proclaimed President of Santa Anna. The revolution is finally successful and the new government takes power. This marks the end of Santa Anna's presence on the scene and the beginning of a period of civil war - the war for reform.

The Road to the Disintegration of New Spain and the War of Mexico 's Independence - Part 1

This section discusses the beginnings of the Mexican independence movement, the socio-economic conditions in New Spain. The independence movement was born out of a conspiracy and especially a conspiracy in Querétaro. After its discovery, the priest Hidalgo begins a fight for independence together with his comrades-in-arms. Over time, he and the first leaders of the movement are captured and executed, but the movement continues and the fight continues.

The Road to the Disintegration of New Spain and the War of Mexico 's Independence - Part 2

After the execution of the first leaders of the independence movement, new fighters enter and the struggle for independence continues, gradually becoming partisan, until A. Iturbide joins the movement from personal motives, who together with V. Guerrero draw up a plan from Igual and three guarantees. Subsequently, almost all parties join the fight, and with a little luck, independence is signed in Mexico D.F. and the Mexican Empire is formed.

War about Samoa

Instructed by the more or less romantic stories of the Bounty rebels, Jack London and Robert Louis Stevenson, or the popular educational travelogues of Czech ethnographer Miloslav Satingl, we have mostly the Pacific and its picturesque islands associated with a relaxed atmosphere full of sun and endless ocean of palm-washed palm beaches and calm. Leaving aside the bitter experience of World War II, which the Japanese brought into the Pacific, it would be naive to think that the locals had never known a bloody cut before. As early as the 13th century, long before the discovery of the Samoa islands by Europeans, the locals resisted the attacks of kings from the Tonga Islands. Six centuries later, even three great powers were going to compete for Sam at the same time - Great Britain, the United States and Germany!

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