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The Middle Ages (476-1492)

The period between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and conquest of Constantinople

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(Not only) Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 2

In this next part we must deviate from purely prehistoric fortifications. This is due to the fact that localities that have so far been identified in our territory as the seat of prehistoric cultures were extensively used at the time of the arrival of Slavs to our territory and new fortifications were again erected on the remains of prehistoric cultures. the first princely and royal castles stood on them in the form of strongholds, and on many of them there are castles or their abandoned ruins to this day. So we will try to transfer to the deep past and, if possible, connect it to the present.

Allah's Prophet

The emergence and rocket spread of Islam is one of the most interesting phenomena in world history, the causes of which are still not sufficiently clarified. The area of ancient pre-Islamic Arabia was highly fragmented, both culturally and religiously. There were both astral cults and religious pantheons from neighboring areas - Baal from Syria, Coptic Christianity from Ethiopia and the Nabataean Christianism. The priesthood did not exist as a state, certain families only treated traditional shrines, such as the Kaaba in Mecca. Due to its location between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, the germinal urban population could feed on trade. The second, main component of the population was the opposite of civilization - wild nomadic tribes, which saw the robbery as a legal way to earn extra money.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

1. Introduction In this work I deal with the reconstruction of the course of the Regensburg Trail, which, as is well known, led from Prague to Regensburg. It is assumed that the course of the journey in the early Middle Ages led from Prague via Beroun, Rokycany to the important early medieval center of Starý Plzenec, from where the road continued to Dobřany, Hradec u Stoda via Domažlice to Regensburg, Germany.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

2. The development of trails If we realize what the term "long-distance trail" means at all, we will find that it is a route that served for regular human communication at a greater distance, from the very beginning of human existence.)

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

3. Status of previous research The interest in the Regensburg Trail began in the 19th century. Initially, the subject was not the road itself, but the border area, specifically the Czech-Bavarian border through which it passes. František Palacký expressed his first interest in leading the way, trying to pinpoint the location of the battlefield where the battle between Břetislav I and Henry III took place. in 1040. According to a study of the sources at the time, he was convinced that the road from Bavaria led through the Všerubský Pass. The same opinion was shared by Hermenegild Jireček, who spoke about the direction from the castle Chauby (Kouby) to Furth via Eschelkam to Neumarkt.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

4. Method of work - model line of the Regensburg trail As already mentioned in the introduction, in this work I focused on the section starting in Starý Plzenec, which continued to the border with Germany. Based on the literature presented in the chapter Status of previous research, I plotted the map in the GIS program, which focused on the territory of four former districts - Pilsen - City, Pilsen - North, Pilsen - South and Domazlice. In order to create a preliminary model of individual sections from this area, which were subsequently examined in the field, it was still necessary to work with several types of maps.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

5. The course of the Regensburg road If we want to consider determining the place where our border could be crossed in the simplest way possible, we must be aware of the landscape in which it is located. The border area with the Bavarian side of Germany is located in the places of the Bohemian Forest. Specifically, in this case, it is the Bohemian-Cubic Highlands, which freely passes into the Jezvinecká Highlands (Vejnar et al. 1984, 10). It reaches very high altitudes. The maximum values can be up to about 730 m above sea level. Therefore, it was very important at that time to choose a crossing point where it would not be necessary to overcome too many natural obstacles. Based on the studied literature and maps, I fully identify with the course of the trail, starting on the German side, which was designed by historian Eduard Maur (based on the studied work Rezenská cesta and the country trail in Domažlice).

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

6. Classification and creation of the database After the end of the field prospecting, all digital coordinates measured by the GPS Trimble device were imported into the Arcmap program, via ArcGIS 9.3. Now all points have gone through the same process as before the model was created. Orthophotomaps, maps of II. military mapping and the RETM raster map provided by the new version of the ESRI map server were used as background maps. Based on this, some imports had to be discarded. This happened when the markings on the map were not accurate enough.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

7. Interpretation As I mentioned above, after the overall evaluation, a total of 55 imports (objects) were analyzed. However, this result represents a small sample that could be used to answer certain questions using formalized methods (Neustupný 2007, 134). Therefore, only non-formalized methods were used.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

8. Dating Currently, several options are used to date the found relics of communication through direct or indirect dating. In case we need to find out the absolute data of individual imports, we can achieve this on the basis of historical reports, which inform about the given sections of a certain road. Another very important source is archaeological artifacts found directly on the site or in its vicinity, which were obtained by accidental finding, archaeological research or using a metal detector (Nový 2008, 12). This last mentioned method was successfully used, for example, in the research of the Golden Trail (Kubů - Zavřel 2009, 61).

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

Summary

The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

11. Summary

The main objective of this study was to reconstruct the paths Regensburg particular period, which begins in Starý Plzenec and ends at the border of the Czech Republic in the early Middle Ages. After studying written or cartographic documents, the obtained results were subsequently verified using non-destructive research.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE REGENSBURG ROAD

In this work I focus on the reconstruction of the Regensburg Trail, which, as is well known, led from Prague to Regensburg. It is assumed that the course of the journey in the early Middle Ages led from Prague via Beroun, Rokycany to the important early medieval center of Starý Plzenec, from where the road continued to Dobřany, Hradec u Stoda via Domažlice to Regensburg, Germany.

Battle of Rozhanovce

Governing the medieval monarchy was certainly not an easy task. Many medieval monarchs were convinced of this. The power of the king was constantly trying to limit some strata in society, especially the high nobility. Rich oligarchic families did not respect royal power in the state. It was this problem that led the Hungarian king Karol Róbert of Anjou to the battlefield near the village of Rozhanovce in 1312.

Boleslav I.

On July 15, 2002, it was 1030 years since the death of the Czech prince Boleslav I.
Boleslav I. is for me the most important politician of the Czech state, due to the fact that thanks to his political work we were not met by the fate of the Elbe Slavs (exterminated by the Germans) or the fate of the Danube Slavs (exterminated by the Hungarians). Boleslav I. is therefore actually the father of the Czech state and nation.

Bratríci

The fraternal movement is a kind of ending of Hussite times in Slovakia. It took hold in Hungary at the time of the disintegration of central power and existed as a state within a state.

Chronicle of Vincent

A look at the life of one of the first chroniclers, a participant in the expedition of Friedrich Barbarossa against the Milanese from 1158, in which he participated as an escort of the Czech prince Vladislav.

Crime, throat justice and punishments in pre-1621 towns

From time immemorial, like other human activities, a person has been accompanied by crime in his society, whether in the form of minor thefts, murders or even crimes against ideology. It is the latter that we have connected mainly with the time of communism in our republic, but the judgment of this crime goes much deeper into the history of our nation.

Firearms in the Czech lands in the pre-Hussite and Hussite period

The black dust described by Roger Bacon in 1242 was used until the middle of the 19th century, except for a change in the mutual ratio of the individual admixtures. On the other hand, firearms have become unrecognizable during these six centuries. From the roughly worked works of the Middle Ages, weapons evolved with their elegant decoration reminiscent of works of art. But despite all the differences, their concept remained essentially the same. In order to better understand the development of Europe shaped to a large extent by war conflicts, it is necessary to examine in more detail the beginnings of European firearms ...

Götz von Berlichingen

Götz von Berlichingen (1480-1562) - a soldier and adventurer, a respected commander, mercenary, marauding knight and rebel leader, became world famous more than 200 years after his death in 1773 thanks to Goethe's drama of the same name. He waited for further "visibility" until 1943, when his name was given to the 17th SS Tank Grenadier Division.

Great Moravia

Great Moravia was an important period of our nation. Its geopolitical center was Mikulčice, Staré město - Sady and Pohansko, located today in the Czech Republic, in the districts of Břeclav, Hodonín and Uherské Hradiště. Great Moravia was the second phase of our statehood after Sámov's empire and before the Czech Principality, so it is one of the legal predecessors of the Czech Republic.

Holasic area

Holasicko, surely many of you will be wondering where to look for this area? This is an area in the northeast of the Czech Republic around the city of Opava (Opava, Krnov and Hlučín regions) and the adjacent area in the north, today located in Poland.

Incas (I.)

When I was preparing one extensive work on great Indian cultures (it was mainly the area of Mexico - Aztecs and Mayans and the area of Peru - from the Paracian Indians to the Mochi, the realm of Chima, etc.) I discovered interesting and engaging history, which is really an attraction for everyone historian

Incas (I.)

Prologue As When I was preparing one extensive work on great Indian cultures (it was mainly the area of Mexico - Aztecs and Mayans and the area of Peru - from the Paracian Indians to the Mochi, the realm of Chima, etc.) I discovered interesting and engaging history, which is really an attraction for everyone historian

Islands between Europe and Muslims

There are several (larger) islands in the Mediterranean that have had a particularly turbulent history. If I omit antiquity, here are their destinies after the fall of the Roman Empire.

Knightly orders and Bohemia

The symbol of the Middle Ages for the common man is a knight. The symbol of chivalry are knightly orders. There were gradually five of them operating in our territory, one even originated in our country.

Last disputation of master John

When Jan Hus went to the church council in Constance in the autumn of 1414, he hoped that in the promised public disputation he would defend his views, which the church called heretical. However, at the coveted public hearing in June 1415, his ideas of a university-type discussion quickly took hold. The council, whose main task was to resolve the question of the existence of three popes ( and he had already succeeded in doing so ), did not intend to discuss with him. He expected only one thing from the defendant - that he would lift his delusions as soon as possible and accept the punishment he deserved ...

Lower Moravia

Lower Moravia today has nothing to do with today's Moravia. Lower Moravia, this little-known name (the name is mentioned in the book by Lubomír E. Havlík: Chronicle of Great Moravia, published in 1993), was once called the area on the lower left bank of the Morava River, namely the territory of today's Slovakia, southern Poland (northern Poland). Orava and northern Spiš, which until 1918 were part of Hungary and then Poland) and northern Hungary (Matra and Bükk mountains and the Tokaj wine region). Lower Moravia has always been a part of our Czech state in certain periods.

Military and armament in Great Moravia

This work briefly describes the situation at that time in Central Europe, but its intention is to characterize the military organization of the Great Moravian army, ie fortifications and troops in our territory, as well as equipment and armaments, or strategies, tactics and methods of fighting.

Military organization of the Slavs in the early Slavic period

... The armament of Slavic warriors was very strongly influenced by the neighborhood with the Frankish Empire. Following the example of this militarily strong nation, the Slavs also wore armor, and like the Franks, they also wore a bouquet under their armor, a very loose knee-length shirt with flared sleeves ...

Nisko

Nisko is the only territory of Lower Silesia that is now part of the Czech Republic. Its territory coincides with today's Jeseník district. In the north it is formed by lowlands, which for their fertility are called Slezská Hana, in the south and west by the mountains Rychlebský and Jeseníky.

Nobility in our territory in the 9th - 13th century

A part of every society is also a layer that has a specific but in many respects dominant position. Today we would call such a layer the social elite. In the Middle Ages, the function of the social elite was performed by the nobility. The following article deals with the origin and formation of this social class.

Normans in Ireland

Talking about how the Normans got to Ireland ... came more or less by accident and stayed forever.

Order of the Dragon and its insignia

In connection with the magnificently conceived Budapest and Luxembourg exhibition, organized on the eve of the double jubilee of the Hungarian and Czech kings and the Imperial-German emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, several incorrect data appeared in the professional literature. They were the result of insufficient artistic-historical analysis and mainly concerned insignia of the order of the Dragon. Given the above facts, we consider it an obligation to return to this issue by a separate study.

Our famous losses - 1278 Moravian field

As is well known, Jára Cimrman created a historical triptych about famous lost Czech battles. There have been more groundbreaking events in our history and they are shrouded in many legends and ambiguities. For some, we are still beating our breasts, as this tragedy was a turning point, and if we put everything into a historical context, it is not so certain about the "fracture" of many of the famous data. Respectively, for some it is not certain whether the opposite result would not actually be worse, as the event unfortunately had only bad solutions.

Plzeňský landfrýd

Landfried, or peace, meant a ban on disarmament and the protection of order and the rule of law. It was proclaimed by a monarch or association of feudal lords and cities (collectively also called a landfryd) in times of disturbance of internal order. The Plzeň Landrfrýd was then an association of West Bohemian Catholic towns and nobles who opposed the Hussites.

Prehistoric fortifications in our territory, part 5: La Tène period - Celts

During the last two and a half thousand years, from today to the past, several waves of settlement and the extinction of various cultures have appeared in our territory. These cultures, or perhaps human communities, built fortified places called fortifications in their defense. Today we will look at the oldest documented period, namely the time of the people of the garbage dumps and the Celtic settlement of our country.

Rhodes - the bastion of the Johannites

The Order of St. John ( also called the "Hospital of St. John" ) was originally established in Jerusalem in the early 12th century, as a purely hospital fraternity. At a time when the situation in the Holy Land had deteriorated to such an extent that it was necessary to permanently protect the roads between Jerusalem and the coast, the order also began to fulfill military functions ...

Saint John of Nepomuk, legend and reality

I chose the topic of Jan Nepomucký, legend and reality, because I myself currently live near Nepomuk, or rather in a village eight kilometers away. But not only because of that. The fact is that I have often had a dispute with a native of Nepomuk about the extent to which the canonization of Jan of Nepomuk is or is not based on legend. I myself was of the opinion that the canonization of John was based on later fabrications. That is why the assignment of the topic suited me. Therefore, to find out how it probably was…

Sámo

He himself was our first state official. Sámo was the head of our first state unit, named after Sámo's empire. Sámo's empire was, among other things, the first state unit of the Slavs.

Silesia

Silesia, which is now part of the Czech state, is a historically wonderful conglomeration of originally disparate former vassal and other territories, namely the former duchy of Těšín, the duchy of Opava, the principalities of Krnov, Hlučín, the Moravian enclaves and the principality of Nis, ie the remnants of Czech expansion to the northeast.

Slavonic strongholds in eastern Slovakia (part 2) - Kusín

The aim of this work is to bring the reader closer to the current research of important Slavic forts, which took a leading place in the Slavic settlements in eastern Slovakia, while special attention was paid not only to the find fund but also the construction of fortifications and internal division.

Slavonic strongholds in eastern Slovakia (part 3) - Brekov

The aim of this work is to bring the reader closer to the current research of important Slavic forts, which took a leading place in the Slavic settlements in eastern Slovakia, while special attention was paid not only to the find fund but also the construction of fortifications and internal division.

Tatar invasion of Hungary 1241

The 13th century is one of the most turbulent periods in the history of Hungary. Undoubtedly a significant event was the Tatar invasion of 1241. You will find out how this invasion affected the life of Hungarian society in the following article.

The best of knights

At times, it seems to me that the problem of knights is experiencing a great boom, but few people know what people were like, few people can look behind the curtain and reveal the veil of the mystery of this medieval phenomenon. Similarly, knights are today in the imaginations of many completely different figures as they actually were, as is the crusades, which, if viewed through the eyes of today's man, of course, remain misunderstood.

The best of knights

At times, it seems to me that the problem of knights is experiencing a great boom, but few people know what people were like, few people can look behind the curtain and reveal the veil of the mystery of this medieval phenomenon. Similarly, knights are today in the imaginations of many completely different figures as they actually were, as is the crusades, which, if viewed through the eyes of today's man, of course, remain misunderstood.

The best of knights

The Crusades have long attracted many historians with their character and the impact they had on medieval society.

The best of knights

Knighthood included significant features of the medieval military state, it met a religious and military component.

The best of knights

The idea of Christian chivalry was an important contribution to the refinement of early medieval society.

The best of knights

All the ideals of early medieval Europe, developing on a secular-spiritual level, met and began to be applied in the knightly orders of a strongly spiritual nature.

The best of knights

In 1118, six men, led by Hugo de Payns, came to the Holy Land and founded the germ of the Order of the Poor Knights of Jesus Christ.

The best of knights

The Johannites are the oldest knightly order. As early as 1050, Italian merchants established a shelter to treat pilgrims near the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

The best of knights

During the reign of Henry V. and the pontificate of Pope Clement III. the order of the Teutonic Knights was founded in 1190 during the siege of Akkon.

The best of knights

Although the greatest burden in the battle lay on the backs of the knights, there were such individuals among the dukes who, with their courage and heroism, drew considerable attention to themselves.

The best of knights

A perfect knight, brave in battle, brave in misfortune, steadfast if he was convinced that his cause was just.

The best of knights

In 1181, or perhaps only in 1182, a knight was born in Assisi, Umbria, who was not actually a knight, a crusader who was not actually a crusader.

The best of knights

Campaigns to the Holy Land to fight the unbelievers, called the Crusades, ended in 1291, when the last Christian bastion of Akkon fell.

The defenders of the great moravian fortresses

When watching more detailed maps, we can come across the terms "ramparts", "chances", often with the adjective Hussite, Swedish or Turkish, but also "castle" or "castle", or "hradec", "strážnice", "hradiště", "hradisko "," čihadlo", on foreign-language" gard ", related to the term grad and the Russian" gorod ". These are mostly places where tradition resembles some fortification, the fence, which was abandoned, disappeared, but left behind some, albeit the slightest traces, often visible only in the field.

Vratislav II.

Vratislav II was an important Czech monarch and patriot. He was born after 1031, as the second-born son of the Czech prince Břetislav I. (he ruled 1034 - 1055). After the death of his older brother Spytihněv II. (Czech prince 1055 - 1061) on 28.01.1061 becomes Vratislav II. prince and ruled the Czech state until his death on 14.01.1092.

Waldenses

The most important forerunners of the Reformation were the Waldensian, popular sect or current, which tried to restore the original church and achieved significant expansion in its time before it was militarily suppressed.

War of the Roses I. - The roots of the war

The War of the Roses is one of the most interesting and at the same time the most complicated conflicts in medieval Europe. The thirty-year struggle for the English throne between the Lancaster and York factions was characterized by bloody clashes, intrigues, and the intricacies of relations between important English aristocratic families. At first glance, the whole conflict is a great chaos, in which some Edwardians and Richards constantly appear. In a series of articles on this war, we will try to introduce the various phases of the conflict and explain the nature and course of the entire conflict.

War of the Roses II. - The government of Henry VI.

In this part of the series on the War of the Roses, we will recall the serious events that took place in the final phase of the Centennial War and influenced the emergence of the dynastic conflict in England. At the same time, we will gradually imagine the first important personalities who intervened in the conflict. the main motive, however, is the presentation of the first period of the reign of the weak King Henry VI, who played a large part in the outbreak of the War of the Roses.

War of the Roses III. - The fall of the Duke of Suffolk

Failures in the war and the incompetent government of Henry VI. and his advisers constantly deteriorated the state of society in England. It has not been a month before further evidence of incompetence and corruption appears at the royal court. Someone had to take an endless chain of failures. In this section, we will notice the root causes of the unhappy state of the Kingdom of England, just before the Rose War.

War of the Roses IV. - The kingdom of chaos

After the fall of one of the privileged men of the royal court, the situation worsened even more. Under King Henrich's incompetent leadership, the country rushed toward anarchy. The desperate state of the kingdom constantly provoked York to action, knowing that the King's favorite incompetent Duke of Somerset was to blame. The conflict between York and Somerset culminated.

War of the Roses IX. - Warwick's uprising

The long-running conflict between King Edward IV. and his cousin the Prince of Warwick had been in crisis for a long time. Edward IV he did not allow himself to be controlled by his older cousin, which undermined Warwick's ambitions. Mutual disputes soon escalated into open rebellion. Prince Warwick planned to overthrow King Edward IV.

War of the Roses V. - The war begins

The War of the Roses definitely began after the defeat at Castillon. The final defeat of the English in France only hastened the internal boiling in the country. England plunged into anarchy, where everyone did what they wanted. This created an ideal space for strong men who competed in the power struggle.

War of the Roses VI. - York on the rise

After a short but intense clash at St. Albans, the royal army disintegrated. The winner, the Duke of York, also fell under King Henry VI. The fate of the English throne was in his hands.

War of the Roses VII. - Bloody years

In 1460, the Duke of York lost patience and seized power. For years he tried to be a faithful servant of the throne, and his reward was only insults and debts. But even his followers were surprised by York's demands. His friends assumed that the aim of the uprising was to gain control of King Henry VI. and not deprive him of the throne. However, York uncompromisingly established his claim to the royal throne.

War of the Roses VIII. - Edward IV and Warwick

The Battle of Towton marked one of the major turning points in the conflict known as the War of the Roses. On the battlefield, Edward triumphed the prince of March and opened the way to the throne. The article describes the first years of his reign and deals with the problematic relationship between the king and his first nobleman, who went from a sincere friendship to an irreconcilable hatred.

War of the Roses X. - The End of the Lancasters

To King Edward IV. managed to obtain in Burgundy the financial support he needed for his return to England. He diligently gathered his strength and managed to land successfully in England, where he soon formed a new army. He was ready and determined to defeat all the rebels and, in particular, to definitively deal with the Duke of Warwick.

War of the Roses XI. - The end of the Duke of Clarence

After the defeat of the internal enemies, Edward IV. focused on foreign policy. He carried out a military campaign in France, which ended in a peace settlement between England and France. By the time he thrived on the thorn, the Duke of Clarence began to be angry again.

War of the Roses XII. - Edward and Richard

King Edward's last years were marked by peaceful rule, but also by health problems. It was clear that if the king died, Richard, of the Duke of Gloucester, would rule England in his son's age. However, there was a group in the court that thought differently.

War of the Roses XIII. - The government of Richard III.

After the death of King Edward IV. a ruthless power struggle broke out. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, played a major role in this fight. After the end of the conflicts of power, he ascended the throne as King Richard III. His accession to the throne, however, was accompanied by a number of crimes that completely ruined his reputation.

War of the Roses XIV. - Road to Bosworth

King Richard's reign was neither long nor peaceful. From the beginning, the monarch pitted many people against himself, and the unfortunate circumstances associated with his accession to the throne weakened his position. This rescued him at a time when he had to face Henrich Tudor's attempt to gain the throne.

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