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16th - 18th Century (1492-1789)

The Renaissance period until the French Revolution

Articles

Andrej Hadik

Like other countries of the Habsburg monarchy, Slovakia could offer the Austrian Habsburgs many talents from the military.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary I. - The uprising of Štefan Bočkaj

The seventeenth century in our history was a period of very dramatic events. The Habsburg dynasty sought to build an absolutist state out of Hungary. This meant the liquidation of the vital interests of the Hungarian nobility, which was strongly opposed. In the struggle for the character of Hungarian society, in a confused time full of religious and political conflicts, the two sides met in a persistent struggle that lasted for centuries.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary II. - Gabriel Betlen's uprising

The defenestration in Prague, May 1618 became a prelude to a long-lasting conflict, which gradually engulfed the whole of Central Europe. The continent became the arena of the extensive power struggle. Two strong coalitions of states. This match did not bypass the territory of today's Slovakia. Hungary was then drawn into the Thirty Years' War during the second anti-Habsburg uprising under Gabriel Betlen.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary III. - Uprising of Juraj I. Rákóczi

The year was 1643, and the grueling conflict, later called the Thirty Years' War in Europe, entered its final phase. The Habsburg army was fully engaged in fighting against Swedish and French troops. This was a good time for another performance by the Hungarian nobility, who felt the strong pressure of imperial absolutism and was once again fighting for their privileges and religious freedom. It was headed by the new Prince of Transylvania, Juraj Rákoczi.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary IV. - The uprising of Imrich Thököly

In 1664, Hungary began to shake again with political and religious unrest. The Vasvar peace concluded with Turkey, angered the Hungarian nobles. According to them, the Turks did not deserve mild conditions. Many assets remained on Turkish territory in the Hungarian nobility, which they could not access at this time. They considered peace with the Ottomans as an imperial interest in Hungarian affairs on the part of the emperor. They were neither enthusiastic about the presence of mercenary troops or the expulsion of the Hungarian nobility and positions of power.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary V. - Uprising of Francis II. Rákócziho

In the last years of the 17th century, the triumph of Habsburg power in Hungary seemed sealed and irreversible. The Hungarian nobility was subdued and removed from political power. The Hungarian states had to eat more than one hot pill. The right to resist the monarch, which had until then been guaranteed by the nobility of the Golden Bull of Andrew II, was abolished. The nobility was also provoked by the new law on the inheritance of the Hungarian crown in the Habsburg dynasty for all its male members. The social problems and consequences of previous riots and wars have impoverished all sections of society, causing widespread dissatisfaction. Of course, the problems of each social class stemmed from different causes. Nevertheless, Hungary gradually turned into a barrel of gunpowder, which was just waiting for its spark to explode.

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

The topic of weapons and armor is usually on the fringes of the historian's attention, however, his interest should not only be documents of a paper nature, but also material documents. And it is the weapons that testify to the mastery of our ancestors, just like paintings - they are often works of art. And this mastery is reflected not only in the beautifully decorated representative weapons, but also in the mass production of military weapons - just such weapons wrote history ...

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

Otto's educational dictionary interprets the slogan Dragoons as follows: “A special kind of cavalry originally, which used long guns, even bayonets, and drums, and also had grenadier companies. Cavalry grenadiers later arose from these. The first traces of dragoons can already be found in the conquerors of America, of whom Pizarro the Younger began to use them for the first time, as he often mounted fast marches for each rider of his army on one infantry horse. Newer dragoons took the origin from spanish and french arkebusier and the name is said to be from here, that in France their banners depicted dragons, although, after all, the name is interpreted differently. In the second half of the XVIII. century, however, they lost their destiny to fight alternately as needed on horseback and on foot and became a kind of medium species between light and heavy riding."

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

Otto's encyclopedia defines the (country) defense in these words: "The people selected from the citizenry, and intended to defend the homeland and because the smaller more local circuit, threatened by the enemy. This was especially true from the earliest times until the end of the Middle Ages, until the formation of permanent troops, before which event public or state defense ( in Germany Heerbann, Aufgebot ) used to be the only force of any state ... "

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

The firearm of the dragoons of Moravian land cash was a musket. However, this seemingly primitive weapon required strict, complex and important training for precise movements. Some manuals list up to 143 commands. But why was the treatment so complicated? The musketeer was literally lined with gunpowder, which was in the gauges on the bandalier and in the dustbin, so when handling the still burning cigar, there was a constant danger of its initiation. Moreover, we cannot have great illusions about the intelligence of a farmer or peasant recruited into the army, who would inadvertently harm himself and his surroundings rather than the enemy, so hard training with a number of commands was appropriate. With the gradual professionalization of armies later, there is a significant reduction in these commands.

Battle of Cologne in the context of the Prussian-Austrian wars in the mid-18th century

The battle took place during the so-called Seven Years' War, near the village of Křečhoř, but it went down in history as the Battle of Kolín. Although it has not been able to decide the outcome of the whole conflict, its significance is indisputable. This was the first heavy blow to the expansionist policies of Frederick II. Prussian and at the same time marked a turning point in the Prussian-Austrian war, in which Austria had been pulling for a shorter end. In addition, it has been shown here more than anywhere else that the decisive factor may not only be many years of experience, but above all the personal courage and heroism of individual soldiers, although "they would not have grown their mustache yet" ....

Battle of Zenta in 1697

A battle that decisively ended the war between Austria and Turkey, which had lasted since 1683. In it, Austrian troops defeated the Turkish army and forced the Turks to peace negotiations, which ended the signing of the peace treaty in Karlovac in 1699.

Beaver Wars

The Beaver Wars, described as the bloodiest war on American soil, were waged by Iroquois tribes in the 17th century, shortly after the arrival of whites. The reason for these wars was the effort to gain a monopoly on the fur trade with the Dutch.

Chlumec nad Cidlinou 24. - 26.3.1775

On the way from Prague to Hradec Králové on the road I / 11 between Chlumec nad Cidlinou and Nové Město, we pass a statue of a peasant insurgent on the left. The work of sculptor Jakub Obrovsky, which was to be unveiled in September 1938, was not installed until 10 years later - in September 1948, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the abolition of robots. The statue commemorates one episode of the so-called "peasant storms", which erupted in northeastern Bohemia as early as January 1775 and continued with greater or lesser force until the summer of that year. What was its course and result is clear from the established saying: "They landed like the peasants at Chlumec".

City rights of the Czech Kingdom

It would certainly be a mistake to devote to in the first paragraphs of the work directly to the file's Rights city of the Czech Kingdom, which is not entirely wrongly attributed to Paul Christian of Koldín, though just Christian of Koldín wasn't the only one who is on the compilation of the file involved. Not to include this file into the historical events, or at least not to mention the development efforts on the codification of municipal law, I would consider it a gross mistake. Therefore, the treatise on the file I will leave to the next chapter.

Conquest of Siberia

Another important event dates back to the end of Ivan the Terrible government - the attack of the Cossack ataman Jermak Timofejevič behind the Stone Belt, behind the Urals. Jermak's Cossacks were not the first Russians to invade Siberia. We know that the power of the Republic of Novgorod reached in the 13th century. to the northern Urals. After the fall of Novgorod, his large territory was seized by the Prince of Moscow.

Cossacks and the annexation of Ukraine

The region of Ukraine was a territory that had been the subject of disputes between Russia and Poland for many years. In this fight, one could talk about an old acquaintance - Where the two fight, the third one wins. The Cossacks, who wanted to break free from Polish power and gain independence, eventually came under Russian rule.

Crime, throat justice and punishments in pre-1621 towns

From time immemorial, like other human activities, a person has been accompanied by crime in his society, whether in the form of minor thefts, murders or even crimes against ideology. It is the latter that we have connected mainly with the time of communism in our republic, but the judgment of this crime goes much deeper into the history of our nation.

Eternal Hussar Ladislav Škultéty-Gábriš

From the historical sources, the fates of dukes, generals, chiefs of staff, ie commanders, who had the fates of hundreds and thousands of men in their hands, are known. We seldom have the opportunity to learn more comprehensive information about ordinary, ordinary soldiers. Ladislav Škultéty-Gábriš was one of the few who deserved fame.

Guilds in Milevsko

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 1. Development of Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which here, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: 2. Milevsko guilds

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted in Milevsko. sufficient attention.

Guilds in Milevsko: Conclusion

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Guilds in Milevsko: Introduction

As the topic of my bachelor's thesis, I chose guilds in Milevsko, which, as an associated organization of craftsmen, reached their peak at the beginning of the modern age. I chose this topic mainly because there are many materials in the State District Archive in Písek, such as articles from different periods of individual guilds, account books, seals, certificates, announcements and many others, but so far this topic has not been devoted sufficient attention in Milevsko.

Half a millennium of European conquests

To the question of what happened in 1492, most respondents would certainly answer correctly that Columbus had sailed to the New World at that time. Many would also know that in 1498 Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India, but probably no one would remember what happened in 1502. Because this event is not mentioned much in school history, or it merges with previous ones, although it had for practical action many times greater reach than the two previous ones - and is still present today.

Holasic area

Holasicko, surely many of you will be wondering where to look for this area? This is an area in the northeast of the Czech Republic around the city of Opava (Opava, Krnov and Hlučín regions) and the adjacent area in the north, today located in Poland.

Ivan IV. Terrible - A murderer and a Christian on the throne

The large boyar and princely families were in the 14th and 15th centuries supporters and opponents of the Moscow dynasty. The power of the great prince of Moscow protected them from devastating local wars and raids by nomads, but at the same time they sought to participate in this power. In this ambiguous relationship of boyars to the monarch clearly prevailed after the death of Vasily III. (1533) Respect for the Authority of the Throne. They stood up for his then three-year-old son Ivan, and even after the death of his mother Jelena Glinská (she was poisoned in 1538 ), they did not leave him. They ruled on his behalf, they enriched themselves, but they did not allow the right of a minor monarch to be questioned. Both uncles of little Ivan - Yuri and Andrei, brothers Vasily III. - They ended up in a famine. This boy's allegiance to little Ivan was primarily the work of their egoism, which commanded the support of a ruler who could not rule himself. This opened the way for powerful families to unrestricted oligarchic government.

Juraj Šucha

Like other countries of the Habsburg monarchy, Slovakia could offer the Austrian Habsburgs many talents from the military.

Lower Moravia

Lower Moravia today has nothing to do with today's Moravia. Lower Moravia, this little-known name (the name is mentioned in the book by Lubomír E. Havlík: Chronicle of Great Moravia, published in 1993), was once called the area on the lower left bank of the Morava River, namely the territory of today's Slovakia, southern Poland (northern Poland). Orava and northern Spiš, which until 1918 were part of Hungary and then Poland) and northern Hungary (Matra and Bükk mountains and the Tokaj wine region). Lower Moravia has always been a part of our Czech state in certain periods.

Masters of life and death

The history of the death penalty, and with it the many secrets of the executioner's craft, is as old as humanity itself. Initially, it was an act of retribution, mostly performed by those closest to the victim. Gradually, with the advent of institutions, this punishment also became institutional. In ancient history, the death penalty was most often carried out by suffocation, slashing with a sword or ax, burning alive, walling up, hitting a stake or crucifixion.

Nobility in Slovakia in the early modern period

In this work I analyze the position, decline and growth of property and the struggle to preserve their privileges of the higher nobility, as well as efforts to establish the middle and lower nobility in Slovakia in the 16th to 18th centuries.

Organization of Austrian artillery during the Coalition Wars

When the establishment of a permanent army by Ferdinand III. in 1649 the artillery did not figure in it. Keeping the artillery in peace was considered a luxury and therefore the cannons were deposited in the arsenals. But as early as 1656, as a result of the impending war, the artillery was activated and has remained a permanent part of the army ever since.

Ottoman army in the 16th century

Under the leadership of the Ottoman sultans, a powerful force emerged, which gained the stamp of invincibility and for a long time influenced European warfare. Its successes forced the Habsburgs to develop new tactical formations and greatly accelerated the transition of European armies to more modern firearms.

Peter I. the Great - Foreign policy

The reign of the second Romanov on the imperial throne, Alexei Mikhailovich ( 1645 - 1676 ), was characterized by some historians as the period of the fading Russian Middle Ages. Beneath the surface of this outwardly slow life of the great Eastern Empire, however, changes took place that foreshadowed the onset of a new age. In this contradictory environment, in which the signs of the necessary reforms were already announced, Tsarich Peter , the fourteenth child of Tsar Alexei, was born on May 30, 7180, since the creation of the world (1672). Of the five imperial sons, only three survived their father (Fyodor and Ivan from the first, Peter from the second marriage).

Peter I. the Great - Government reforms

The reign of the second Romanov on the imperial throne, Alexei Mikhailovich ( 1645 - 1676 ), was characterized by some historians as the period of the fading Russian Middle Ages. Beneath the surface of this outwardly slow life of the great Eastern Empire, however, changes took place that foreshadowed the onset of a new age. In this contradictory environment, in which the signs of the necessary reforms were already announced, Tsarich Peter , the fourteenth child of Tsar Alexei, was born on May 30, 7180, since the creation of the world (1672). Of the five imperial sons, only three survived their father (Fyodor and Ivan from the first, Peter from the second marriage).

Russia since the death of Ivan IV. till the first Romanov

The word tsar was an irrevocable law. The new ruler then became the unhealthy 28 - year - old Fyodor, whose rightful place was in a monastery cell or church rather than on a throne. The violent father broke his - otherwise with Fyodor's dull intellect not too firm - his will so perfectly that he never, even as a tsar, became a completely independent man again.

Second Battle of the Dunes - June 14, 1658 Part 1.

On October 24, 1648, the Thirty Years' War ended with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia. For several decades, however, Europe resonated with its echoes, in the form of major or minor military conflicts. This period is recorded in the history of the Thirty Years' War as its Post Bellum. One of these conflicts was the Franco-Spanish War ...

Second Battle of the Dunes - June 14, 1658 Part 2.

The following description of the movements and position of the units is written in an opposing form. This means that the right French wing stood against the Spanish left wing and vice versa. In some parts of the article, I also helped myself with a topographical orientation.

Silesia

Silesia, which is now part of the Czech state, is a historically wonderful conglomeration of originally disparate former vassal and other territories, namely the former duchy of Těšín, the duchy of Opava, the principalities of Krnov, Hlučín, the Moravian enclaves and the principality of Nis, ie the remnants of Czech expansion to the northeast.

Sűlejman

Sűlejman "Beautiful" was undoubtedly one of the greatest rulers of the 16th century. It was he who defeated Louis II of Hungary in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, thus indirectly enabling the Habsburgs to ascend the Czech throne.

Sűlejman "Beautiful" and his conquests to Europe (1533-1566)

In peace between Ferdinand I and Sűlejman " The Beautiful " in 1533, one stage of the Ottoman invasions of Europe came to an end. However, this only happened so that the sultan could develop new activities in the Mediterranean, where the dreaded pirate Chair-ed-Din was flying his flag. At the same time, a civil war is taking place in Hungary, in which the Sultan will soon join again.

The battle near Vozokany

The place where this first victorious battle against the Turks took place in Slovakia, but almost unknown to a wider circle of people, is located between the villages of Malé and Veľké Vozokany in a place called Martovo pole, just a short walk from the famous arboretum in Tesárské Mlyňany.

The beginnings of theater in the Czech lands

In this work I will try to outline what is happening in the Czech lands in the cultural field, especially in the field of theater. The history of theater in the 18th and 19th centuries is very extensive and was influenced by several factors that I will try to find and illuminate in my work. The whole 19th century is full of social changes and the influence of the theater is very important in this and certainly unmissable in Bohemia.

The time of the palace coups in Russia in the 18th century

The old customs and orders of succession were shattered by the death of Emperor Alexei. Traditional succession rights were also violated by Peter's decree, which reserved the right to appoint a successor himself. And so the autocracy became a victim of the forces it had created. For 37 years after the death of Peter I, the tsar was decided by the guard, ie the political forces that were able to win the guard to their side.

The Turkish military conquests in the territory of today's Slovakia - part 2.

In the 16th century, life in today's southern Slovakia was not easy. This area was a military border between the Ottoman Empire and Hungary. Ordinary people had daily concerns about the exploitation of Turkish crews or requisitioning for German mercenary crews. These fears have affected generations, as the Turkish threat has haunted the territory of present-day southern Slovakia for more than 150 years.

The wonderful story of Joseph Nasi

Many people certainly know Theodor Herzl, the author of "The Jewish State," who became the father of modern Zionism. But almost no one knows Joseph Nasi. This name belongs to the ancient past, but it is worth remembering.

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