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16th - 18th Century (1492-1789)

The Renaissance period until the French Revolution


Andrej Hadik

Like other countries of the Habsburg monarchy, Slovakia could offer the Austrian Habsburgs many talents from the military.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary I. - The uprising of Štefan Bočkaj

The seventeenth century in our history was a period of very dramatic events. The Habsburg dynasty sought to build an absolutist state out of Hungary. This meant the liquidation of the vital interests of the Hungarian nobility, which was strongly opposed. In the struggle for the character of Hungarian society, in a confused time full of religious and political conflicts, the two sides met in a persistent struggle that lasted for centuries.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary II. - Gabriel Betlen's uprising

The defenestration in Prague, May 1618 became a prelude to a long-lasting conflict, which gradually engulfed the whole of Central Europe. The continent became the arena of the extensive power struggle. Two strong coalitions of states. This match did not bypass the territory of today's Slovakia. Hungary was then drawn into the Thirty Years' War during the second anti-Habsburg uprising under Gabriel Betlen.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary III. - Uprising of Juraj I. Rákóczi

The year was 1643, and the grueling conflict, later called the Thirty Years' War in Europe, entered its final phase. The Habsburg army was fully engaged in fighting against Swedish and French troops. This was a good time for another performance by the Hungarian nobility, who felt the strong pressure of imperial absolutism and was once again fighting for their privileges and religious freedom. It was headed by the new Prince of Transylvania, Juraj Rákoczi.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary IV. - The uprising of Imrich Thököly

In 1664, Hungary began to shake again with political and religious unrest. The Vasvar peace concluded with Turkey, angered the Hungarian nobles. According to them, the Turks did not deserve mild conditions. Many assets remained on Turkish territory in the Hungarian nobility, which they could not access at this time. They considered peace with the Ottomans as an imperial interest in Hungarian affairs on the part of the emperor. They were neither enthusiastic about the presence of mercenary troops or the expulsion of the Hungarian nobility and positions of power.

Anti-Habsburg uprisings in Hungary V. - Uprising of Francis II. Rákócziho

In the last years of the 17th century, the triumph of Habsburg power in Hungary seemed sealed and irreversible. The Hungarian nobility was subdued and removed from political power. The Hungarian states had to eat more than one hot pill. The right to resist the monarch, which had until then been guaranteed by the nobility of the Golden Bull of Andrew II, was abolished. The nobility was also provoked by the new law on the inheritance of the Hungarian crown in the Habsburg dynasty for all its male members. The social problems and consequences of previous riots and wars have impoverished all sections of society, causing widespread dissatisfaction. Of course, the problems of each social class stemmed from different causes. Nevertheless, Hungary gradually turned into a barrel of gunpowder, which was just waiting for its spark to explode.

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

The topic of weapons and armor is usually on the fringes of the historian's attention, however, his interest should not only be documents of a paper nature, but also material documents. And it is the weapons that testify to the mastery of our ancestors, just like paintings - they are often works of art. And this mastery is reflected not only in the beautifully decorated representative weapons, but also in the mass production of military weapons - just such weapons wrote history ...

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

Otto's educational dictionary interprets the slogan Dragoons as follows: “A special kind of cavalry originally, which used long guns, even bayonets, and drums, and also had grenadier companies. Cavalry grenadiers later arose from these. The first traces of dragoons can already be found in the conquerors of America, of whom Pizarro the Younger began to use them for the first time, as he often mounted fast marches for each rider of his army on one infantry horse. Newer dragoons took the origin from spanish and french arkebusier and the name is said to be from here, that in France their banners depicted dragons, although, after all, the name is interpreted differently. In the second half of the XVIII. century, however, they lost their destiny to fight alternately as needed on horseback and on foot and became a kind of medium species between light and heavy riding."

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

Otto's encyclopedia defines the (country) defense in these words: "The people selected from the citizenry, and intended to defend the homeland and because the smaller more local circuit, threatened by the enemy. This was especially true from the earliest times until the end of the Middle Ages, until the formation of permanent troops, before which event public or state defense ( in Germany Heerbann, Aufgebot ) used to be the only force of any state ... "

Armament and armor of dragoons within the Moravian Land Defense in the second half of the 17th century

The firearm of the dragoons of Moravian land cash was a musket. However, this seemingly primitive weapon required strict, complex and important training for precise movements. Some manuals list up to 143 commands. But why was the treatment so complicated? The musketeer was literally lined with gunpowder, which was in the gauges on the bandalier and in the dustbin, so when handling the still burning cigar, there was a constant danger of its initiation. Moreover, we cannot have great illusions about the intelligence of a farmer or peasant recruited into the army, who would inadvertently harm himself and his surroundings rather than the enemy, so hard training with a number of commands was appropriate. With the gradual professionalization of armies later, there is a significant reduction in these commands.

Battle of Cologne in the context of the Prussian-Austrian wars in the mid-18th century

The battle took place during the so-called Seven Years' War, near the village of Křečhoř, but it went down in history as the Battle of Kolín. Although it has not been able to decide the outcome of the whole conflict, its significance is indisputable. This was the first heavy blow to the expansionist policies of Frederick II. Prussian and at the same time marked a turning point in the Prussian-Austrian war, in which Austria had been pulling for a shorter end. In addition, it has been shown here more than anywhere else that the decisive factor may not only be many years of experience, but above all the personal courage and heroism of individual soldiers, although "they would not have grown their mustache yet" ....



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