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Cold War Era (1945-1989)

The period between the second world war and the collapse of the Soviet Union


A-12 Blackbird (1) - High and fast

If the key to the survival of the U-2 was access, which was beyond the capabilities of its generation fighters, another aircraft from "Skunk Works" was to have, in addition to fantastic access, a speed that designers had never dreamed of until then. In addition to increasing speed, the designers in the construction of the new aircraft for the first time ever purposefully focused on reducing the effective RCS. This miracle technique was called the A-12 Blackbird.

Action D

"It is remarkable that family members, especially the wives of detainees, remained completely calm, accepted the detention of the spouses calmly, so that their actions affected our authorities in the sense that they were prepared for this circumstance and that they explain their detainees' detention more as honors (sic!) than as punishment. "

Part of the evaluation report of the Ministry of the Interior of April 1949, concerning action D

AEW aircraft - Erieye (1) - Swedish eye in the sky

There are only a few states in the world that have been able to develop their own flying Airborne Early Warning (AEW) system. And even fewer are those who have successfully sold it to foreign users. Sweden has succeeded. Although the Erieye system was developed for a different world than it is today, it eventually became a successful export item.

After all, flying is so easy!

“Fly like a bird! Hover to the clouds and meet the sun! Enter Svazarm! ”
Well, they didn't take me to Svazarm, because, as I learned a lot later, the pilot school of gliding was intended mainly for future proven defenders of the homeland, which today some former Vassarmos in the biographies somewhat deny. For me, comrades decided that even if I had learned to fly by chance, which according to the results at primary school was not so certain, I would probably, in their opinion, flee to capitalist abroad with the entrusted socialist property - that is, by plane. This had to be prevented in advance. So I don't sail the plane.

AH-1 Cobra - Norm of combat helicopter

It is not so long ago that the term combat helicopter was associated with the name Cobra. Since then, combat helicopters of various designs have entered the arsenal of many states, for which the Cobras were a standard of quality. Since then, they have undergone a long evolution and the number of their variants has exhausted the alphabet.

AH-64D Longbow Apache

The AH-64A embodied the knowledge bought in the Korean and Vietnam Wars by the blood of the pilots of the first armed and combat helicopters. For a long time, he became the standard of a combat helicopter, which was able to decimate the enemy's tank columns. But technology from the early 70's has some limitations. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the AH-64D Longbow Apache, which significantly expanded the capabilities of the original helicopter.

Air Force Colonel Otakar Černý and his journey through the short 20th century

The main trial of a group of "treacherous" pilots from the West took place at the infamous State Court in Prague from the morning of February 9, 1949. It was nothing more than a constructed process with a group of div. gene. Karel Janoušek, in which, coincidentally, he found himself Capt. Otakar Černý, who, like the others, heard a harsh verdict that afternoon. He sentenced him to three years in a heavy prison, sharpened by a hard bed. Furthermore, the loss of honorary badges, decorations and the loss of honorary civil rights for three years.

Aircraft AEW - Airborne Early Warning - Eyes of the Air Force

Early warning aircraft provide air force commanders with a constant overview of the air situation, far beyond the radar horizon. They are one of the key elements for winning information superiority on the battlefield and enable the effective deployment of their own forces. Their construction has undergone a long development and today they are an indispensable part of the modern air force. The number of air forces that operate early warning aircraft is constantly growing.

Anti-aircraft defense system "A"

In the Soviet Union, they began to address the issue of anti-missile defense (AMD) after the war. In the years 1948-1951, groups were formed in the scientific research institutes of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR No. 4 and 885, which dealt with the development and use of ballistic missiles. The first, especially theoretical, work connected with the development of AMD resources was performed here.

Apollo: Useful waste for billions

When American and Soviet experts began preparing the first satellites in the second half of the 1950s, they had no idea what it could bring to humanity. They only tried to find out what the space around the Earth looked like, but at the same time they had to bring relief to the generals who gave them the missiles in the form of spy satellites. No one really saw anymore.

Bartini VVA-14 - Amphibian plane with vertical takeoff and landing

When you visit the VVS museum in Monino, you will definitely not miss the wreck of the machine, which does not resemble any known aircraft or even approximately. It stands on a tandem chassis, while it has massive floats and an incredibly thick centerplane. In the grass are wings with such a small depth of profile that they look as if they did not even belong to the aircraft, and a short sideways of an empty engine nacelle. The civil matriculation CCCP-10687 is also interesting. It is a seaplane wreck with a vertical takeoff and landing Bartini VVA-14

Chao C'yang

A brief biography of one of the few supporters of the liberalization of the Chinese political scene.


The problem of Chechnya is not as new as it might seem. Conflicts between Russia and the Chechen ethnic group date back to the 18th century, when Tsar Peter I sought to gain access to the Black Sea. The obstacle was the North Caucasus.

Combat deployment of the S-75 system (Part 5 - 80s to the present)

The conclusion of a five-part series of articles on the combat deployment of anti-aircraft missile system S-75. This time we will focus on the conflicts of the end of the 20th century. Although this system was already obsolete at that time, in many countries it still had to be at the forefront ...

Communists' dissatisfaction with military courts after "Victorious February"

"The Senate of the High Military Court, as composed of the trial of General Karel Janoušek and others, and perhaps the High Military Court in Prague, is simply not enough at all for trials of such importance. It must be stated that the conduct of a process of this kind and significance at the regional court in Pankrác after the February events is completely differently prepared, completely differently managed and conducted in a completely different spirit, corresponding to today and the interest of the state. […] This fact was noticed immediately at the beginning of the main hearing by the lawyer of Lt. Col. Hanuš, who declared that the military penitentiary and the High Military Court in Prague are a "sanatorium" comparing to Pankrác prison. " From the report of Col. gšt. Reindl, a member of the 5th Department of the General Staff of the Ministry of Defense, June 17, 1948

Czechoslovak deceptive anti-aircraft missile unit

I read with interest an interesting article by Jan Brus " Scenes of War " ( see MR 12/2009 ), in which, among other things, a set of models for imitating the position of an anti-aircraft missile unit was mentioned. In the military historical archive, I managed to find interesting information about it, which I would like to share with the reader with a short contribution.

Czechoslovak People's Army - Part 1

The Czechoslovak People's Army is a phenomenon of our history that will not reach its objective assessment until many years later. The point is that this armed corps grew on the ruins of the bourgeois Czechoslovak Army and its burial of the government troops of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in connection with the participants in the armed struggle against Germany and its satellites, ie units of the 1st Czechoslovak Army Corps and units that arrived to their homeland from the territory of Western Europe, mainly from Great Britain.

Czechoslovak People's Army in attack - Part 1

For Czechoslovak People's Army - during my career in it - valid combat regulations, the attack was considered the main type of combat. It was determined that this was the only way to inflict decisive losses on the enemy, and if you had a political doctrine of defense, to transfer the fight back to its territory.

Czechoslovak People's Army in attack - Part 2

For Czechoslovak People's Army - during my career in it - valid combat regulations, the attack was considered the main type of combat. It was determined that this was the only way to inflict decisive losses on the enemy, and if you had a political doctrine of defense, to transfer the fight back to its territory.

Czechoslovak People's Army in defense - Part 1

For Czechoslovak People's Army, during my career in it, according to the valid fighting rules, defense was considered one of the main types of fighting. It was determined that this is the only way to inflict decisive losses on the enemy, and if you have a defensive political doctrine, to transfer the fight back to its territory after its aggression, then we will better exhaust the onslaught of a properly conducted defense.

Czechoslovak People's Army in defense - Part 2

For Czechoslovak People's Army, during my career in it, according to the valid fighting rules, defense was considered one of the main types of fighting. It was determined that this is the only way to inflict decisive losses on the enemy, and if you have a defensive political doctrine, to transfer the fight back to its territory after its aggression, then we will better exhaust the onslaught of a properly conducted defense.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 1

The proclamation of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948 was the result of World War II, in which Jews were the target of an unprecedented final liquidation by the Nazis. The desire of the Jews for their own country was not only the result of the Holocaust , it is primarily a spiritual matter of Judaism, related primarily to the exodus to which the Jews have been subjected several times in their long history. The Holocaust only accelerated it.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 10

The proclamation of an independent state of Israel has provoked a wave of sympathy in our society. This wave of sympathy spread across all groups of the population and this fact aroused a great response among war veterans from Svoboda's corps. Here it is necessary to realize that a large part of the units of Svoboda's army, mainly as long as it was a separate battalion and then a brigade, was made up of soldiers of Jewish origin.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 2

After the war, our country found out that the vast majority of its citizens of Jewish nationality were sent to extermination camps and liquidated by the occupation administration in the Protectorate and the special behavior of the political leadership of the Slovak state. From this consciousness arose a certain sense of need to at least correct this. This was one factor that became the breeding ground for aid to the new state.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 3

The Israeli armed forces have always suffered from a lack of weapons. Returning to the first part, it is stated that at the end of 1947, Hagana had 900 quality rifles, 900 light machine guns and ammunition for three days of combat. Chaim Herzog even states in his book on the Arab-Israeli Wars that the machine guns were 700 light and 200 universal. I simplified it and added the machine guns. I think that at that time the category of weapons "universal machine gun" did not exist.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 4

In this chapter, I will try to reconstruct what these supplies actually contained according to the available sources. Unfortunately, the controlled and spontaneous liquidation of a large number of documents associated with these events is the main reason why it is not possible to achieve truly relevant results. Nevertheless, even what is demonstrable is a respectable job. But it is necessary to know that everything stated here was delivered without any doubt.

Czechoslovakia and its military assistance to the state of Israel in the first period of its independent existence - Part 7

Czechoslovak participation in the training of Israeli soldiers The Jewish armed forces, which had to face the superiority of their opponents from the very beginning, fought to the deaths of those sentenced to death. From the very beginning, it was clear to all the fighters that they were not only fighting for their new state, but that they might be facing the possible extermination of all Jews in their part of Palestine. Fortunately, they weren't completely wrong. All healthy men who fought against the German armies and their allies in the ranks of the Allies immediately entered service. And there were not a few of them. In his book on the Arab-Israeli wars, Chaim Herzog states that about 30,000 Israeli men and women had war experience with various weapons. Even the post-war immigration, which consisted of many experienced soldiers, did not hesitate and joined where it was needed. But it was still not enough. The Arab armies were led from behind by experienced professionals from the armies of Great Britain, France and even defeated Germany.

Decolonization of Southeast Asia

After World War II, a wave of nationalism swept through Asia, as a result of which many nations declared their independence from the colonial powers. The post-war growth of nationalism and the rapid decolonization were the result of several factors. World War II itself meant enormous exhaustion for the colonial powers, which meant a loss of control over the colonies. Another factor was the emergence of domestic intelligence, which studied at Western universities and demanded democracy, self-government and the right to self-determination. In some cases, colonial nations participated as allies in the war and contributed to the victory of freedom - and they wanted it for themselves after the war. Another element that manifested itself in Asia was Japan's contribution to the demise of European colonies. On the one hand, Japan lost its own colonies, and on the other, it promoted and encouraged national movements that opposed the restoration of European domination after the war. Britain reacted more promptly than France and the Netherlands to the strength of the independence movement and began the process of decolonization. However, we cannot forget the US pressure and example when they granted independence to one of their colonies, the Philippines, in 1946. However, some powers have decided to resist these movements. The wars waged by France and the Netherlands to regain control of their colonies in Southeast Asia only confirmed this fact.

Do you know the difference between commandos, rangers and green berets?

The country where the first modern special forces were born was Great Britain. (I emphasize the word "modern"!) In 1940, ten special units were set up for the Norwegian campaign with the mission of preventing the Germans from building submarine bases in Norway. This is how the famous commandos were created. The name was taken over by the British from the Portuguese through the Boers, who used it during the Boer War in South Africa to name their militias ...


Dogfights have always attracted attention. Since the First World War, their participants have been considered heroes, stories have been written about nothing, and they have become idols of generations. However, the reality of air combat is much more prosaic. Whatever the motivation of the pilots to fight, there was always a winner on one side and a loser on the other in a crippled or burning plane falling to the ground. This series deals with the struggle from their beginning to the modern age, when the sky is steadily ruled by jet engines.

Eights in our history

In the Czech nation, it is said that in the 20th century, the eight at the end of the century is fatal for us. However, this is not quite true - the eights, which signaled a certain breakthrough, we know from centuries past. For example, in 1348, Emperor and King Charles IV founded University of Prague - today Charles University. In May 1618, the evangelical nobles expelled two imperial governors and a scribe from Prague Castle - this defenestration was the beginning of the aristocratic resistance, which ended with the final subordination of the Czech lands to the Habsburg dynasty and their incorporation into the Austrian monarchy. In the turbulent year of 1848, when a number of uprisings broke out in Central Europe, the inhabitants of Prague also rose - their defeat led to the strengthening of the Austrian government. Ten years later, the National Theater in Prague began its activities - one of the symbols of patriotism. In 1878, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers 'Party was established in Prague - the first workers' party in the Czech lands.

Export of weapons from Czechoslovakia to capitalist foreign countries (1950–1960)

Traditions of the Czech, resp. of the Czechoslovak armaments industry dates back not only to the time of the first Czechoslovak Republic, but much further, to the times of Austria-Hungary. In the 1930s, Czechoslovakia was one of the ten largest arms exporters in the world, and during the Nazi occupation, the sector continued to grow and modernize. World War II did not do much damage to armaments companies in our territory, so it could boldly follow the pre-war parameters of exports.

F-104 Starfighter - The phenomenon of speed

Nearing the end of 1951, conventional fighters introduced into service flew at speeds of about 1 MACH, rather less. They reached supersonic speeds mostly only in dive flight or completely without weapons. Lockheed designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson visited United States Air Force (USAF) pilots fighting in Korea to find out which aircraft would suit them. He received an unisono response from the fighters: a light aircraft, overcoming the enemy in speed, climbability, access and dexterity.

F-14 Tomcat vs Su-22 - Dogfight over the gulf of Great Sydra

During the Cold War, pilots of fully armed aircraft of both major powers, their allies or satellites, met many times in the air. Most of the meetings went without conflicts, although the participants mostly ran what is called " irritating the rattlesnake with their bare feet ". If nothing else, at least they tried to take a more advantageous position over the opponent. But sometimes it turned out differently.

F-15A Baz versus the MiG-25 - Trap from a textbook

The USSR developed a powerful MiG-25 fighter aircraft in the late 1960s. This aircraft was not originally to be exported, but after Lieutenant Viktor Belenko flew with one MiG-25P to the base of Hakodate in Japan, there was nothing to hide. The aircraft was released for export. Thus, although there was never a conflict between the great powers, the MiG-25 had the opportunity to fight, over Lebanon, with its counterpart, the American F-15. Although both aircraft flew under the insignia of other countries.

F4D Skyray – Ford

Given that marine airplanes are subject to exceptional requirements regarding airframe strength and corrosion resistance, this cannot be affected other than by suffering from a mass handicap compared to their competitors intended to be operated exclusively from ground bases. This ultimately leads to poorer performance. Therefore, most of the world records were set by machines from the Air Force… With a few exceptions.

F4D-1 Skyray - Naval record holder

The Douglas F4D was an aerodynamically fine and relatively light aircraft. Its only weakness was the not very powerful spare power unit. Although he eventually had to settle for a weaker engine than originally expected, his performance was great. The entries in the FAI record table speak for themselves.

Father Palec

The founder of the Czechoslovak airborne army gen. Karel Paleček tried to ensure that his units were destined primarily for special operations.

Feklisov, one of the Soviet superspies, died

Alexander Feklisov, a retired KGB intelligence colonel, one of the Soviet superspies, died in Moscow on Friday, October 26, 2007. He was one of the legendary spies in Moscow, and in 1996 President Boris Yeltsin awarded him the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He boasted that he was driving a total of seventeen spies, citizens of other states. Feklisov was one of the people who contributed to the Cold War, but on the other hand he helped to ease tensions during the Cuban crisis.

Former Lt. Col. of KGB became British Knight

The former Soviet spy became a British knight. This is unprecedented. On Thursday, October 18, 2007, the British Queen Elizabeth II passed. in the Buckingham Palace of the former lieutenant colonel of KGB intelligence Oleg Gordijevský to the Knight of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. The BBC recalled that the legendary spy James Bond has the same title - at least according to his father Ian Fleming.

This award is undoubtedly a boon to Russian intelligence services, which are as active today as they were at the height of the Cold War.

What did Gordievsky deserve this title for?

Frederick C. Blesse

You look forward to this moment all the time at school, but when you are left with an entire plane without an instructor, your hands sweat profusely. They warned me about the hole at the end of the runway, so I repeated during takeoff, don't forget the pool. After a few circuits, I chose landing practice. The landing was beautifully soft and I completely forgot about the pool in the joy that I am only good. Of course I parked in it. For another 6 weeks, everyone was pretending to be a poolless Blesse.

General Marcel Bigeard – hero or villain?

Corps General Marcel Bigeard was one of the most popular and controversial French soldiers. He was celebrated as a hero by Dien Bien Phu, but at the same time he was suspected of being involved in the torture of prisoners.

Genocide in public international law on the example of Tibet

In its preamble, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide identifies genocide as a crime under international law rejected by the civilized world, which has caused great loss to humanity in all periods of history and the eradication of which requires international cooperation.

Genocide in public international law on the example of Tibet

Already at the time of the approval of the Convention, there were voices that the definition of genocide as it appeared in the final text was disproportionately narrow. Among the groups to which the Convention provides protection, in the opinion of many, other groups should have appeared, such as cultural, social, but especially political.

Genocide in public international law on the example of Tibet

Crime without prosecutor and judge.
The debatable Genocide Convention failed to give a sufficiently precise and authoritative definition of genocide, another lack of the Convention, the absence of institutional and coercive mechanisms for genocide, directly threatened the main purpose of the Convention, ie to prevent and punish this serious crime.

Genocide in public international law on the example of Tibet

The practical implementation ( or rather non-implementation ) of the Convention on Genocide has become sad evidence of the inability of the international community to deal effectively with violations of even the most basic rules of international law. States have never decided to intervene vigorously, even at a time when genocide could still be prevented, or at a time when tens of thousands of people were already dying in genocidal massacres, and even when the perpetrators of the crime of genocide had already been ousted and captured and punished. . Instead of a real solution to the problem of genocide, the international community has usually been alibi-satisfied in stating " serious concern " and providing humanitarian assistance to the victims.

Genocide in public international law on the example of Tibet

Prevent, not just punish. The establishment of international criminal tribunals to punish crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda has reopened the question of the creation of a permanent international criminal court and the development of a code of international criminal law.

Golf for the CIA

Probably everyone interested in history and the military knows the film Hunt for a Submarine or its literary masterpiece by Tom Clancy. However, it is less known that the story of a Soviet submarine captain and an American agent who tries to smuggle him and the ship into the USA, at least from the American side, is based on a real event.

Half a millennium of European conquests

To the question of what happened in 1492, most respondents would certainly answer correctly that Columbus had sailed to the New World at that time. Many would also know that in 1498 Vasco da Gama discovered a sea route to India, but probably no one would remember what happened in 1502. Because this event is not mentioned much in school history, or it merges with previous ones, although it had for practical action many times greater reach than the two previous ones - and is still present today.

Hawker Hunter 01 - Cousin of the Sea Hawks

It is said that an aircraft that looks good also flies well. One of the types that fully applies to this is the Hawker Hunter. Another truth is that many aircraft designed by designers based on their best experience met the requirements of pilots better than the ideas of ministry officials. This also applies to Hunters literally.

In particular, the fate of the vessel

This means aircraft career or " parent aircraft carrier " ENTERPRISE, which in the Czech non-poetic translation works at best as an ordinary COMPANY.

Inadaptable - Students, hippies and others from the point of view of the Czechoslovak authorities

It was the secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia that gave its consent on February 25, 1965, to the organization of a student majáles in the capital. The unexpected course of the celebrations led him to subsequently organize a nationwide conference of university students. At a meeting held on September 29, 1965, the members of the Politburo came to the conclusion that there was political-ideological activity of the student, stating that the wave of political activity in the university environment did not rise suddenly, but that it had been gathering for many years.

Jewish and democratic at the same time?

There are now emerging views that the Israeli demand that the Palestinians recognize Israel as a "Jewish state" is undemocratic, contrary to the principle of human rights and freedoms. Can the Jewish state be democratic?

Ka-50 Black Shark

For many years, M.L. Mil was the design supplier of helicopters for the Soviet army. Although N.I. Kamov's competition office participated in a number of competitions announced by the army, Mil's position was unshakable until the army announced a competition for a new combat helicopter in search of an equivalent counterweight to the American AAH program.

Lightnings in the air

Some fighters do not only bear the type designation, but have their own names. And what name represents speed and power, ie the characteristics that a fighter should have, above all, better than lightning? Probably none. The series of following articles describes the planes that deserved the name lightning - more or less.

Little red devil

Josef Černota was not only one of the best soldiers in our foreign army, but also one of the founders of the Czechoslovak airborne army.

Lockheed U-2 - Legendary spy

The U-2 has been flying since the mid-1950s. Although it will celebrate half a century since its first take-off next year, it is not yet going to "retire". The reason is simple. Although obsolete in the age of satellites, the construction from the last century may seem obsolete, the truth remains that the aircraft is a reliable platform for many reconnaissance systems. It is much more operative and cheaper against satellites.

M1A1 - M1A2 Abrams (2) - New generation

The introduction of a new tank did not just mean a new vehicle. The experience from the operation caused a practically complete reconstruction of the armored divisions, because the old organizational structure was unsatisfactory. Only then was the potential of the new tanks properly used.

M551 Sheridan (1) - Hard beginnings

Light tanks have been developed alongside their heavier counterparts for years, and their journey through history is varied and pretty winding. The last American light tank included in the service was the M551 Sheridan. It was a rather contradictory vehicle with exotic weapons.

M551 Sheridan (2) - Improved reputation

The M551 did not gain a very good reputation at the beginning of its deployment, mainly due to its relatively complicated design and hasty deployment in combat. In addition, he found himself on a battlefield for which he was not designed and performed tasks that belonged to the MBT. During the later deployment, he improved his bad reputation and eventually lasted longer than the biggest optimists would expect.

Marshal Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was a prominent Soviet military commander and politician, one of the best and most successful army commanders of World War II.

Masters of life and death

The history of the death penalty, and with it the many secrets of the executioner's craft, is as old as humanity itself. Initially, it was an act of retribution, mostly performed by those closest to the victim. Gradually, with the advent of institutions, this punishment also became institutional. In ancient history, the death penalty was most often carried out by suffocation, slashing with a sword or ax, burning alive, walling up, hitting a stake or crucifixion.

MBT-70 - Too complicated solution (1)

The development of this tank dates back to the early sixties. At the time, the US Army and Bundeswehr were looking for a replacement for their obsolete tanks. Joint development seemed to be the ideal solution. An unusual concept tank was created with an unmanned hull and a number of technical finesse, but it did not get into service.

Mexico - Guatemalan conflict

The Mexico-Guatemala conflict began on December 31, 1958, when Mexican fishing boats were attacked by the Guatemlay Air Force as they fished in the territorial waters of Guatemala.
The result was 4 fishermen dead and 14 injured. The 10 surviving fishermen were detained and interrogated by the Guatemalan army. The event resulted in the severance of diplomatic and trade relations, the activation of the armed forces of both countries and the destruction of the border bridge between the two countries.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 1

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 1

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 1

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 2

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces. This time focusing on camouflage, coloring and markings.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 2

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces. This time focusing on camouflage, coloring and markings.

MiG-23 / Boxes / Part 2

History of service of the first Mig series aircraft with variable wing geometry in the Czechoslovak and Czech air forces. This time focusing on camouflage, coloring and markings.

North Korea and its nuclear carriers

North Korea has started harassing weapons several times. This time, however, she went a little too far. In addition to declaring combat readiness to the rocket troops, it re-entered a state of war with its southern neighbors. In addition, the North Korean military received permission to strike the United States. But what options does Kim Jong-un and his army actually have?

Occupational killer without claim to question mark

Such is the title of the film ( almost one and a half hours long ) about Karel Vaš, a monster who died a few weeks ago. He lived to the glorious age of 96 years, in stark contrast to the fate of the many whose lives he shortened - in the role of informant, investigator, torturer, prosecutor, judge, de facto executioner, to the last breath of a rock-solid communist fanatic, without a doubt about the correctness of all his doing.

Operation Opera - IAF attack on iraqi nuclear reactor

Iraq has been trying to acquire an atomic weapon since it was presented to the world. In 1956, with the support of the US government, the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission was established. As part of Iraq's peace cooperation, the Americans supplied nuclear research laboratories, the results of their research and also trained their nuclear scientists. However, this "brotherhood" did not last long.

Pakistan's path to nuclear weapons I.

A state of emergency has recently been declared in Pakistan. Once again, the world is addressing the issue of what will happen to Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. Where did the path of its origin lead?

Parasite aircrafts

Ever since the first heavier-than-air planes appeared and began to compete with the reigning airships, designers have been flirting with the idea of using heavier aircraft (the term aircraft includes all flying machines, heavier-than-air aircraft and lighter air aerostats) to carry lighter ones.

Rapier - a kit for everyone

During the Cold War, the British Army needed to defend itself against Warsaw Pact aircraft. In the 1960s, the development of a successful short-range system was launched to defend the bases and areas of troop concentration. The whole world knows this system under the name Rapier.

Rapier - the possibilities are growing

In the last part, we described the development and basic variants of the British Rapier system. However, the British constantly paid attention to improving its capabilities and tried to sell the system to foreign customers. They were successful in both of these activities.

Reflections on the rearmament of Czechoslovak army

On May 14, 1955, an agreement was signed in Warsaw, according to which a military grouping of the Eastern Bloc states was formed, and the then Czechoslovakia also became a member of this power-political instrument of the USSR. This, of course, meant another intervention in the future development of various weapons and weapon systems of domestic origin.

RF-4E Phantom II in the German Air Force

The article captures the more than 20-year service of reconnaissance Phantoms with the Luftwaffe. It also includes a brief technical description of the RF-4E aircraft and a mention of their maintenance and repairs.

RF-4E Phantom II in the German Air Force

The predominance of Warsaw Pact troops in conventional armaments in the late 1970s could not be overlooked by the Federal Ministry of Defense. All units intended for potential military deployment were assigned a so-called secondary role.

Sea Hawk - undemanding and reliable

At the turn of the 1940s and 1950s, Hawker caught up with the delays it had in developing jet aircraft. The first P.1040 project saved only the FAA's interest because the RAF lost interest. Nevertheless, he was almost buried by his younger brother with an arrow wing.

Slovak duo at the head of the Military Counterintelligence

From 1971 to 1989, only two men served as chief of military counterintelligence, whose lives, ways of working, but also their qualifications were not entirely common and expected. What is particularly striking is the fact that the appearance of reporters at the head of the intelligence service was less frequent. Much more valuable was the blind allegiance to the Communist Party and the ability to maintain military discipline.

Soviet illegals against America

The arrest of dozens of Russian illegals, deeply conspired spies, by FBI counterintelligence three weeks ago shows that Moscow's covert operations against the United States, which began eighty years ago, continue.
When the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia at the end of 1917, they believed that this was the beginning of the world revolution of the proletariat. Therefore, they sent spies around the world to establish communist parties as a mushroom for future governments and at the same time obtain secret information that could help them in this effort.

SR-71 Blackbird (2) - Out of range of air defense

The famous performance of the A-12 aircraft led USAF representatives to order the most famous variant from the Blackbird family, the strategic reconnaissance aircraft SR-71. These aircraft then provided good services to the USAF for three decades and brought a lot of valuable intelligence to the commanders of air and ground units.

SR-71 Blackbird (3) - High requirements

SR-71 aircraft were the pinnacle of technological possibilities of their time. This corresponded to the demands on flying and ground personnel and the overall security of air traffic. There was nothing that could be compared to the aircraft of previous generations.

Strange patriots

The current war is an imperialist, unjust war in which the bourgeoisie of all warring states is equally to blame. In no country can the workers' party, much less the communist party, support this war. The bourgeoisie is not waging a war against fascism, as Chamberlain and the leaders of the Social Democracy claim. It is a war between two groups of capitalist countries for world domination. Klement Gottwald September 8, 1939, Moscow

Suchoj T-4 Sotka - Aircraft carrier hunter

The USSR tried to cover the absence of aircraft carriers in its fleet by developing submarine forces and aircraft designed to fight the American CVBG ( Carrier Battle Group ). Suchoj T-4 was supposed to be a specialist in aircraft carrier hunting, but in the end it turned out completely different ...

Supermans without fear and shame

" Men of the squadrons! The enemy is in our country, we handed over our proud planes. Germany was occupied and unconditionally capitulated. Friends, this sad fact brings tears to our eyes. Before us lies a vague and bitter future that will bring us only worries and pain. But something, my men, will survive us forever - the traditions of our squadron and our performances. If they try to humiliate us, this tradition will allow us to straighten our backs and look clearly and proudly into the future. [...] We have handed over everything to Germany and our squadron and we will continue to be regular and direct German men. With a feeling of pain, but also pride, I say goodbye to my squadron today and thank you for the trust you have given me in times of war. You will now have to work hard in another Germany, but you can still rejoice in the feeling that you have done everything in your power to win Germany into this war! Long live our beloved homeland! Major Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer, Commodore of the NJG 4 Squadron, May 8, 1945

Sverdlovsk 1979

A Soviet city with a secret program for the development and production of biological weapons and a mysterious event in March and April 1979.


In the 1980s, a number of studies were launched in NATO member countries on new types of flat-flying missiles. These efforts eventually culminated in 1986 with a single program called the MSOW ( Modular Stand-Off Weapon ), in which seven NATO nations participated. However, this project did not last very long and ended in collapse at the end of the decade. One of the participants in the MSOW program was Germany, which at the turn of the 80s and 90s tried to develop a weapon of this category in cooperation with the French. However, even this cooperation did not have a favorable conclusion for the Germans. The fruit only brought a connection with the Swedes, at the end of which a missile with a flat runway TAURUS KEPD 350 was created.

The basic task was to rule the world

90 years ago, the Soviet secret police were formed, later known by the acronym KGB. To this day, members of the Russian secret services proudly call themselves Chekists.

The first kill

On October 7, 2009, exactly 50 years will have passed since the event, which, without exaggeration, changed the current view of air operations and the conduct of air warfare. On that day, the first aircraft in the world was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile. This time, however, it was not a training shot down radio-controlled target, such have already taken place earlier and in many countries. This time it was about destroying a "real" target, a real enemy machine.

The first people on the Moon

Fifty years have passed since we saw the first humans walking on the moon. It was one of the side effects of the Cold War. At the turn of the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviets launched an offensive in space: they were the first to launch satellites, interplanetary probes, and also the first man. On the other hand, the Americans fell behind, they were always second, and they considered it a national disgrace. They felt scientifically and technically superior to the rest of the world - and now that was suddenly not true.

The influence of the Jewish diaspora in the United States on american foreign policy towards the Israeli-palestinian conflict

Introduction The aim of this work is primarily to analyze the bilateral relationship - the United States versus Israel - and to find the main reasons for this " special relationship ", which has become one of the basic principles of US policy towards the Middle East region. This principle has been in place since the 1960s, and American foreign policy is based on it to this day. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only major player in the region, and most Arab states today see the country as the only player capable of significantly influencing Israeli policy.

The influence of the Jewish diaspora in the United States on american foreign policy towards the Israeli-palestinian conflict

1. Theoretical introduction The first part of this work entitled "Theoretical introduction" will deal mainly with the theory of the diaspora, the way of its origin, the characteristics of the diaspora and also the concepts that relate to the Jewish diaspora. In order to deal in more detail with the issue of the influence of the Jewish diaspora on US foreign policy, it is first necessary to realize how this diaspora originated and why its scope in the United States is so unique. I will therefore focus on the oldest history of the Jewish state, the pitfalls the Jewish nation had to overcome in order to settle in its "Promised Land," and finally the expulsion by the Romans in the first century AD, which resulted in the definitive expulsion of Jews from their homeland and the nearly two thousand years of exile and dispersal in the diaspora. I will also address the question of the influence of the Jewish diaspora on international relations and its position in relation to Israel. I would like to conclude the conclusion of this section with a more detailed study of the origin of the diaspora in the United States of America and its formation into its current form.

The influence of the Jewish diaspora in the United States on american foreign policy towards the Israeli-palestinian conflict

3. American Foreign Policy and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict In 1948, President Truman announced support for the creation of Israel on Palestinian territory, and since then Israel has held a special place in the hearts and minds of many Americans, Jews, and others. The myths that surrounded this state, as well as the tragedies of the Holocaust, played a major role in creating the so-called " special relationship " between the United States and Israel.

The influence of the Jewish diaspora in the United States on american foreign policy towards the Israeli-palestinian conflict

Conclusion Throughout their history, Jews as a nation have been accompanied by a number of different controversies and conflicts, which have made them a very determined, united and firm nation in the faith. Their belief that they were a nation chosen by God led them to feel a superiority over other nations. The land of Israel has always been sacred to them, and it has been very difficult for them to lose it throughout history. The expulsion of the Jews by the Romans in 70 AD meant an unimaginable catastrophe for the whole nation, and the Jewish nation was dispersed throughout the world. From this moment, the Jewish diaspora began to take shape. From the beginning, especially in the surrounding states, where the political conditions were favorable and where Jews were allowed to start a new life. Later, Jews began to move mainly to Western Europe. However, with the strengthening of Christianity, the situation is beginning to escalate here as well, and growing anti-Semitism is forcing Jews to look for their place elsewhere.

The influence of the Jewish diaspora in the United States on american foreign policy towards the Israeli-palestinian conflict

The main goal of this work is to analyze the bilateral relationship - the United States versus Israel - and to find the main reasons for this "special relationship", which has become one of the basic principles of US policy towards the Middle East. This principle has been applied since the 1960s After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only major player in the region, and most Arab states today see it as the only player capable of significantly influencing Israeli policy.

The last Soviet atomic spy declassified?

On Friday, November 2, 2007, the Russian presidency announced that Vladimir Putin had posthumously awarded the title of Russian hero George Kovalsky, the only Soviet intelligence officer who had infiltrated the Manhattan Project during World War II. All the other Soviet atomic spies were American, British and German communists. In this way, he declassified the illegal "Dmitry Delmar", about which Vladimir Lot wrote in 2002 in the book GRU i atomnaja bomba (GRU and the atomic bomb). Even five years ago, "Delmar" did not want to reveal his identity.
On Monday, November 12, 2007, the New York Times published details of the spy.

The mythization of Korolyov continues

In Russia, they celebrated heavily the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Sergei Korolyov, the mysterious Chief Designer, the man under whose leadership the R-7 rocket, the first satellite and the first spacecraft were created. At the same time, his adoration and mythization continued. However, when we look at the biographies of other important personalities, we find that this is nothing new, it is actually the fate of every distinguished person.

The sad story of the Arab peacemakers

The Middle East region is marked by tragic wars between Jews and Palestinian Arabs. The Jewish population began to fulfill their dream of rebuilding their lost homeland in Palestine. After the rise of Mufti Hussein, the initial harmonious coexistence between the two ethnic groups turned into irreconcilable hatred, which resulted in a series of bloody pogroms against the Israelites. To appease the Palestinians, the British responded in the worst way, by publishing a White Paper to keep Jewish immigration to a minimum, virtually leaving Jews at the mercy of the Nazi rage.

The Spratley Islands dispute

The conflict over the Spratley Islands in the South China Sea poses a potential threat to the region as a whole. About 44 of the 51 islands are just corals overgrown above sea level. China considers these to be part of its territory. Some islands are also occupied by Vietnam, the Philippines, Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei. The conflict is actually the result of decades of efforts to control rich deposits of minerals - mainly oil, natural gas, as well as fishing and hunting for other marine animals such as crabs, calamari and shrimp.

The third foreign intelligence department

Thanks to Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, talk begins again about the third resistance. This is nothing new. We tried to portray it in the television series Czechoslovakia in Special Services, which was broadcast by ČT 2 in 2002, and I included it in the book of the same name.
However, on December 1, 1999, a colloquium on the third resistance was held at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague. There I presented a paper, which I am publishing here for the first time.

The third resistance existed!

It was a parade of heroes who defied the communist dictatorship. They met on Tuesday, November 13, in the Senate Chamber at a seminar called the Third - Anti-Communist - Resistance. All over seventy, many with a wand. They were touching in a way, but when they spoke, they remained tough.

They started at the 38th parallel

Although the history of the participation of Czechoslovak and Czech observers in UN missions after 1989 is very rich and varied, something similar cannot be said about the four decades of the former Czechoslovak People's Army. The total score in the form of three foreign missions had to be saved by the revolutionary year of 1989.

Tu-128 Fiddler - Heavy weight among fighters

One of the aircraft that affected the appearance of a whole generation of Tupolev aircraft was the Tu-98. Although it did not get into series production, it was at the beginning of the development line of the Tu-128 fighter aircraft (NATO code Fiddler). It has remained the largest fighter in the world to this day. Its maximum take-off weight was a quarter greater than that of four-engine heavy bombers from World War II.

Tu-22 - Beauty with many vices

Tu-22 bombers are currently being destroyed in Ukraine and Russia. It is a remnant of the Cold War and a representative of the long-extinct category of medium bombers, which disappeared from service in the late 70's. The Tu-22 survived in service for a surprisingly long time, despite the fact that it was a structure that did not work very well and the crew and ground staff did not have much love for this aircraft.

Tu-22M - M3 Backfire - Just "modernization"?

In the Soviet Air Force, aircraft were abbreviated as the name of the designer and the number. Odd fighters and other even aircraft. The individual variants were distinguished by letters after the designation. However, these were always aircraft with the same design basis. The only exception was the Tu-22M. According to the designation, it might seem that it was a variant of the Tu-22. But it was a completely new design. Why did he bear the name of his predecessor?

Two faces of an extraordinary soldier

Fate full of somersaults and reversals has brought Maj. Jaromír Nechanský in June 1950 under the Pankrác gallows.
On the building of the General Staff of the Army of the Czech Republic in Prague-Dejvice, there is an inconspicuous plaque with the names of soldiers who were affected by the communist regime. And just about her, resp. for one name on it, a furious media struggle broke out some time ago: Some individuals demanded that Jaromír Nechanský be removed from this bronze plaque. Gen. P9ka is said to have to turn in his grave when he found himself in the company of this man so many years after the war. But there is nothing in life but black or white. People are not just brave or cowardly. Each being is mixed with a thousand ingredients, and it is often very difficult to tell whether the more positive or the less positive predominate. The same was true of Maj. Jaromír Nechanský. And that is why it is good to recall his life story in more detail.

Unteachable "runaway"

I don't like talk like we're a nation of cowards. We, the pilots from England, were no cowards. We went to every event with the chance that we can end " there ". But if one was to fall, at least for a good cause. In the post-war years, we hoped that the republic would remain democratic and that our lives would be without major upheavals. However, comrades who wanted to monkey themselves in everything according to the Soviet model did not like this. That means hating freedom and everything Western and every former Western pilot or soldier. After the communist coup in 1948, most Westerners soon realized how the political change would affect our lives, and it was clear that our persecution would take place.

Who is Karel Köcher?

On Friday, June 15, 2006, Jan Kraus invited Karel Köcher, a former StB first and second administration agent, to relax. The gentlemen joked about Köch's career, as he was the only communist spy to break into the American CIA, and is strikingly similar to President Václav Klaus, with whom he was employed at the Forecasting Institute in the late 1980s. putsch. Nothing about whether it was moral to work for communist counterintelligence and intelligence, nothing about reporting his acquaintances… Köcher finally looked like a hero. The audience at the Ponec Theater applauded him. So what is it really like dr. Karel Köcher?

Who shot down Gagarin? This is still unclear

When Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin boarded the cabin of a spaceship on the morning of April 12, 1961, he was an unknown lieutenant in the Soviet Air Force. When he landed on Earth a few hours later, he was a major and the most famous Earthling. When he died seven years later, he was a colonel. He was two weeks away from his appointment as General and Chief of the Cosmonaut Training Center.

Why the moon? Because of romance, politics, or science?

In the second half of the next decade, Americans want to return to the Moon, on the surface of which their astronauts landed in 1969-1972, and no one has stepped there since. When President George W. Bush announced the program, some commentators pointed out that it was a response to reports from Beijing that the Chinese wanted to land there in the third decade of the 21st century. In reality, however, it is a dream come true for many experts around the world who have been working on the Moon's settlement and utilization projects since the 1960s, as Jeff Volosin, head of strategic department at NASA headquarters, recalled.

Wolf's East German intelligence chief has died

The lives of Markus Wolf, who died at the age of 83 on Monday, November 7, 2006, are unparalleled in the world of intelligence services. He was appointed head of East German intelligence at the age of thirty and remained in this position for 33 years. He is one of the legends of espionage - but if one can talk about legends in a positive sense in this world of intrigue and filth.

Yak-36 - 1. Take-off from the place

The vision of an airplane that would not need an airport has attracted designers since the first planes soared into the sky. During the entire existence of aircraft technology, so far only two countries, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, have been able to build aircraft with a vertical takeoff and landing and introduce them into service. This time we will focus on the Soviet type.

Yak-36 - 2. Changing of the guard

The first Soviet aircraft with a vertical takeoff and landing had its first timid steps. Gradually, the biggest problems faced by the program were solved; however, in the end it turned out that the whole project is nothing more than a technological demonstrator. If the Navy wanted to get a truly usable aircraft capable of operating from the decks of aircraft carriers without a catapult, it was necessary to start from a clean slate using existing experience.


Wars in Vietnam [1945-1975]

Vietnam War was a set of conflicts between 1945 and 1975 in the country of Vietnam and the border areas of Cambodia and Laos. First as colonial war with France, then as a proxy war between Communists supported North Vietnam and USA supported South Vietnam.

Suez war [1956]


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