Cold war [1946-1989]
Training sharp rocket fire of Czechoslovak and Czech fighters in the USSR, GDR and Poland 1960-2002.
If the key to the survival of the U-2 was access, which was beyond the capabilities of its generation fighters, another aircraft from "Skunk Works" was to have, in addition to fantastic access, a speed that designers had never dreamed of until then. In addition to increasing speed, the designers in the construction of the new aircraft for the first time ever purposefully focused on reducing the effective RCS. This miracle technique was called the A-12 Blackbird.
In the following article, I would like to freely follow up on my previous four-part article on the history of our PVOS ( State Air Defense ), namely its air component, entitled "The High Blue Wall." I "collected" the materials and information that helped me to compile the text below just while working on my "first work." I did not include these events in the "VMZ" mainly because they were not directly related to the activities of PVOS against intruders, or only marginally affected it ( except for two cases of aircraft interventions from the OH, about which I managed to get more information after completing the "VMZ" , "but also fits exactly into this topic ). Therefore, let's look very specifically.
The AH-64A embodied the knowledge bought in the Korean and Vietnam Wars by the blood of the pilots of the first armed and combat helicopters. For a long time, he became the standard of a combat helicopter, which was able to decimate the enemy's tank columns. But technology from the early 70's has some limitations. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the AH-64D Longbow Apache, which significantly expanded the capabilities of the original helicopter.
How the Lockheed U-2 spy plane was shot down in May 1960.
The British radio astronomer Bernard Lovell is said the Soviets tried to fatally irradiate. Based on intelligence, they had been waiting since February 1954 for Moscow to complete the development of an intercontinental missile in the second half of the 1950s. On August 18, 1957, a few days before the TASS announced the successful test of the first long-range missile, President Eisenhower, the CIA warned that the Russians were indeed preparing this weapon ...
It was the largest aircraft to ever carry an American star, and in the summer of 1949, Peacemaker was at war - in Washington.
When you visit the VVS museum in Monino, you will definitely not miss the wreck of the machine, which does not resemble any known aircraft or even approximately. It stands on a tandem chassis, while it has massive floats and an incredibly thick centerplane. In the grass are wings with such a small depth of profile that they look as if they did not even belong to the aircraft, and a short sideways of an empty engine nacelle. The civil matriculation CCCP-10687 is also interesting. It is a seaplane wreck with a vertical takeoff and landing Bartini VVA-14
The first Soviet jet flying boat. Because the Soviet Union did not have aircraft carriers and did not own long-range bombers, some tasks had to be performed by flying boats. Their tasks were to include attacking enemy naval alliances, but the road to such an aircraft was long and the concept became obsolete before it went into production.
Berlin was divided into four occupation zones. The Western Allies expressed their determination to maintain West Berlin. In June 1948, Stalin had land access roads closed. The Allies set up a grandiose air bridge ...
History of the Czech air base.
Continuation of the history of the Czech air base and the fate of the 28th Fighter-Bomber Air Regiment in 1974-1983.
The third continuation of the history of the military airport in Čáslav is focused on the last period of service of the 28th figter-bomber aviation regiment in the period from 1984 to 1994 and finally it will also get to a short performance of LZO - Aviation Testing Department.
Further continuation of the fate of the military airport in Čáslav. This time focused on the years 1995 - 1997, when the 4th Air Force Base operated here, the only one of its kind in the Czech Republic.
The final part will take us to the years 1997 - 2004 and we will look at what is happening at 4./21. tactical air base in Caslav.
Cold War day after day ...
The most important data of the nuclear age.
This article was written according to the story of Maj. John P. Noonan, USAF (Ret).
The recently deceased Otakar Rambousek, a legendary agent-walker, was one of at least 280 couriers of the third foreign resistance that the State Security managed to arrest - as calculated by historian Prokop Tomek. Several thousand people who helped them at home were also imprisoned by the State Security. After February 1948, when the Communists usurped power in Czechoslovakia, tens of thousands of people fled to the West - and from their ranks these couriers were recruited.
Dogfights have always attracted attention. Since the First World War, their participants have been considered heroes, stories have been written about nothing, and they have become idols of generations. However, the reality of air combat is much more prosaic. Whatever the motivation of the pilots to fight, there was always a winner on one side and a loser on the other in a crippled or burning plane falling to the ground. This series deals with the struggle from their beginning to the modern age, when the sky is steadily ruled by jet engines.
The Americans announced that after landing the space shuttle Atlantis, starting on Wednesday, February 20, 2008, they want to shoot down a spy satellite called the US 193. A year ago, the Chinese did something similar - hit the meteorological satellite with a combat missile, which shattered it into a large number of fragments. A number of states protested against the action, which the Chinese tested with an anti-satellite weapon. After all, after the collision, 2,800 fragments about 10 centimeters in size were formed, which can be observed from Earth, and it is estimated that perhaps 150,000 debris smaller, which are not visible. Not surprisingly, even after the announcement of the American intention, a number of protests arose.
Nearing the end of 1951, conventional fighters introduced into service flew at speeds of about 1 MACH, rather less. They reached supersonic speeds mostly only in dive flight or completely without weapons. Lockheed designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson visited United States Air Force (USAF) pilots fighting in Korea to find out which aircraft would suit them. He received an unisono response from the fighters: a light aircraft, overcoming the enemy in speed, climbability, access and dexterity.
When the car runs out of fuel just in front of the gas station, you can push it towards it. But what to do if the same thing happens to an aircraft in flight? Plus a jet fighter, the most modern creation of its time ... the same. Push.
The best pilot Risner had ever met in his life was not an American, but a MiG-15 pilot with whom he had fought. To a duel that ultimately brought losses on both sides.
Alexander Feklisov, a retired KGB intelligence colonel, one of the Soviet superspies, died in Moscow on Friday, October 26, 2007. He was one of the legendary spies in Moscow, and in 1996 President Boris Yeltsin awarded him the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. He boasted that he was driving a total of seventeen spies, citizens of other states. Feklisov was one of the people who contributed to the Cold War, but on the other hand he helped to ease tensions during the Cuban crisis.
The former Soviet spy became a British knight. This is unprecedented. On Thursday, October 18, 2007, the British Queen Elizabeth II passed. in the Buckingham Palace of the former lieutenant colonel of KGB intelligence Oleg Gordijevský to the Knight of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. The BBC recalled that the legendary spy James Bond has the same title - at least according to his father Ian Fleming.
This award is undoubtedly a boon to Russian intelligence services, which are as active today as they were at the height of the Cold War.
What did Gordievsky deserve this title for?
Screen planes are a special type of vehicle that uses the ground effect. It is a machine on the border between an aircraft and a wing speedboat. The question is whether it is a low-flying aircraft or a ship "floating" just above the surface. Even users have been arguing for a long time where and under whose command they should belong. Whether under the Navy or under the Air Force.
In 1975, 35 countries signed the so-called Final Act at a conference in Helsinki. He was to find a way to coexist between the two blocks. In the final analysis, however, it marked the fall of communism in Europe.
National air defense 1950-1967.
National air defense 1968-1980.
National air defense 1980-1989.
National air defense 1990-2003.
"Is it normal or not to kill fugitive spies?" Jana Bendová, who heads the journalism section at MFD, asked me by phone. Of course not! "Then write to us about it." I sat down and wrote. It didn't take much work. I knew a lot about the Soviet spies who had run over and whose lives were ended by an execution squad sent from Moscow. I just checked with Dr. by e-mail. Petr Zeman, a former director of the Czech Civil Intelligence Service, who also monitors the issue of security in retirement, that revenge on defectors is not one of the principles of Western intelligence services.
The view of the pilot-operator of the Mi-24V helicopter on the service above the " Iron Curtain " within the Czechoslovak Air Defense system.
For many years, M.L. Mil was the design supplier of helicopters for the Soviet army. Although N.I. Kamov's competition office participated in a number of competitions announced by the army, Mil's position was unshakable until the army announced a competition for a new combat helicopter in search of an equivalent counterweight to the American AAH program.
Thirty years ago, on October 26, 1979, General Park Chung Hee, President of the Republic of Korea, was shot dead. In my opinion, his life and the circumstances of the assassination illustrate very well the complex history of the Korean Peninsula.
A CIA spy worked alongside the head of the Polish military junta, General Jaruzelsky
The first declassified information about the Soviet space program is probably the tip of the iceberg - the Americans knew more than they admitted so far. Every foreigner, whether a diplomat, a businessman or a tourist, was clearly different from the local citizens - clothes, walking, gestures. A meeting of a foreigner with a Russian, Georgian, Lithuanian or other local person has always attracted the attention of others. Therefore, the news of the existence of an agent called the "Doll" or "Delta", which was one of the top rocket designers, is a surprise.
The English Electric Lightning aircraft was born in the British Isles. Its construction was relatively specific, as were the country of origin and the nation that created it. He honored his name. It was the first aircraft that could exceed the speed of sound without the use of additional combustion.
In the last part, we learned the background to the development of the first and only purely British supersonic fighter aircraft. The boundaries of his performances kept moving forward. But there was not much missing and the phenomenal plane never had to get into regular service.
In the early 1960s, the production of British Lightnings began to pick up. The number of units armed with them was growing. Improvements have been applied to the new versions, which have so far been tested on prototypes or pre-production aircraft.
The single-seater variants of the Lightning aircraft became the basis for the development of other versions. Two-seater for retraining and training of new pilots as well as export machines, offered to traditional and some other potential customers.
The U-2 has been flying since the mid-1950s. Although it will celebrate half a century since its first take-off next year, it is not yet going to "retire". The reason is simple. Although obsolete in the age of satellites, the construction from the last century may seem obsolete, the truth remains that the aircraft is a reliable platform for many reconnaissance systems. It is much more operative and cheaper against satellites.
Excerpt from a telegraphic message from Moscow on February 22, 1946, sent to President Truman by the Ambassador to Moscow Geoge Kennan. He tried to reveal the "thought processes" of the USSR here.
Abrams. A tank that became famous during the first and second wars in the Persian Gulf. But its birth was not easy at all, and a long time passed before the armor received new armaments.
The introduction of a new tank did not just mean a new vehicle. The experience from the operation caused a practically complete reconstruction of the armored divisions, because the old organizational structure was unsatisfactory. Only then was the potential of the new tanks properly used.
Light tanks have been developed alongside their heavier counterparts for years, and their journey through history is varied and pretty winding. The last American light tank included in the service was the M551 Sheridan. It was a rather contradictory vehicle with exotic weapons.
The M551 did not gain a very good reputation at the beginning of its deployment, mainly due to its relatively complicated design and hasty deployment in combat. In addition, he found himself on a battlefield for which he was not designed and performed tasks that belonged to the MBT. During the later deployment, he improved his bad reputation and eventually lasted longer than the biggest optimists would expect.
The M60 tank was originally considered a transitional type, but in the end it was one of the most common American tanks. At the time of its creation, there was a rapid development of rocket technology and electronics, which led to the idea of replacing the classic tank with a more futuristic vehicle. However, after the experience from the operational deployment, the designers eventually gladly returned to the proven solutions.
The M48 tank became a standard tank in the armament of many armies. Its successor, the Main Battle Tank (MBT) M60 Patton, was considered a temporary solution. He has survived in the armament of a number of armies to this day, although it was still the original concept, preserving proven elements to the maximum extent.
Plan for economic aid to war-torn Europe.
The development of this tank dates back to the early sixties. At the time, the US Army and Bundeswehr were looking for a replacement for their obsolete tanks. Joint development seemed to be the ideal solution. An unusual concept tank was created with an unmanned hull and a number of technical finesse, but it did not get into service.
In this work, we will focus on the technical description of the rest of the tank and the conclusion of the project, which did not meet the high hopes placed in it.
The XF-85 was a special aircraft. It was the only aircraft that was built from the beginning as a parasitic fighter, the first in this category with a jet engine and an arrow wing. He never operated from the deck of the aircraft for which he was intended. It was the smallest fighter ever flown. Yet it is almost unknown today.
More than one cloudy builder of the bright tomorrows of scientific communism eventually ran to the enemy on the opposite side of the class-divided world. Some of them, even from the ranks of professional secret police, published their memoirs about their rebirth. Such was Šejna, a rural son from a miserable environment, a graduate of a burgher school, an agricultural worker, with the right class background and connections, soon an army colonel, a member of parliament, a member of the Central Committee of the ruling Communist Party - all at the age of 27. He even became a representative of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in the highest circles of the Warsaw Pact states, acquainted with the secrets and strategic intentions of the Kremlin rulers. And he then flees to the West, accompanied by a teenage girl, allegedly his son's fiancée - that is, his presumed future daughter-in-law, from which, however, he made his mistress.
The article deals with a brief evaluation of the four most important strategic concepts of the Western Powers (mass retaliation, flexible response, MAD and SDI).
Grumman is best known for naval aircraft. Among the aircraft that are wrongly on the fringes of interest is the inconspicuous OV-1 Mohawk. An aircraft that did a lot of work for the army and civilian organizations and in 1989 there were over 200 of them in active service. Many of them are privately owned and unfortunately regularly take part in air days mostly across the ocean
The OV-1 Mohawk has become a platform for sophisticated reconnaissance systems during its career, but has proven itself in various other roles, including direct air support. He was popular with his pilots and members of the ground forces. With the elimination of the last OV-1, the army lost its last aircraft and only helicopters are in its inventory.
"We are launching a program to address the terrible threat of Soviet missiles with a new defensive weapon. We need to turn to our strong science and technology base, which has brought our industry to a high level and which has also ensured our standard of living today. What would you say if we could intercept enemy ballistic missiles before they hit our land or the land of our allies? "
The article records the memories of two participants in the Israeli-Egyptian conflict, Soviet officers who commanded the S-125 Neva, and discusses the activities of Soviet specialists and newly created air defense units with Soviet personnel on the territory of Egypt and their action against Israeli aircraft in early August 1970.
In 1981, Colonel Ryszard Kuklińsky, Colonel of the Polish People's Army, contacted the CIA and handed over 35,000 pages of secret documents about plans to prepare for a massive Warsaw Pact offensive, with which he did not agree. He also provided the West with information on 200 state-of-the-art Soviet weapons.
The famous performance of the A-12 aircraft led USAF representatives to order the most famous variant from the Blackbird family, the strategic reconnaissance aircraft SR-71. These aircraft then provided good services to the USAF for three decades and brought a lot of valuable intelligence to the commanders of air and ground units.
SR-71 aircraft were the pinnacle of technological possibilities of their time. This corresponded to the demands on flying and ground personnel and the overall security of air traffic. There was nothing that could be compared to the aircraft of previous generations.
What did the world look like in the autumn of 1953, when the Mašín brothers and Milan Paumer shot their way out from communist Czechoslovakia through East Germany to West Berlin?
The world was definitely divided into the communist East and the capitalist West. And he was heading for a war that would kill perhaps hundreds of millions of people.
The USSR tried to cover the absence of aircraft carriers in its fleet by developing submarine forces and aircraft designed to fight the American CVBG ( Carrier Battle Group ). Suchoj T-4 was supposed to be a specialist in aircraft carrier hunting, but in the end it turned out completely different ...
On April 4, 1949, the North Atlantic Alliance was established, becoming a fundamental pillar of the defense of a democratic Europe. The events at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s were to demonstrate the strength of the transatlantic bond.
This year marks 73 years since the first nuclear bombs hit the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Some journalists claim that the Americans turned Japan into an experimental shooting range and that the bombing was unnecessarily militarily. Really?
Of all the armed forces of the West, the US military has the shortest and, I dare say, the strangest history. Usually, the armed forces go down in history through battle, and the strangeness of the American military begins with the fact that in the battle, which dates back to the beginning of the North American military, this army did not fight at all, because it did not exist yet.
The militia system of the army, which the United States preferred after its inception, did not allow the creation of a unified rear service. When war broke out with the Seminoles in Florida in 1818, engineering units had to be decommissioned to supply field units because civilian contractors failed to fulfill contracts. This led War Minister Calhoun to put pressure on Congress to release funds for intendant administration ...
At the end of the 19th century, the United States found itself in a special position. The country had no external enemy, after the defeat of Mexico, other American states recognized it as a hegemon, and the long sea borders were protected by the British navy. Due to mineral wealth, which also included oil on the list (fields in California and Texas), the US government had no ambition to gain control of foreign resources. This led to the fact that there was no strategy, no concept of defense, no plans against potential adversaries, that is, everything that was a matter of course in Europe ...
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States resembled a sleepily contented boa constrictor. The success of the US Navy in the Spanish-American War opened the bag to Congress, and T. Roosevelt had no problem raising funds for the construction of new heavy units of the fleet. Suddenly, everyone seemed to understand the importance of the ocean fleet in the sense of the Mahan Doctrine - it was evident that the British fleet did not intend to cover the new US overseas economic interests of the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico, although it de facto still ensured US security.
An armistice in November 1918 put the United States in a role with which it had no experience. Day by day, they became the world's leading power, and President Wilson, with his 14 points, took the lead in organizing post-war Europe ...
Until World War II ended, President Roosevelt anxiously avoided any negotiations on postwar borders or state institutions. In December 1941, when he was badly oppressed, Stalin wanted to act and would allow the return of eastern Poland and the evacuation of the Baltic countries, but with the Red Army's advance to the west, his willingness faded to zero.
If one can think of a specific date in which the United States became the first superpower of the modern world and gained strategic control over it, it is December 8, 1991, when the USSR was formally abolished - a global adversary with which it maintained for more than 40 years power balance ...
In 1958 and 1959, reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union took place only sporadically. Eisenhower was constantly worried that overflights could provoke the Soviets to react, and perhaps even start World War III. Beginning in 1959, the Soviets fired U-2s with their SA-2 ground-to-air missiles, and some came dangerously close. The question of the size of the Soviet arsenal of intercontinental ballistic missiles still remained unanswered.
Even "goulash communism" had no chance of survival.
A few weeks ago, the British Library in London declassified an unfinished manuscript of the memoirs of Sir Anthony Blunt, a former curator of the royal court's art collections. She was allowed to do so twenty-five years after his death. Only these records revealed why the convicted Soviet spy did not - unlike many others - go behind bars, but remained in the service of the court until he retired himself.
In 1947, the USSR took the battleship "Giulio Cesare" from the booty of the Italian fleet and, under the name "Novorossiysk", included it in the Black Sea Fleet based in Sevastopol. There, also on the evening of October 28, 1955, the ship docked after a one-day artillery exercise. Since Captain Kuchta was on vacation, the anchor maneuver was led by his deputy, Lieutenant Commander Khurshudov. He did not have the ship in his hand, he misjudged its length and the time the anchor was lowered. As a result, the "Novorossiysk", the bow of which held the anchor, lay much closer to the stern of the mooring buoy than usual. However, Churshudov agreed with the technical staff of the base that the position of the battleship will be corrected in the morning.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The first part of the series deals with the conditions that influenced the development of agriculture in the Czechoslovak Republic in the period 1945-48.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The second part is devoted to explaining the basic concepts related to the concept of building a JRD.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The third part of the series deals with the course of the collectivization process in the district of Humenné in the period 1949-52.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The fourth part of the series deals with the course of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1953-1954.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The fifth part of the series deals with the course of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1955-60.
A series of articles on the collectivization process in the Humenné district was created by dividing and reworking the author's diploma thesis. The sixth part of the series deals with the final stage of collectivization in the district of Humenné in the period 1957-60 and the evaluation of this process.
The two allies from the beginning of the Cold War gradually got into bigger and bigger disputes, which eventually escalated into armed struggles at common borders.
Historical development and the current role of aviation technology in combat.
By the mid-1950s, the Cold War was already gaining momentum. The existence of nuclear weapons forced both major rivals to look for new weapon systems both for the first strike and for retaliation. On September 16, 1955, the Soviets achieved significant success when they managed to detonate a ballistic missile from a surfaced diesel-electric submarine B-67 (project "611", in the NATO code "Zulu") - and a few days later, on September 24, 1955, laid the keel of the first nuclear-powered submarine.
Although the history of the participation of Czechoslovak and Czech observers in UN missions after 1989 is very rich and varied, something similar cannot be said about the four decades of the former Czechoslovak People's Army. The total score in the form of three foreign missions had to be saved by the revolutionary year of 1989.
One of the aircraft that affected the appearance of a whole generation of Tupolev aircraft was the Tu-98. Although it did not get into series production, it was at the beginning of the development line of the Tu-128 fighter aircraft (NATO code Fiddler). It has remained the largest fighter in the world to this day. Its maximum take-off weight was a quarter greater than that of four-engine heavy bombers from World War II.
Tu-22 bombers are currently being destroyed in Ukraine and Russia. It is a remnant of the Cold War and a representative of the long-extinct category of medium bombers, which disappeared from service in the late 70's. The Tu-22 survived in service for a surprisingly long time, despite the fact that it was a structure that did not work very well and the crew and ground staff did not have much love for this aircraft.
Aircraft carriers demonstrated their striking power during World War II. They have become the core of the fleets of all naval powers and are rightly considered the strongest surface units. The only exception was the Soviet Union for many years. To fight combat groups of aircraft carriers had to use the Air Force from ground bases and submarines.
In the Soviet Air Force, aircraft were abbreviated as the name of the designer and the number. Odd fighters and other even aircraft. The individual variants were distinguished by letters after the designation. However, these were always aircraft with the same design basis. The only exception was the Tu-22M. According to the designation, it might seem that it was a variant of the Tu-22. But it was a completely new design. Why did he bear the name of his predecessor?
The British and French wanted to engage the United States in Europe. The condition of the Americans was the creation of a European defense organization. Today, there is talk of its future application.
An attempt to objectively determine a subjective matter - from when to when did the Cold War last.
The landing during the Vltava 66 exercise was the largest deployment of Czechoslovak paratroopers since World War II.
The lives of Markus Wolf, who died at the age of 83 on Monday, November 7, 2006, are unparalleled in the world of intelligence services. He was appointed head of East German intelligence at the age of thirty and remained in this position for 33 years. He is one of the legends of espionage - but if one can talk about legends in a positive sense in this world of intrigue and filth.
The new generation of aircraft on board began to take shape on paper. The basic concept of the Jaku-36M was clear, so it was possible to proceed to the construction of a prototype. The work started just six months after the completion of the design work.
Starting vertically, the Yak-36M was included in the armament after a series of vicissitudes. Although great hopes were placed in it, in the end he did not represent a striking force that could jeopardize the dominance of Western countries at sea. Although its performance in a clean configuration surpassed the competitive Harrier, it lagged significantly behind in firepower. The Marines spoke of fire support rather than moral support.