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Wars in Vietnam [1945-1975]

Vietnam War was a set of conflicts between 1945 and 1975 in the country of Vietnam and the border areas of Cambodia and Laos. First as colonial war with France, then as a proxy war between Communists supported North Vietnam and USA supported South Vietnam.

Articles

A deck of cards on the battlefield

"As you can see, sir, my deck of cards served me as well as the Bible, the prayer book, and the calendar," Soldier T. Texis Taylor explains to his commander about the deck of cards in a familiar story set to music by the Rangers. (paid advertising)

A-12 Blackbird (1) - High and fast

If the key to the survival of the U-2 was access, which was beyond the capabilities of its generation fighters, another aircraft from "Skunk Works" was to have, in addition to fantastic access, a speed that designers had never dreamed of until then. In addition to increasing speed, the designers in the construction of the new aircraft for the first time ever purposefully focused on reducing the effective RCS. This miracle technique was called the A-12 Blackbird.

Battle of Ia Drang - Part 1

The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle of the Vietnam War between the United States Army and the Vietnamese People's Army. Until then, the fighting of the Americans was characterized primarily by operations against irregular guerrilla units of the Viet Cong.

Battle of Ia Drang - Part 2

The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle of the Vietnam War between the United States Army and the Vietnamese People's Army. Until then, the fighting of the Americans was characterized primarily by operations against irregular guerrilla units of the Viet Cong.

Battle of Ia Drang - Part 3

The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle of the Vietnam War between the United States Army and the Vietnamese People's Army. Until then, the fighting of the Americans was characterized primarily by operations against irregular guerrilla units of the Viet Cong.

Czechoslovaks as foreign legionaries in Indochina

Hot autumn 1950 in Indochina. For many alien legionaries the last in their lives. On September 16, 1950, Vietnamese troops launched a massive offensive aimed at gaining control of the entire territory of Tonkin. The attack began on the main French fortress in this area - Dong Khe, in which many young Czechoslovaks also served.

Dien Bien Phu

On November 20, 1953, at 5:00 a.m., the wheels of the C-47 military cargo plane, which was equipped for this occasion as a flying command post, took off from the concrete runway of Hanoi Airport. Three high-ranking French army officers were on board. The first was General Gilles, commander of the airborne troops, the second General Dechaux, commanding the tactical air support, and the third was General Bodet, assisting General Navarro in some planning matters. Their task was to fly over the area of Dien Bien Phu and, based on weather conditions, decide whether Operation Castor will take place or move to another suitable date ...

Dogfights

Dogfights have always attracted attention. Since the First World War, their participants have been considered heroes, stories have been written about nothing, and they have become idols of generations. However, the reality of air combat is much more prosaic. Whatever the motivation of the pilots to fight, there was always a winner on one side and a loser on the other in a crippled or burning plane falling to the ground. This series deals with the struggle from their beginning to the modern age, when the sky is steadily ruled by jet engines.

F-104 Starfighter - The phenomenon of speed

Nearing the end of 1951, conventional fighters introduced into service flew at speeds of about 1 MACH, rather less. They reached supersonic speeds mostly only in dive flight or completely without weapons. Lockheed designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson visited United States Air Force (USAF) pilots fighting in Korea to find out which aircraft would suit them. He received an unisono response from the fighters: a light aircraft, overcoming the enemy in speed, climbability, access and dexterity.

Frederick C. Blesse

You look forward to this moment all the time at school, but when you are left with an entire plane without an instructor, your hands sweat profusely. They warned me about the hole at the end of the runway, so I repeated during takeoff, don't forget the pool. After a few circuits, I chose landing practice. The landing was beautifully soft and I completely forgot about the pool in the joy that I am only good. Of course I parked in it. For another 6 weeks, everyone was pretending to be a poolless Blesse.

Henry Alfred Kissinger

A brief biography of one of the most important creators of American foreign policy of modern times and his relation to nuclear armaments.

I fought against communism in Vietnam

This year, 35 years have passed since the end of the Vietnam War, which lasted almost 30 years with breaks. France's failed engagement was followed in 1965 by the deployment of the US military in southern Vietnam. In March 1973, American troops were withdrawn. For the United States, the longest and most unpopular war in its history has ended. 58,325 young Americans remained on the battlefield. Those happier who have returned have often carried and continue the trauma of war throughout their lives. How did this conflict affect the life of a young Czechoslovak emigrant, whose fate swept all the way to Southeast Asia?

Indochina wars - Vietnam 1945-1972

Shortly after the end of World War II, the political situation throughout the Pacific was highly volatile. After the expulsion of the Japanese occupiers, the efforts of the colonial powers to restore the original territories, which they shamelessly controlled in the pre-war period, began. However, the long and bloody war made its heroes, who were no longer willing to submit to the world's great powers, and thus stood at the head of resistance organizations and united the people for the common good. The United Kingdom recognized the gravity of the situation and responded to growing opposition to its government by agreeing to the independence of its Indian colony. This message then spread throughout the Eastern Hemisphere as a symbol of independence and sovereignty, supporting other independence fighters.

Khe Sanh Base - 1968

After the defeats inflicted on the Communists by Allied troops in 1967, the Allies had a unique, and never again unique, opportunity to crush the Communist forces in Indochina altogether. Or at least to their long-term paralysis. In the end, everything turned out completely differently. Much of the American command succumbed to the false impression that the enemy was in retreat, because in mid-January 1967, the situation did appear to be on the brink of force. During this period, the Communists showed combat activity only in the north of the I.CTZ ( Corps Tactical Zone ). On January 21, the Khe Sanh Marine Corps base was surrounded by two NVA divisions, and the base had to be supplied by air.

Looking back on the French War

The legionnaires survived at the cost of sacrifices that only those who saw could understand. The two companies of the legion were surrounded by a human sea, which roared in waves of two hundred over the constant fire of defenders. Convinced that he would be better able to resist, the captain who commanded this stronghold asked the artillery to fire directly at his position. And that allowed him to last until noon.
Commander of the Order of the Legion of Honor, veteran from Indochina and Algeria Pavel Knihař

M551 Sheridan (1) - Hard beginnings

Light tanks have been developed alongside their heavier counterparts for years, and their journey through history is varied and pretty winding. The last American light tank included in the service was the M551 Sheridan. It was a rather contradictory vehicle with exotic weapons.

M551 Sheridan (2) - Improved reputation

The M551 did not gain a very good reputation at the beginning of its deployment, mainly due to its relatively complicated design and hasty deployment in combat. In addition, he found himself on a battlefield for which he was not designed and performed tasks that belonged to the MBT. During the later deployment, he improved his bad reputation and eventually lasted longer than the biggest optimists would expect.

Operation Bolo

The famous US Air Force operation, during which the Vietnamese People's Air Force suffered one of the cruelest defeats of the Vietnam War.

OV-1 Mohawk (1) - Last plane of US Army

Grumman is best known for naval aircraft. Among the aircraft that are wrongly on the fringes of interest is the inconspicuous OV-1 Mohawk. An aircraft that did a lot of work for the army and civilian organizations and in 1989 there were over 200 of them in active service. Many of them are privately owned and unfortunately regularly take part in air days mostly across the ocean

OV-1 Mohawk (2) - Last plane of US Army

The OV-1 Mohawk has become a platform for sophisticated reconnaissance systems during its career, but has proven itself in various other roles, including direct air support. He was popular with his pilots and members of the ground forces. With the elimination of the last OV-1, the army lost its last aircraft and only helicopters are in its inventory.

Participants in the Third Resistance? Czechoslovaks on the battlefields of Southeast Asia 1945–1954 and 1964–1973

" It was the border guards who were responsible for the fact that some provocations at the state borders did not escalate into a large-scale confrontation and a breach of peace. It was the members of the border guard who provided peace for the peaceful life and work of people not only on the border. And that they did not have a simple service is evidenced by historical sources from the 50s, when weapons, submachine guns, hand grenades and so on were found among the violators of the state border státní "
From the speech of the KSČM MP Marta Semelová of 11 February 2011 at the Chamber of Deputies, discussing the bill on the Third Resistance

Paul Doumer Bridge

The railway bridge standing in the suburbs of Hanoi, which was the target of the US Air Force during the Vietnam War, celebrated its 107th birthday this year.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam

State-building is a complex process that involves diverse areas. Some experts identify state-building with post-conflict reconstruction, some consider it part of post-conflict reconstruction. Given that state-building in the SE was preceded by an end to the conflict, or rather the Indochina War, state-building in this work is understood as a post-conflict reconstruction, which consists of four main pillars. These main pillars include ensuring security, the economic and social agenda, the creation of a legal system and the creation of a system of governance.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam: 1. Characteristics of state-building

State-building is a complex process, the definition of which is still the subject of debate. Some scientists identify state-building with post-conflict reconstruction and some do not. In this work, state-building overlaps with the process of post-conflict reconstruction, given that state-building began after the end of the conflict, or after the Indochina War. It is understood as the restoration of the socio-economic and political structure of society after the end of the conflict by international actors and the affected state.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam: 2. United States of America

In identifying the reasons for the failure of state-building in the South Vietnam, which stood on the side of the US, I proceed according to the levels of analysis of US foreign policy. I will analyze foreign policy at the following four levels of analysis - at the level of the international system, the level of the state, the level of domestic influences and the level of the individual.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam: 4. External factors

External factors that directly or indirectly influenced the state-building process may include North Vietnam, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. These factors had a negative impact mainly on the security situation in the South Vietnam. The GDR indirectly but also directly disrupted the efforts of the South Vietnamese government to ensure security in the country. In the case of the USSR and China, this was an indirect effect. Also, the problems in Laos and Cambodia, which were interrelated to the situation in the SV, could be among the factors that influenced the state-building process in the SV.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam: Conclusion

The US state-building program in South Vietnam began in 1954 following the Geneva Accords. The Geneva Agreements ended the Indochina War and established a provisional border dividing Vietnam into the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and South Vietnam. The goal of the United States was to build a functioning state that would serve as a defensive wall against the spread of communist expansion to other countries in Asia. This attempt failed and culminated in the capitulation of the South Vietnamese government after the arrival of North Vietnamese troops in Saigon in 1975. The following year, South Vietnam was officially united with North Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was formed.

Reasons for the failure of state-building in South Vietnam: Introduction

State-building is a complex process that involves diverse areas. Some experts identify state-building with post-conflict reconstruction, some consider it part of post-conflict reconstruction. Given that state-building in the SE was preceded by an end to the conflict, or rather the Indochina War, state-building in this work is understood as a post-conflict reconstruction, which consists of four main pillars. These main pillars include ensuring security, the economic and social agenda, the creation of a legal system and the creation of a system of governance.

SR-71 Blackbird (2) - Out of range of air defense

The famous performance of the A-12 aircraft led USAF representatives to order the most famous variant from the Blackbird family, the strategic reconnaissance aircraft SR-71. These aircraft then provided good services to the USAF for three decades and brought a lot of valuable intelligence to the commanders of air and ground units.

SR-71 Blackbird (3) - High requirements

SR-71 aircraft were the pinnacle of technological possibilities of their time. This corresponded to the demands on flying and ground personnel and the overall security of air traffic. There was nothing that could be compared to the aircraft of previous generations.

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (1st Part)

The two world wars ensured the worldwide spread of modern firearms in such quantity and quality that the firepower, allowing even small European military units to win in colonial conflicts over the significant superiority of the natives, has definitely disappeared. Armored vehicles, so effective on European battlefields, were essentially useless in the mountains and jungles of exotic battlefields with sparse or non-existent road networks. Certain advantages were brought only by the Air Force, either as air support of ground units or as a perfect means of transport in the field without navigable roads. The way of thinking of graduates of European military academies was characterized by the fact that instead of the disappearance of the predominance in small arms and ( more or less unnecessary dominance in armored vehicles ) they clung to the predominance of aviation. Combined with the underestimation of the enemy and the complete ignoring of reality, this attitude resulted in the defeat of the French army at Dien Bien Phu ...

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (2nd Part)

The two world wars ensured the worldwide spread of modern firearms in such quantity and quality that the firepower, allowing even small European military units to win in colonial conflicts over the significant superiority of the natives, has definitely disappeared. Armored vehicles, so effective on European battlefields, were essentially useless in the mountains and jungles of exotic battlefields with sparse or non-existent road networks. Certain advantages were brought only by the Air Force, either as air support of ground units or as a perfect means of transport in the field without navigable roads. The way of thinking of graduates of European military academies was characterized by the fact that instead of the disappearance of the predominance in small arms and ( more or less unnecessary dominance in armored vehicles ) they clung to the predominance of aviation. Combined with the underestimation of the enemy and the complete ignoring of reality, this attitude resulted in the defeat of the French army at Dien Bien Phu ...

The Big Push

There are many incredible stories and stories from the Vietnam War, but when I first read about this, it seemed too incredible to be true.

The clutches of the American eagle I

Of all the armed forces of the West, the US military has the shortest and, I dare say, the strangest history. Usually, the armed forces go down in history through battle, and the strangeness of the American military begins with the fact that in the battle, which dates back to the beginning of the North American military, this army did not fight at all, because it did not exist yet.

The clutches of the American eagle II

The militia system of the army, which the United States preferred after its inception, did not allow the creation of a unified rear service. When war broke out with the Seminoles in Florida in 1818, engineering units had to be decommissioned to supply field units because civilian contractors failed to fulfill contracts. This led War Minister Calhoun to put pressure on Congress to release funds for intendant administration ...

The clutches of the American eagle III

At the end of the 19th century, the United States found itself in a special position. The country had no external enemy, after the defeat of Mexico, other American states recognized it as a hegemon, and the long sea borders were protected by the British navy. Due to mineral wealth, which also included oil on the list (fields in California and Texas), the US government had no ambition to gain control of foreign resources. This led to the fact that there was no strategy, no concept of defense, no plans against potential adversaries, that is, everything that was a matter of course in Europe ...

The clutches of the American eagle IV

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States resembled a sleepily contented boa constrictor. The success of the US Navy in the Spanish-American War opened the bag to Congress, and T. Roosevelt had no problem raising funds for the construction of new heavy units of the fleet. Suddenly, everyone seemed to understand the importance of the ocean fleet in the sense of the Mahan Doctrine - it was evident that the British fleet did not intend to cover the new US overseas economic interests of the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico, although it de facto still ensured US security.

The clutches of the American eagle V

An armistice in November 1918 put the United States in a role with which it had no experience. Day by day, they became the world's leading power, and President Wilson, with his 14 points, took the lead in organizing post-war Europe ...

The clutches of the American eagle VI

Until World War II ended, President Roosevelt anxiously avoided any negotiations on postwar borders or state institutions. In December 1941, when he was badly oppressed, Stalin wanted to act and would allow the return of eastern Poland and the evacuation of the Baltic countries, but with the Red Army's advance to the west, his willingness faded to zero.

The clutches of the American eagle VII

If one can think of a specific date in which the United States became the first superpower of the modern world and gained strategic control over it, it is December 8, 1991, when the USSR was formally abolished - a global adversary with which it maintained for more than 40 years power balance ...

The journey of the United States to Vietnamese hell

American professional athlete Rocky Bleier in Vietnam almost lost both legs. In one of the later conversations, he regretted only one. No one ever told him what it was all about. Neither in the training center nor in his platoon in Vietnam. " I wanted to know why I was going there, " he said, " but I never found out. "

The War in Indochina (1946-1954)

After the end of World War II, France did not intend to give up its pre-war Indochinese state, composed of a total of five territorial units: Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin, Cambodia and Laos. The result was a nine-year war in which it lost not only almost 50,000 fallen soldiers, but also its position as a first-class power, severely shaken by the humiliating defeat at the beginning of World War II and the subsequent more than helpful cooperation of its Vichy government with Germany and Japan ...

Toilet bomber

This article was compiled by Clint Johnson, Captain, USNR (Ret.). Capt Johnson was one of two pilots of the VA-25, who shot down a Vietnamese MiG-17 on the A-1H Skyraider on June 20, 1965.

Venture "Vietnam"

In July 1946, I got with my team, which I commanded, into a trap set for us by Vietnamese guerrillas. I fought from 7 a.m. to 12 p.m., and only when I saw that I had lost four people did I give the order to retreat. I received a war cross for this activity.
Sergeant-chef František Vaňhara, April 7, 1951

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