Israeli war for independence [1948-1949]
The plan for the Sinai campaign was adopted by the Israelis in early October 1956, and its main goal was to put an end to terrorist incursions into Israel from Egyptian territory and force Egypt to end the blockade of the port of Eilat. However, after a secret agreement with Britain and France, the plans were amended on October 25 so that the Israelis, in agreement with them, could get as close as possible to the Suez Canal ...
Almost every day, we hear about " news " in the Middle East from various media. I deliberately write news in quotation marks, partly because the conflicts in Palestine are certainly nothing new under the sun, and partly because it is precisely these news that are no sensations one would look forward to. In my opinion, however, most people don't even know what is causing these conflicts and how far their past goes. In fact, I am one of them. Maybe that's why I chose this thorny topic - I would like to understand it more and what leads people to mutual hostility.
In 1922, the so-called Churchill's White Book was published. It confirmed to the Jews the right to establish a nation-state in Palestine, but rejected the Zionist interpretation of a purely Jewish Palestine.
The winner of the Suez crisis was the Nasir regime. The response to Eisenhower's doctrine was the unification of Egypt and Syria as a whole of the United Arab Republic in February 1958. Yemen joined them in March. Egypt played a major role in the new state, but did not take into account Syria's differences. Therefore, it was not surprising that at the end of September 1961, a military coup took place in Damascus and its organizers announced the withdrawal of Syria from the alliance with Egypt. In December 1961, Yemen also separated. Nasir's authoritarian and statist decrees were rejected not only in Syria, but also by Egyptian Muslim brothers and parts of former Free Officers . For Egypt and Syria, the new war with Israel was a safety valve of accumulated internal tension.
Egypt and Syria are preparing revenge for the lost Six-day war. They planned this event exactly on the day of the great Jewish holiday of reconciliation - Yom Kippur.
In the spring of 1985, there were a number of new assassinations and violence between Palestinian and Jewish radicals. The abductions of Western and Soviet diplomats, professors, Jewish citizens, etc. are being carried out.
The proclamation of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948 was the result of World War II, in which Jews were the target of an unprecedented final liquidation by the Nazis. The desire of the Jews for their own country was not only the result of the Holocaust , it is primarily a spiritual matter of Judaism, related primarily to the exodus to which the Jews have been subjected several times in their long history. The Holocaust only accelerated it.
The proclamation of an independent state of Israel has provoked a wave of sympathy in our society. This wave of sympathy spread across all groups of the population and this fact aroused a great response among war veterans from Svoboda's corps. Here it is necessary to realize that a large part of the units of Svoboda's army, mainly as long as it was a separate battalion and then a brigade, was made up of soldiers of Jewish origin.
After the war, our country found out that the vast majority of its citizens of Jewish nationality were sent to extermination camps and liquidated by the occupation administration in the Protectorate and the special behavior of the political leadership of the Slovak state. From this consciousness arose a certain sense of need to at least correct this. This was one factor that became the breeding ground for aid to the new state.
The Israeli armed forces have always suffered from a lack of weapons. Returning to the first part, it is stated that at the end of 1947, Hagana had 900 quality rifles, 900 light machine guns and ammunition for three days of combat. Chaim Herzog even states in his book on the Arab-Israeli Wars that the machine guns were 700 light and 200 universal. I simplified it and added the machine guns. I think that at that time the category of weapons "universal machine gun" did not exist.
In this chapter, I will try to reconstruct what these supplies actually contained according to the available sources. Unfortunately, the controlled and spontaneous liquidation of a large number of documents associated with these events is the main reason why it is not possible to achieve truly relevant results. Nevertheless, even what is demonstrable is a respectable job. But it is necessary to know that everything stated here was delivered without any doubt.
Fightingly fighting, the nascent Israeli military forces also had their air component. It was called Cheyl Ha Avir, and was officially formed on May 27, 1948 from the Haganah Air Force, called Sherut Avir.
Interest in a wider range of military material did not appear until 1949.
Czechoslovak participation in the training of Israeli soldiers The Jewish armed forces, which had to face the superiority of their opponents from the very beginning, fought to the deaths of those sentenced to death. From the very beginning, it was clear to all the fighters that they were not only fighting for their new state, but that they might be facing the possible extermination of all Jews in their part of Palestine. Fortunately, they weren't completely wrong. All healthy men who fought against the German armies and their allies in the ranks of the Allies immediately entered service. And there were not a few of them. In his book on the Arab-Israeli wars, Chaim Herzog states that about 30,000 Israeli men and women had war experience with various weapons. Even the post-war immigration, which consisted of many experienced soldiers, did not hesitate and joined where it was needed. But it was still not enough. The Arab armies were led from behind by experienced professionals from the armies of Great Britain, France and even defeated Germany.
The third pilot course It was launched on July 7, 1948 and took place at the Aviation School in Prostějov, at the Pilot School III Olomouc. The commander of the school squadron at that time was the staff captain Antonín Ocelka.
Laying the foundations of the Israeli airborne troops and training future Israeli tankers
Television, newspapers and other media very often directly "bomb" us with reports of riots, violence or even war conflicts in the Middle East. The problems of this region can be divided into several basic groups and this work should focus on the issue of Arab-Israeli relations and the causes of today's situation. Therefore, we will be mainly interested in the State of Israel and neighboring countries (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon).
In recent years, a number of commentators have accused Jews in Israel of trying to "cleanse" the state of Israel of the Arab population during the War of Independence ( 1948-1949 ). What is the truth? As has been written many times, on November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted a UN resolution dividing the former British Mandate Territory into a Jewish and an Arab state.
Sixty years ago, on May 14, 1948, David Ben Gurion declared the State of Israel in the hall of the Tel Aviv Museum. Immediately after the declaration of independence, the armies of five Arab states crossed the borders of the former mandated Palestine, from the north Lebanese, from the east Syrians, Iraqis and Jordanians, Egyptians from the south. On the day independence was declared, Tel Aviv was bombed by the Egyptian air force. The Arabs wanted to destroy the State of Israel. But Israel was ready for war.
During the armistice, Israel made every effort to improve its military situation. Israel brought weapons, especially from Czechoslovakia. Immigrants from Cypriot internment camps were included in existing combat-fighting units. On July 2, 1948, a new kibbutz was built under the Syrian Highlands. It lay eight kilometers from the area occupied by the Syrian army, which was conquered by Mishmash Ha-Jarden. Kibbutz Kfar Ha-Nasi ( President's Village ) was inhabited by immigrants from England and Australia in honor of Chaim Weizman. One week after the establishment of the kibbutz, settlers found themselves in the middle of the battle, when Syrian troops broke the armistice and tried to occupy the west bank of the Jordan River.
The resumption of fighting in the south on October 15, 1948 also caused the resumption of fighting in Jerusalem. That day, a Muslim Brotherhood unit blew up a terminal in the suburbs of Arnon. The next day, the Arab Legion blew up the Israeli outpost on Mount Zion. The Israelis took revenge by blowing up an old tomb on the same slope where the legion had its local headquarters.
After World War II, the territory of Palestine was administered by Great Britain, which still prevented Jewish immigrants from entering the Holy Land, and Jewish refugees were interned by the British in concentration camps in Cyprus. Anti-Semitism was very much alive in Europe even after the Nazi rage, on July 4, 1946, Poles murdered 42 Jews in Kielce, forty-two hours later, Polish Jews set out for the Holy Land.