During an anti-submarine patrol over Biscay on 11 September 1942, there was suddenly a huge bang from the right wing area. The captain of the stricken Wellington of the 311th Bombardment Squadron, designated KX-K, first feared that the aircraft had been attacked by enemy fighters or by the anti-aircraft defenses of a vessel.
"Ada, go to the side machine guns and look at the underside of the wing," he ordered his navigator. "Lieutenant, we've got a big hole in the wing and it's tearing..."
Establishment of the Association of Foreign Pilots.
Again from the beginning.
A literally bloody sun appeared in the east. A new day began on August 5, 1995. A mortar grenade, which landed on the observation post of Czech soldiers Tango 23, arrived like lightning from clear skies. Literally a whirlwind of shards immediately took its toll. Two Czech soldiers paid for it with their lives, three others were wounded. The line of Croatian fighters, as if nothing had happened at all, moved on. Operation " Storm " against troops of the Republika Srpska Krajina was drawing to a close. But let's look at this tragic moment in the history of the Army of the Czech Republic in more detail.
We've heard a lot about the Hussite wars ( or the Hussite revolution, if you will ). Less about what preceded them and why they actually started. No wonder. These were religious wars, and we went to school at a time when the religion was "scientific" materialism. The following article is a small attempt to at least partially close this information gap ...
After the king's death, events took an unprecedented turn. As Vavřinec of Březová writes, the very next day, ie August 17, 1419, “some of the common people, or the common people, gathered and, with the consent of the Old Town Mayor Jan Bradatý, ran without fear of churches and monasteries in the city of Prague and broke and destroyed organs and paintings of churches, especially those in which communion was not allowed in any way ... "
Václav Koranda Sr. first appears in the sources in 1414 as a parish priest from Pilsen and an enthusiastic spreader of the ideas of Master Jan Hus. As early as 1417, however, the leading master of the University of Prague, Křišťan of Prachatice, rebuked him in writing that while the followers of the chalice had previously praised and admired him for his eloquence and perseverance in defending the Truth, they now paused to throw images of saints from the church. and omits at worship everything that is not directly documented in the Bible. In short, Václav Koranda put all his eloquence into the service of chiliasm and declared Pilsen the chosen City of the Sun.
Václav Koranda and his faithful in Pilsen were waiting for the arrival of Jesus Christ more and more impatiently. The supply was dwindling, the royal army made it impossible to replenish them, and the priests were right to fear that even the most fiery sermons on the salvation of souls would soon be drowned out by the rumbling stomachs of the listeners.
In addition to the nobility, at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, the "secular lords" also included royal cities, which were not only privileged centers of crafts and trade, but in many cases also owners of agricultural land in their vicinity, and thus lordly lords.
The operation of the three papal courts was, of course, quite expensive. The usual fees and taxes could not be increased or listed indefinitely, and so all the incumbent Holy Fathers began to sell so-called indulgences on a large scale. According to Catholic doctrine, forgiveness is the remission of punishments for sins imposed by the church or God and which are either served on earth or must be served in purgatory. Of course, only those sins that have already been forgiven at confession can be forgiven in this way. For example, instead of fasting on bread and water, a penitent can be cleansed by prayer and almsgiving.
Not only in England, but also in Bohemia, preachers sought a way to redress the church and society. The German Konrád Waldhauser, who was invited to Prague by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV., Rebuked not only church dignitaries, but also nobles and burghers for its extravagant life. He condemned women's fashion and most of the more pleasant (and therefore sinful) aspects of life. He is said to have been a great success among German-speaking listeners.
The visit of Hus's sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel became an essential part of most social life for most Praguers. No wonder. The pulpit meant the same for medieval man as the newspaper, radio, television, and the Internet meant for man today. The impressive media productions of the chubby, but allegedly strongly charismatic preacher were visited not only by rich and poor burghers, but also by nobles and prominent members of the royal court. Occasionally, the king's wife, Sophia, came to listen to the popular preacher.
The spreading reputation of Bohemia as a paradise for heretics eventually led to the intervention of the monarch himself. Wenceslas IV, allegedly at the urging of his wife Zofia, a regular visitor to the Bethlehem Chapel, called on the archbishop to revoke the curse and to compensate the owners of the burned books. In addition, Hus defended himself with several letters of intercession addressed to the Pope.
In the summer of 1414, King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Roman and Hungarian, agreed with Pope John XXIII. to convene another ecclesiastical council in Constance, where the sad affair with the Triad was to be finally resolved. Apparently they agreed on other things as well, because Sigismund invited Jan Hus to this council and offered him the opportunity to defend his views before the highest ecclesiastical body.
Hus's death provoked in Bohemia exactly the reaction that Cardinal Zabarella and other more prudent participants in the Council of Constance expected. Resistance and outrage. Hatred. While in May 250 Czech nobles protested in Constance, in September 1415 almost twice as many - 452 - affixed their seals to another protest letter.
Encouraged by the example of the highest places, Czech lords and knights began to occupy church property. Some to help the church in its return to evangelical poverty, others to help protect it from this help. The consequence was objectively the same in both cases - the church was poor ...
Few of our historical figures provoke such contradictory reactions in most people as the Hussite governor Jan Žižka from Trocnov. They tend to be either unconditionally admiring or, on the contrary, unconditionally condemning. According to some, he was a capable military leader and an avid patriot, according to others, he was a capable military leader, but at the same time a ruthless murderer and robber.