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Bohumil Hrabal under the supervision of (not only) communist censorship

It was recommended to edit the text of the caption for the film Closely Watched Trains, in which, among other things, letters to B. Hrabal are quoted: It falls on your head that young people aged 13-15 are fucking in the apartments of their employed parents. How do you answer that? The railroad workers should sue or stone you, because in your opinion , you vulgar beast, there was nothing done on the track but " fucking " on the chief's couch. Daily Report No. 73 of the Main Press Supervision Administration of July 28, 1966

Captain in memoriam Antonín HALBICH

He was highly valued by others for his bravery and tactical balance. According to other members of the company, he was very hardworking, and in addition to his extraordinary talent in strategy, he constantly tried to improve the training of other strikers. He compiled for the members of the strike battalion a manual on hand grenades of all known types with drawings. He translated the operating instructions for American machine guns from English. He was also recognized for his armaments skills, where he often taught other strikers to control captured weapons.

Courtier and Soldier Jindřich Michal Hýzrle z Chodů (part 01)

The Czech knight, later the Czech lord Jindřich Michal Hýzrle of Chody ( 1575–1665 ) lived at about the same time as the famous captain of the French royal musketeers Charles de Batz-Castelmore, Count d'Artagnan ( ca. 1611–1673 ). Both noble warriors were similar in something - both were professional soldiers, both began their careers through patronage, and both were able to fully enjoy all the joys of life that met them. Here, however, all similarity ends. While the Count d'Artagnan allegedly excelled not only in his military abilities but also in his political abilities, especially foresight and sharp judgment, this cannot be said of Mr Hýzrle, even with the best of intentions. On the other hand, Mr. Hýzrle is the author of his own memoirs, while the so-called Memoirs of Count d'Artagnan, on the basis of which Alexandre Dumas wrote his immortal novel The Three Musketeers, is a later literary hoax. Which is another difference between these two baroque cavaliers, this time definitely in favor of our Mr. Hýzrle ...

Courtier and Soldier Jindřich Michal Hýzrle z Chodů (part 02)

The Czech knight, later the Czech lord Jindřich Michal Hýzrle of Chody ( 1575–1665 ) lived at about the same time as the famous captain of the French royal musketeers Charles de Batz-Castelmore, Count d'Artagnan ( ca. 1611–1673 ). Both noble warriors were similar in something - both were professional soldiers, both began their careers through patronage, and both were able to fully enjoy all the joys of life that met them. Here, however, all similarity ends. While the Count d'Artagnan allegedly excelled not only in his military abilities but also in his political abilities, especially foresight and sharp judgment, this cannot be said of Mr Hýzrle, even with the best of intentions. On the other hand, Mr. Hýzrle is the author of his own memoirs, while the so-called Memoirs of Count d'Artagnan, on the basis of which Alexandre Dumas wrote his immortal novel The Three Musketeers, is a later literary hoax. Which is another difference between these two baroque cavaliers, this time definitely in favor of our Mr. Hýzrle ...

František Hanovec

One of the few successful Slovak pilots in the battles with Hungary in the spring of 1939, later a Slovak fighter ace. He was one of the most experienced Slovak fighters and went through all the conflicts of the independent Slovak Air Force.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 1)

We've heard a lot about the Hussite wars ( or the Hussite revolution, if you will ). Less about what preceded them and why they actually started. No wonder. These were religious wars, and we went to school at a time when the religion was "scientific" materialism. The following article is a small attempt to at least partially close this information gap ...

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 10)

After the king's death, events took an unprecedented turn. As Vavřinec of Březová writes, the very next day, ie August 17, 1419, “some of the common people, or the common people, gathered and, with the consent of the Old Town Mayor Jan Bradatý, ran without fear of churches and monasteries in the city of Prague and broke and destroyed organs and paintings of churches, especially those in which communion was not allowed in any way ... "

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 11)

Václav Koranda Sr. first appears in the sources in 1414 as a parish priest from Pilsen and an enthusiastic spreader of the ideas of Master Jan Hus. As early as 1417, however, the leading master of the University of Prague, Křišťan of Prachatice, rebuked him in writing that while the followers of the chalice had previously praised and admired him for his eloquence and perseverance in defending the Truth, they now paused to throw images of saints from the church. and omits at worship everything that is not directly documented in the Bible. In short, Václav Koranda put all his eloquence into the service of chiliasm and declared Pilsen the chosen City of the Sun.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 12)

Václav Koranda and his faithful in Pilsen were waiting for the arrival of Jesus Christ more and more impatiently. The supply was dwindling, the royal army made it impossible to replenish them, and the priests were right to fear that even the most fiery sermons on the salvation of souls would soon be drowned out by the rumbling stomachs of the listeners.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 2)

In addition to the nobility, at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, the "secular lords" also included royal cities, which were not only privileged centers of crafts and trade, but in many cases also owners of agricultural land in their vicinity, and thus lordly lords.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 3)

The operation of the three papal courts was, of course, quite expensive. The usual fees and taxes could not be increased or listed indefinitely, and so all the incumbent Holy Fathers began to sell so-called indulgences on a large scale. According to Catholic doctrine, forgiveness is the remission of punishments for sins imposed by the church or God and which are either served on earth or must be served in purgatory. Of course, only those sins that have already been forgiven at confession can be forgiven in this way. For example, instead of fasting on bread and water, a penitent can be cleansed by prayer and almsgiving.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 4)

Not only in England, but also in Bohemia, preachers sought a way to redress the church and society. The German Konrád Waldhauser, who was invited to Prague by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV., Rebuked not only church dignitaries, but also nobles and burghers for its extravagant life. He condemned women's fashion and most of the more pleasant (and therefore sinful) aspects of life. He is said to have been a great success among German-speaking listeners.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 5)

The visit of Hus's sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel became an essential part of most social life for most Praguers. No wonder. The pulpit meant the same for medieval man as the newspaper, radio, television, and the Internet meant for man today. The impressive media productions of the chubby, but allegedly strongly charismatic preacher were visited not only by rich and poor burghers, but also by nobles and prominent members of the royal court. Occasionally, the king's wife, Sophia, came to listen to the popular preacher.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 6)

The spreading reputation of Bohemia as a paradise for heretics eventually led to the intervention of the monarch himself. Wenceslas IV, allegedly at the urging of his wife Zofia, a regular visitor to the Bethlehem Chapel, called on the archbishop to revoke the curse and to compensate the owners of the burned books. In addition, Hus defended himself with several letters of intercession addressed to the Pope.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 7)

In the summer of 1414, King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Roman and Hungarian, agreed with Pope John XXIII. to convene another ecclesiastical council in Constance, where the sad affair with the Triad was to be finally resolved. Apparently they agreed on other things as well, because Sigismund invited Jan Hus to this council and offered him the opportunity to defend his views before the highest ecclesiastical body.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 8)

Hus's death provoked in Bohemia exactly the reaction that Cardinal Zabarella and other more prudent participants in the Council of Constance expected. Resistance and outrage. Hatred. While in May 250 Czech nobles protested in Constance, in September 1415 almost twice as many - 452 - affixed their seals to another protest letter.

From Jan Hus to Jan Žižka (Part 9)

Encouraged by the example of the highest places, Czech lords and knights began to occupy church property. Some to help the church in its return to evangelical poverty, others to help protect it from this help. The consequence was objectively the same in both cases - the church was poor ...

Ing. Jaroslav Holeček and his submachine guns vz. 23/25 and 24/26 - Part 2

Another of Holeček's revolutionary ideas was an automatic mortar of 55 mm caliber with a pre-sliding barrel, which was to weigh only 36 kg with two full magazines of six mines and have a cadence of 160 rounds per min. There was nothing like that in the world then. However, when he submitted his proposals to the leadership, he was told to look for ammunition and not get involved in other things. He also dealt with the idea of a unified hydraulic breech kit for various infantry weapons, designed with the maximum number of replaceable parts so that after their simple replacement to suit for submachine guns, rifles and light and heavy machine guns. He wanted to apply a similar kit in automatic mortars with cadence, reaching the cadence of a rocket launcher, but with significantly cheaper ammunition.

Jaroslav Himr

Brave fighter, commander of the 313rd Fighter Squadron, which fell in 1943 in air combat with the Bf 110.

Knight not only of medical condition

Brig. gen. Josef Hercz, with his 194 cm of height, managed to avoid bullets on battlefields in North Africa, Syria and Dunkirk, and survived the shipwreck in the Mediterranean.

Last disputation of master John

When Jan Hus went to the church council in Constance in the autumn of 1414, he hoped that in the promised public disputation he would defend his views, which the church called heretical. However, at the coveted public hearing in June 1415, his ideas of a university-type discussion quickly took hold. The council, whose main task was to resolve the question of the existence of three popes ( and he had already succeeded in doing so ), did not intend to discuss with him. He expected only one thing from the defendant - that he would lift his delusions as soon as possible and accept the punishment he deserved ...

Testimony of Jaroslav Hlaď

"I was assigned to the English operational unit on January 19, 1943, I flew gladly and furiously, so until the end of the war, in terms of the number of actions over the enemy, I took the lead over the old airmen. In England, with my aviation zeal and refusal to be classified by the Czechoslovak Aviation Inspectorate, I became friends with the chief inspectorate, Major Schejbal, who said at a meeting of senior commanders that I could never get any command of a Czechoslovak unit. Later, however, when the morale of the Czechoslovak unit was poor, and the pilots too often returned from operations for 'defective engine operation', I was still assigned to command the squadron and later the entire group. "
Air Force Colonel Jaroslav Hlaďo, May 12, 1950

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