Many people may remember the beginning of the second Palestinian intifada, when footage of a Palestinian boy allegedly shot by Israeli soldiers circled the world. Muhammad Dura became a symbol of Palestinian " suffering ", intifada and the fight against so-called Israeli brutality, and aroused pro-Palestinian sympathy around the world. Thirteen years later, however, it turned out that the soldiers had not killed the boy, and the whole case was a hoax .
Events in the Middle East from the Camp David summit in July 2000 to the February 2001 presidential election.
Amnesty International (AI) is known for its human rights activities. However, in connection with the Middle East events, only the State of Israel takes its toll and continues to campaign unprofessionally against Israel. The last time she became sadly known was the anti-Israel attacks during the war between Israel and Hamas in late 2012, which was named the "Pillar Defense".
Holy Land. No other area is in such a furious conflict, no other state than Israel is so denied the right to life and existence. No other country faces such fierce and irreconcilable hatred from the left. Can this hatred be understood at all? Its core can be found in the UN and its various sub-organizations, universities and Muslim and communist countries.
The article maps the main attempts and contradictions of the Middle East peace process until 1994. Later events are devoted to the article "Al-Aqsa Intifada".
Hamas is still the center of attention. The following text aims to analyze the changes in its terrorist activities from its inception to the present.
1. US policy and the Israeli-Palestinian peace process Although the United States was involved in the Middle East before World War II, it did not begin to pursue a more active policy in the region until after the end of World War II. However, only since the 1960s can we speak of a "special relationship" between the United States and Israel, which continues to last until today. There are more answers to the question of where the roots of the important relationship between the two countries come from. East after 1945 can be explained on the one hand by the interest in oil, later also by anti-communism and the struggle for spheres of influence within the bipolarism characteristic of the Cold War.
Introduction When we say Middle East today, everyone is probably reminded of the revolution in Egypt, the uprising in Syria, or the fighting in Libya. The Middle East is currently a symbol of the unrest and revolts that could bring about changes in the policies of these Arab countries in the coming years. In connection with the crisis in the Arab world, there is also talk of the future of a small country that has been fighting for its existence since its inception - the future of the State of Israel.
2. Israel and the USA - a special relationship Relations between the United States and Israel have been exceptional since the establishment of the State of Israel. Since the 1960s, there has even been talk of a so-called special relationship, which exists between the two countries and has no analogues in the world. For decades, the two countries have maintained strong bilateral relations based on several factors - common strategic goals in the Middle East (eg Iran, Syria or Islamic extremism), sharing democratic values and historical roots dating back to the very founding of the State of Israel.
3. The Obama administration in the peace process The Obama administration in 2009 was faced with a difficult task during the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Bush's attempts to end the disputes, presented by the Annapol Conference, were in ruins, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert would be forced to resign due to allegations of corruption, and a war broke out in Gaza just before Obama's inauguration.
Conclusion The United States undoubtedly plays an important role in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Whether they were negotiators, mediators or observers, they made a significant contribution to advancing the Israeli-Palestinian peace talks.
When we say Middle East today, everyone is probably reminded of the revolution in Egypt, the uprising in Syria, or the fighting in Libya. The Middle East is currently a symbol of the unrest and revolts that could bring about changes in the policies of these Arab countries in the coming years. In connection with the crisis in the Arab world, there is also talk of the future of a small country that has been fighting for its existence since its inception - the future of the State of Israel.
The proclamation of the state of Israel on May 14, 1948 was the result of World War II, in which Jews were the target of an unprecedented final liquidation by the Nazis. The desire of the Jews for their own country was not only the result of the Holocaust , it is primarily a spiritual matter of Judaism, related primarily to the exodus to which the Jews have been subjected several times in their long history. The Holocaust only accelerated it.
The proclamation of an independent state of Israel has provoked a wave of sympathy in our society. This wave of sympathy spread across all groups of the population and this fact aroused a great response among war veterans from Svoboda's corps. Here it is necessary to realize that a large part of the units of Svoboda's army, mainly as long as it was a separate battalion and then a brigade, was made up of soldiers of Jewish origin.
After the war, our country found out that the vast majority of its citizens of Jewish nationality were sent to extermination camps and liquidated by the occupation administration in the Protectorate and the special behavior of the political leadership of the Slovak state. From this consciousness arose a certain sense of need to at least correct this. This was one factor that became the breeding ground for aid to the new state.
The Israeli armed forces have always suffered from a lack of weapons. Returning to the first part, it is stated that at the end of 1947, Hagana had 900 quality rifles, 900 light machine guns and ammunition for three days of combat. Chaim Herzog even states in his book on the Arab-Israeli Wars that the machine guns were 700 light and 200 universal. I simplified it and added the machine guns. I think that at that time the category of weapons "universal machine gun" did not exist.
In this chapter, I will try to reconstruct what these supplies actually contained according to the available sources. Unfortunately, the controlled and spontaneous liquidation of a large number of documents associated with these events is the main reason why it is not possible to achieve truly relevant results. Nevertheless, even what is demonstrable is a respectable job. But it is necessary to know that everything stated here was delivered without any doubt.
Fightingly fighting, the nascent Israeli military forces also had their air component. It was called Cheyl Ha Avir, and was officially formed on May 27, 1948 from the Haganah Air Force, called Sherut Avir.
Interest in a wider range of military material did not appear until 1949.
Czechoslovak participation in the training of Israeli soldiers The Jewish armed forces, which had to face the superiority of their opponents from the very beginning, fought to the deaths of those sentenced to death. From the very beginning, it was clear to all the fighters that they were not only fighting for their new state, but that they might be facing the possible extermination of all Jews in their part of Palestine. Fortunately, they weren't completely wrong. All healthy men who fought against the German armies and their allies in the ranks of the Allies immediately entered service. And there were not a few of them. In his book on the Arab-Israeli wars, Chaim Herzog states that about 30,000 Israeli men and women had war experience with various weapons. Even the post-war immigration, which consisted of many experienced soldiers, did not hesitate and joined where it was needed. But it was still not enough. The Arab armies were led from behind by experienced professionals from the armies of Great Britain, France and even defeated Germany.
The third pilot course It was launched on July 7, 1948 and took place at the Aviation School in Prostějov, at the Pilot School III Olomouc. The commander of the school squadron at that time was the staff captain Antonín Ocelka.
Laying the foundations of the Israeli airborne troops and training future Israeli tankers
Operation Cast Lead began on December 27, 2008 and lasted about a month. It was a retaliatory action aimed at preventing further blasting of Israeli territory from the Gaza Strip. The state of Israel was, as usual, again accused of war crimes (ie, deliberately attacking Gazan civilians, civilian objects and civilian infrastructure). As in the case of the "Janin Massacre" or the "Palestinian Massacre on the Beach in Gaza". All these accusations pursue one goal - to denigrate Israel as widely as possible. Now I will try to recapitulate only some of the misinformation that has circled the world.
We often hear the claims of some people that Palestinian Arabs have the right to return to the territory of today's state of Israel. There are even many personalities who say Israel should transform into a binary nation-state. In the rough post-war year of 1947, the United Nations divided the territory of the British mandate into a Jewish and an Arab state. However, the Arabs did not accept this solution and launched an armed attack against Israel.
To give you an idea, we can recall the idea of George Orwell's work that all humans ( animals ) are equal, but some are more equal ( pigs ). The world community always and under any circumstances uses a double standard on Israel, the only democratic republic in the Middle East. To revive the memory, let us remember only the reactions of the " world " ( UN, EU, USA ) to current events in the Middle East region.
In the summer of 1981, Israeli bombs dropped by F-16 planes plowed the Iraqi nuclear reactor in Al Tuvai. This prevented Saddam Husain from working for a working nuclear weapon for a long time. Israel has been blamed for killing one civilian in the raid. The question of how many people would be killed by a nuclear weapon in the hands of a dictator is preferred by most critics of the raid.
Israel was and is a thorn in the side of the Arabs. They did not hesitate for decades to seek nuclear weapons to destroy it. At the forefront of these efforts was Iraq. Its reactor was nearing completion. The Israelis, but not only them, did not intend to wait with folded arms until he launched it and the omnipotent dictator Saddam Hussein had a nuclear weapon at his disposal.
There are many artificially created hatred myths about Israel. And the fact? It is usually far from them.
The history of the 20th century is often referred to as the " history of war ." Wars bring with them immense suffering, death, refugees, the forcible expulsion of the innocent. During World War I, the Turks committed genocide on the Armenian population, during World War II. During World War II, the Nazis murdered more than 1/3 of the entire Jewish population. Immediately after the war, the Allies approved the expulsion of the German population from Central and Eastern Europe at the 1945 Potsdam Conference. Iraq, a wave of refugees has been provoked by the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. The Soviet Union was a master and far outnumbered other conflicts by, among other things, expelling, relocating, and destroying millions of nations and ethnic groups.
The French historian Marc Bloch, executed by the Gestapo in 1944, recalls in the introduction to his article Defense of History, published posthumously in 1949, the arrival of German troops in Paris and the collapse of the French administration. He asks, "Has history betrayed us?" The scattering of Fatah during the Battle of Gaza in June 2007 and the disappearance of Arafat's historic resistance organization from Gaza's political space put the PLO in a similar situation. Like the French administration in 1940, the rooftop Palestinian national institution may think it has been "betrayed by history."
The conflict between the Lebanese Hezbollah movement and the state of Israel in 2006 surprised the whole world with its suddenness and fierceness. However, even an intense military engagement did not solve the problem in the long run. The presented study deals with the issue of so-called "premature peacekeeping", which may have contributed to the tie.
The world media is intensively dealing with the issue of the Middle East. Unfortunately, it is becoming a sad truth that many media, human rights activists and peace fighters professing the ideology of multiculturalism and political correctness blindly adopt the Palestinian version of story and history and accuse Israel of all wrongdoing. Sufficient lies have been mapped, I will point out another in this article - the accusation that Israelis are stealing water from Palestinians and Syrians.
In recent years, a number of commentators have accused Jews in Israel of trying to "cleanse" the state of Israel of the Arab population during the War of Independence ( 1948-1949 ). What is the truth? As has been written many times, on November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted a UN resolution dividing the former British Mandate Territory into a Jewish and an Arab state.
Palestinian terrorism and the Shiite "insurgency" in Iraq have about as much in common with the struggle for freedom of the Palestinian and Iraqi people as SS extermination Sonderkommando had with the liberation of the Russians from the Stalinist yoke. Taking hostages from civilians who came to Iraq to help and other atrocities of Islamist terrorists are not the only coincidence. In addition to these practices, there are ideological similarities between the teachings of fanatical Islamic clerics such as Yassin and Muktada Sadr and Nazism.
The operation in Janin, together with the case of Muhammad Dura, became a symbol of tragic anti-Israel disinformation during II. intifada, spread by the world media, NGOs and the UN. The newspaper operation was dubbed "Janingrad" and was intended to give the idea that Israel was committing the same atrocities and inhumanity on the Palestinians as the Nazi troops in Stalingrad.
There are now emerging views that the Israeli demand that the Palestinians recognize Israel as a "Jewish state" is undemocratic, contrary to the principle of human rights and freedoms. Can the Jewish state be democratic?
The case of the photo "Palestinian beaten by an Israeli soldier on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem" entered journal history as one of the biggest anti-Israel lies, along with the aforementioned cases of the so-called Janin Massacre, during which Israel was to commit a colossal massacre of Palestinian civilians, which was not true. Another of the many false pieces of information was the perjury of Israeli soldiers in the murder of Muhammad Dura. This accusation again proved untrue.
The state of Israel faces not only a military and terrorist threat, but also media hostility. In June 2006, journalists accused Israel of a horrific war crime: Jews were to commit mass murder of the civilian population. According to some journalists, Israeli soldiers were supposed to attack and kill an unsuspecting Palestinian family who were resting and having fun on a Gaza beach for no reason. As with all cases published by Pallywood, all objective evidence that could convict Israeli soldiers of prosecutable crimes against humanity was lacking. Of course, the massacre was not authentically captured; the "appropriate" documents were only later provided by journalists from the Pallywood editing room, while the footage was naturalistically arranged.
They called him a "faceless terrorist." Before Osama ibn Ladin claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 assassination, the US secret services judged that he, Imad Mughniya, was to blame. Until then, he held the lead in the number of Americans killed in Islamist assassinations around the world. On Tuesday, February 12, his earthly pilgrimage, followed by a great speck of human blood, ended. Whatever one treats, one also lacks. In Damascus, he was killed by a bomb blast located in his off-road Mitsubishi.
Israel, considered an illegitimate intruder in that predominantly Islamic region, had to get used to the relentless inconvenience: bombs, rockets, all sorts of intrusions, the penetration of suicide bombers. This led to a decrease in foreign tourists, an outflow of investment, the economy began to suffer, the very existence of the state threatened ...
2013 brought one significant event to Israel and the Palestinians - both sides resumed peace talks. With the exception of brief unsuccessful interviews in 2010, they did not negotiate for five years. Direct talks resumed in late July thanks to the superhuman efforts of US Secretary of State John Kerry, promised by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas to stay at the negotiating table for nine months.
Palestinian UN staff appear to have met their demands.
Left-wing anti-Zionists accuse Israel of being the one who fueled hatred between Jews and Arabs. He portrays Israel as the sole culprit of the tragic confrontation between Israel and the Arab states.
What are the facts? Anti-Zionists spread a lot of myths and untruths. I will mention only some.
Iraq has been trying to acquire an atomic weapon since it was presented to the world. In 1956, with the support of the US government, the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission was established. As part of Iraq's peace cooperation, the Americans supplied nuclear research laboratories, the results of their research and also trained their nuclear scientists. However, this " little brotherhood " did not last long.
We can often come across the claim that the Jews only brought violence to Palestine, against which the Arabs had the right to defend themselves. Have Arab-Jewish relations really been strained since the founding of the Zionist movement?
Last week was full of dramatic events in the Middle East. Thursday's firing of four rockets from Lebanon to the western Galilee in Israel was almost lost in a flood of reports. The rocket attack on Israel was condemned by Lebanese President Michel Sulayman himself, who called it a breach of the ceasefire, and even by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Israel retaliated on Friday, announcing that the military had hit "a network of tunnels that do not belong to Hezbollah." He did not fire the missiles - a Sunni terrorist organization affiliated to al-Qaeda, which calls itself the Abdullah Azzam Brigades, joined them.
The world's attention is still focused on the Middle East. No other country was fought as hard as Israel / Palestine. It is a small piece of land, its area is definitely smaller than our Moravia. Today, there are fierce and irreconcilable battles between Jews and Arabs over this country. Both sides claim this territory for themselves. I will now make a brief historical excursion into the settlement of this country.
BDS? Who are the people behind the BDS brand? B as boycott, D as divestment (withdrawal of investment), S as sanctions. What do these people actually believe? In their irrational thinking, the State of Israel is rooted as a demon in the Middle East, a racist state seeking to establish a policy of apartheid, likening Palestinian Arabs to Jews in the Warsaw ghetto and Israelis to Nazis carrying out the "genocide of the Palestinian people."
The topic of this diploma thesis is the question of the EU's involvement in resolving the Middle East conflict and focusing on interfaces and differences with other major actors ( especially the US and the Russian Federation, because in this context I see the UN only as an international forum where interests of individual states and groupings, so this work does not focus specifically on the work of the UN ). The aim is to assess, on the basis of the EU's analysis, its contribution and role in the whole process, what leads the EU to engage in the peace process and whether the EU has the opportunity to play a significant role in this area in the future.
The history of the State of Israel is closely linked to the new state's efforts to survive in an area where the surrounding Arab states have certainly not been in favor of it. Although the settlement of Jewish immigrants from all over the world in the decades before the establishment of the independent State of Israel led to problematic relations with the local Arab ( Palestinian ) population, it was the years after World War II that led to a real acceleration of problematic relations not only with neighboring Arab states, but also with the original Arab population in the former mandated territory of Great Britain.
Rising violence and the Sharon government's attempt to prove that Yasser Arafat was personally responsible for a significant part of the terrorist activities made negotiations between the two sides almost impossible. In this tense situation, the United States-led Quartet agreed at the end of April 2003 on a plan to ensure Israel's withdrawal from the occupied territories, but its implementation proved to be very difficult. This plan was also very ambitious from the point of view of the situation at that time, not only in terms of the set goals, but especially in terms of the set deadlines. In addition, in 2002, Yasser Arafat's residence in Ramallah was surrounded and largely destroyed. The Israeli government has since made no secret of the fact that Yasser Arafat, as a negotiating partner, no longer intends to take much into account.
The region of today's Middle East has been an important region throughout the twentieth century in which the interests of the European powers have clashed. The powers that were interested in this area were mainly Great Britain and France, but of course Germany and Italy also had their interests. In the introductory chapter to this work, the period from the establishment of the state of Israel to the present is chosen for the period for describing the international political dynamics. The reason for this step is, among other things, that shortly before the establishment of the state of Israel ended World War II, which significantly affected the international political arena and brought to the scene two new superpowers ( US and USSR ) and with them two different blocs of states, which began to transform into the international political image of the world that existed at that time. The clash between the two ideologies did not escape the Middle East either.
The collapse of the USSR had significant consequences for the Arab world. Quite quickly, the state withdrew from the Middle East arena, which until then had excelled in its anti-Israel stance and which was close to the Arab regimes and their views on the solution to the Middle East conflict. Only the United States and the EC remained, which, as already mentioned, was solving other problems at that time and focusing more on Europe and the new transforming states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Arab states thus lost the possibility of maneuvering between the two great powers. In addition, the US has focused on the newly independent states, and attention and assistance ( including financial ) has shifted in this direction.
The aim of this section is to focus on some of the specifics of the US and Russian approach to the Middle East peace process, especially with regard to current developments from the early 1990s to the present, and to try to compare them with the EC / EU approach. Although previous parts of the work have already pointed out some differences or interfaces in approaches, the focus will be on a more comprehensive view of the situation, including a brief summary of the context that determined the course of the great powers in the region during the Cold War.
List of abbreviations used
The conflict in the Middle East is a widely discussed topic worldwide, which can provoke highly emotional reactions from local people, politicians and also religious leaders, especially in Arab countries. Several generations of politicians have already considered its possible solution, and none of them has reached a definitive solution. There are several important players in the diplomatic field in this area, who are trying by various means to force the parties to reach a final settlement so that the whole region will be stabilized in the longer term. Their activities are proof that they consider the whole region of the Middle East to be an important area for their future relations with the countries of this part of the world, in the case of individual states especially in the political and economic field.
Protocol of Sevres
European Parliament resolution of 12 July 2007 on the situation in the Middle East
The EU has sufficient financial and administrative resources to play a significant role in the Middle East peace process, but there is a lack of stronger promotion of its own positions and views.
List of literature
Israel has been negotiating with the Hamas terrorist movement for three years to release the soldier Gilad Shalit, whom he abducted. Negotiations are complicated, secret, rarely anything penetrates the public. It was recently supposed to be transported to Egypt as a "neutral state" and then exchanged for a group of Palestinian terrorists imprisoned in Israel.
Introduction The aim of this work is primarily to analyze the bilateral relationship - the United States versus Israel - and to find the main reasons for this " special relationship ", which has become one of the basic principles of US policy towards the Middle East region. This principle has been in place since the 1960s, and American foreign policy is based on it to this day. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only major player in the region, and most Arab states today see the country as the only player capable of significantly influencing Israeli policy.
1. Theoretical introduction The first part of this work entitled "Theoretical introduction" will deal mainly with the theory of the diaspora, the way of its origin, the characteristics of the diaspora and also the concepts that relate to the Jewish diaspora. In order to deal in more detail with the issue of the influence of the Jewish diaspora on US foreign policy, it is first necessary to realize how this diaspora originated and why its scope in the United States is so unique. I will therefore focus on the oldest history of the Jewish state, the pitfalls the Jewish nation had to overcome in order to settle in its "Promised Land," and finally the expulsion by the Romans in the first century AD, which resulted in the definitive expulsion of Jews from their homeland and the nearly two thousand years of exile and dispersal in the diaspora. I will also address the question of the influence of the Jewish diaspora on international relations and its position in relation to Israel. I would like to conclude the conclusion of this section with a more detailed study of the origin of the diaspora in the United States of America and its formation into its current form.
2. The Impact of the Jewish Diaspora in the United States on American Foreign Policy The question of why the United States is willing to put its own security in the background to support the interests of another state has certainly been asked by many of you.
3. American Foreign Policy and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict In 1948, President Truman announced support for the creation of Israel on Palestinian territory, and since then Israel has held a special place in the hearts and minds of many Americans, Jews, and others. The myths that surrounded this state, as well as the tragedies of the Holocaust, played a major role in creating the so-called " special relationship " between the United States and Israel.
Conclusion Throughout their history, Jews as a nation have been accompanied by a number of different controversies and conflicts, which have made them a very determined, united and firm nation in the faith. Their belief that they were a nation chosen by God led them to feel a superiority over other nations. The land of Israel has always been sacred to them, and it has been very difficult for them to lose it throughout history. The expulsion of the Jews by the Romans in 70 AD meant an unimaginable catastrophe for the whole nation, and the Jewish nation was dispersed throughout the world. From this moment, the Jewish diaspora began to take shape. From the beginning, especially in the surrounding states, where the political conditions were favorable and where Jews were allowed to start a new life. Later, Jews began to move mainly to Western Europe. However, with the strengthening of Christianity, the situation is beginning to escalate here as well, and growing anti-Semitism is forcing Jews to look for their place elsewhere.
The main goal of this work is to analyze the bilateral relationship - the United States versus Israel - and to find the main reasons for this "special relationship", which has become one of the basic principles of US policy towards the Middle East. This principle has been applied since the 1960s After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the only major player in the region, and most Arab states today see it as the only player capable of significantly influencing Israeli policy.
The original inhabitants of Palestine ( Canaan ) were Canaanites. In the 13th century BC this area was conquered by Hebrew-Israeli tribes led by Moses' successor Joshua. Here, 12 Israeli tribes were united and later the first state unit was established, the biblical Jewish state of Israel, whose first king, according to biblical tradition, was Saul. His successor David conquered Jerusalem and made it the capital of the kingdom.
The United States was and still is the most important external player in the region. Their important position is caused by several reasons. The United States has long been considered Israel's largest ally, mainly because of the very powerful Jewish lobby, which, although Jews make up only 3 percent of the American population, has a very strong influence on American politics.
In 1947, the Soviet Union, like the United States and many others, backed a UN resolution on the partition of Palestine, hoping that the newly formed state would be socialist and accelerate the decline of British influence in the region. Therefore, three days after the proclamation of the independent State of Israel, the USSR recognized this new state de jure. The Soviet Union's involvement in the region was primarily aimed at combating " Western imperialism ."
The issue of the Israeli-Palestinian and Israeli-Arab conflicts has been addressed by the United Nations ( UN ) from the very beginning of its existence, ie in the 1940s. Since then, it has been constantly presenting plans and proposals to address the situation in this area. Since the Palestinian question first appeared on its agenda, several hundred resolutions have been issued on Israeli-Arab and Israeli-Palestinian relations. This chapter deals with only the most important resolutions that have had a direct impact on the further development of this conflict.
Since the very founding of the State of Israel, Europe has sought to maintain a neutral position against the Israeli-Arab, and therefore Israeli-Palestinian, conflict. Throughout the era, however, it has not been able to develop a unified policy towards the region, as individual states have constantly changed their positions depending on specific political or temporal contexts. The European powers, even before the creation of the European Community and subsequently the European Union itself, had very close ties to the Middle East. They pursued their power and political ambitions here. In addition, this area was very strategic from both an economic and a military point of view.
All actors, ie the USA, Russia, the UN and the European Union, had one common interest, namely stability in the Middle East. They therefore decided to coordinate their policies, bearing in mind that the most effective results can only be achieved through cooperation, not through competition. That is why they grouped into the so-called " Middle East Quartet ". The last chapter of this thesis therefore deals with the peace activities of the Quartet in the Middle East and analyzes whether they are able to achieve the desired peace in this region, whether they have the necessary resources and whether any progress has been made in the peace process.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its international-political context
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and its international-political context
After the great powers of today's international system realized the importance of establishing stability in the Middle East instead of competing for influence, there were countless efforts to finally resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Although at least partial changes have been achieved, most of these peace efforts have unfortunately not led to any concrete result.
The aim of this work is not to analyze the cause and course of this never - ending conflict, but to analyze its international - political context, ie the attitudes and engagement of world powers. At the outset, however, I consider it necessary, in the context of understanding the whole issue, to briefly mention the course of this conflict from the very beginning of its origin to the present.
The conflict between Israelis and Palestinians, contrary to many claims, is a matter of the modern era. Both Islam and Judaism have many features and elements in common. Many Jewish biblical figures are recognized and revered by Muslims, especially Abraham, through whom all three world monotheistic religions, Judaism, Islam, and Christianity, de facto intermingle. There are many cases in history where Jews and Muslims fought side by side for a common cause.
Introduction The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which has been going on for decades, is one of the world's most serious conflicts. Although overshadowed in recent years by the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and some other military clashes, its resolution remains a prerequisite for peace in the Middle East, which is of strategic importance to most of the Western world.
1. A brief historical summary of the European Community's (European Union) involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict The countries of Western Europe, as well as the USA and Russia (formerly the USSR), have considered the Middle East one of their strategic areas since World War I. Throughout the last century, therefore, they have tried to keep the region in its sphere of influence. The decisive power position of Great Britain, which lasted from the First World War until the proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948, in the 1950s (especially after the so-called Suez Crisis in 1956) was taken over by the United States, which has maintained it to this day. The United States has long been by far the strongest player in the Middle East and probably the only state with the means to reach a peaceful solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
2. The EU's official position on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, EU-Israel-Palestine relations The European Union's official position on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, as well as the Israeli-Arab conflict, is based on the framework established by the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. The 2003 European Security Strategy, entitled "A Secure Europe in a Better World", identified the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as one of the Union's strategic priorities. The EU believes that peace cannot be achieved without a definitive and universally recognized state arrangement between Israelis and Palestinians
in the Middle East, which is a necessary condition for global stability.
3. EU position on the recent and current issue of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict In the second half of 2009, pressure from all Quartet members intensified to resume negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, leading to a settlement of all permanent status issues as soon as possible. The EU summarized its views in a document entitled "Council Conclusions on the Middle East Peace Process", issued on 8 December 2009.
4. Possible future developments Although the theory that radicalism primarily stems from poverty is considered simplistic, it is clear that the poor economic situation is one of the factors contributing to a negative and radical climate in society. This has always been the case, and it is still the case in the Palestinian territories, and of course the Gaza Strip. Even during the peace process of the 1990s, when the degree of autonomy of the Palestinian Authority was increasing, it was not possible to start Gaza's economy . The Israeli blockade, exacerbated by the 2007 war between Fatah and Hamas, is contributing to a further deterioration in the region's economic situation. The EU has repeatedly drawn attention to this fact by calling on Israel to end it immediately. The EU acknowledges that easing the blockade in the summer of 2010 is an important step forward, but does not consider it sufficient and considers that its practical effect is not very visible in Gaza.
Conclusion Historically, it has always been difficult for European countries to find agreement on the Middle East. The differing interests of the European powers, led by France and Germany, have long prevented the EU (EC) from taking a common position on the Israeli-Arab issue and, with it, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This was not achieved until the 1990s under the CFSP.
The EU's position has always been rather supportive in the past, but especially in recent years the Union is trying to intervene more actively in peace negotiations, and even though the US still holds the main initiative, the EU's position as a mediator and neutral third party is gaining in importance.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which has been going on for decades, is one of the world's most serious conflicts. Although overshadowed in recent years by the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and some other military clashes, its resolution remains a prerequisite for peace in the Middle East, which is of strategic importance to most of the Western world.
The Middle East region is marked by tragic wars between Jews and Palestinian Arabs. The Jewish population began to fulfill their dream of rebuilding their lost homeland in Palestine. After the rise of Mufti Hussein, the initial harmonious coexistence between the two ethnic groups turned into irreconcilable hatred, which resulted in a series of bloody pogroms against the Israelites. To appease the Palestinians, the British responded in the worst way, by publishing a White Paper to keep Jewish immigration to a minimum, virtually leaving Jews at the mercy of the Nazi rage.
Sixty years ago, on May 14, 1948, David Ben Gurion declared the State of Israel in the hall of the Tel Aviv Museum. Immediately after the declaration of independence, the armies of five Arab states crossed the borders of the former mandated Palestine, from the north Lebanese, from the east Syrians, Iraqis and Jordanians, Egyptians from the south. On the day independence was declared, Tel Aviv was bombed by the Egyptian air force. The Arabs wanted to destroy the State of Israel. But Israel was ready for war.
During the armistice, Israel made every effort to improve its military situation. Israel brought weapons, especially from Czechoslovakia. Immigrants from Cypriot internment camps were included in existing combat-fighting units. On July 2, 1948, a new kibbutz was built under the Syrian Highlands. It lay eight kilometers from the area occupied by the Syrian army, which was conquered by Mishmash Ha-Jarden. Kibbutz Kfar Ha-Nasi ( President's Village ) was inhabited by immigrants from England and Australia in honor of Chaim Weizman. One week after the establishment of the kibbutz, settlers found themselves in the middle of the battle, when Syrian troops broke the armistice and tried to occupy the west bank of the Jordan River.
The resumption of fighting in the south on October 15, 1948 also caused the resumption of fighting in Jerusalem. That day, a Muslim Brotherhood unit blew up a terminal in the suburbs of Arnon. The next day, the Arab Legion blew up the Israeli outpost on Mount Zion. The Israelis took revenge by blowing up an old tomb on the same slope where the legion had its local headquarters.
After World War II, in which freedom was expensively redeemed, losses were counted: the war cost 55 million people and the Jews in Europe were almost exterminated. This was a strong impetus for the creation of the UN and many humanitarian organizations, which set themselves the task of not repeating the horrors of war and genocide and preventing wars. However, the war conflicts in the world did not cease, the swords did not turn into blades. The Middle East is at the center of events, where huge oil fields have been discovered. In 1948, the State of Israel was established, which was immediately invaded by the surrounding Arab countries, whose goal was to destroy an independent Jewish state from the very beginning, although its existence was guaranteed by world powers.
What exactly is the International Solidarity Movement? The leaders of this movement call themselves a non-violent organization defending human rights anywhere in the world. Let's see if this is really the case.
In the 1980s, Israel became the target of overwhelming criticism from the international community. To this end, it is necessary to mention some necessary facts that put this procedure in perspective. After the "Black September" during which Palestinian terrorists were expelled from Jordan, they settled in Lebanon, from where they launched raids on northern Israeli cities.
Europe and Israel. Where they went wrong? Why do 60% of Europeans hate Israel consider this country the biggest threat to world peace? A Norwegian left-wing thinker has said that Israel no longer has a right to exist. Why did the beloved cheerful brave state become the number one aggressor, the site of imperialism, the enemy of all progressive Muslim states, seen by the eyes of the European left as a victim of colonialism, while Israel is denigrated as the cause of all evil, especially in leftist dailies like The Gurdian ?
The UN was founded by 51 countries, the vast majority of which were democracies. The situation has changed since the 1970s - the UN had 144 member states and almost all of them were totalitarian, despotic, undemocratic, mostly with one political "state party". These were Soviet bloc countries, which often trained various anti-capitalist terrorist commandos. The Muslim and African countries together formed a working majority, so that no action against terrorism could be discussed at all.
The United States was the first country to recognize the newly formed Israel. The United States did not initially side with Israel as the most important ally, but circumstances have developed to make the United States the most important ally in Israel in all walks of life.
In 2008, several million Jews and their supporters celebrated the 60th anniversary of the founding of the state of Israel. In a few decades, Israel has crossed such enormous milestones in its history as few other states. From the beginning, its existence from the point of view of other states in the region was undesirable, even unacceptable. How has this tiny state ( in some places only nine kilometers wide ) managed to survive to this day?
The exceptional US-Israeli partnership has evolved throughout the existence of an independent Jewish state, and the complete foundations of a sense of alliance go back a long way. The following pages are devoted to the analysis of the basic common values of these two states, I also deal with a cross-section of the history of the US-Israeli alliance and the most important moments that have taken bilateral relations to another level. The scope of my bachelor's thesis does not allow me to deal in detail with every conflict, war or peace conference that took place. By mentioning them, I just want to indicate the importance and frequency of American involvement in the peace process. The last part is devoted to the vision of the Middle East from the perspective of the current American president.
Until 1962, the United States supported Israel only economically, in terms of the development of the state itself. During this period, moderate military aid also began. Throughout the period, the United States has also supported Israel in the field of diplomacy, and in recent decades it has united in the fight against terrorism. In the following chapter, I describe the basic facts and events that have taken place in individual areas and have had an impact on the further development of mutual relations.
Ms Albright believes that in the speech of each newly elected president, Israel will certainly be described as the only democracy in the region and as the only ally in the fight against terrorism. According to her, every newly elected president promises that America will always stand by the side of Israel. " But be aware that in the Middle East, they heard your every word as clearly as in America. "It simply came to our notice then. Through the Jewish lobby, Israel was very aware of every political change in the United States.
US-Israeli relations: Annexes
US-Israeli relations: List of abbreviations
US-Israeli relations: List of used literature
Water is a basic necessity of life, it is a condition for the functioning of the economy but also of society as a whole. It is therefore the perfect embodiment of the term strategic raw material. Ensuring its supply is therefore a priority for every state, and this priority comes to the fore, especially in regions where there is a shortage of water. One such region is the Middle East…
After World War II, the territory of Palestine was administered by Great Britain, which still prevented Jewish immigrants from entering the Holy Land, and Jewish refugees were interned by the British in concentration camps in Cyprus. Anti-Semitism was very much alive in Europe even after the Nazi rage, on July 4, 1946, Poles murdered 42 Jews in Kielce, forty-two hours later, Polish Jews set out for the Holy Land.
What is good and what is bad? Humanity has been dealing with this issue since ancient times to the present. Once upon a time, the recognized character values included diligence, self-sufficiency and determination. People with these qualities enjoyed respect and recognition, and the environment sought to achieve the same status. Now, however, envy prevails in society, capable and hard-working people face squabbles, sometimes even hatred from their fellow citizens.
The history of Israel / Palestine is burdened by a tragic past, bloody animosity between Jews and local Arabs. Despite the many losses of many of their loved ones, the Israelis believe that the only solution to the situation is to find some way together, and fund any peace settlement project with the Palestinian population, build hospitals, schools, factories, build desalination plants, employ Arab workers from Palestinian Territories. But do Palestinians share similar views?
Before I get to the issue mentioned in the title, I will briefly analyze all directions of anti-Jewish hatred. Anti-Semitism is one of the oldest prejudices in the history of the world. Anti-Jewish prejudices include religious anti-Judaism, racist ( biological ) anti-Semitism, and political anti-Zionism. All these ideologies are very similar, but we find some differences.
Who really cares about the basic human rights and a dignified life of Palestinian Arabs?
Syria, Iraq, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and other countries have strongly warned Israel against violating the human and inalienable rights of Palestinian citizens. However, all Muslim states have done far less for their Palestinian-Arab fellow citizens than the State of Israel.
Some people blame the endless violence between Israel and its Arab neighbors for the state of Israel. Since the events of 1947-1949 have been sufficiently described, I will not return to them. I would just like to remind you that the Arab states did not recognize the Jewish state after the first Arab-Israeli war and refused to conclude any peace treaty with it. Palestinian terrorists ( Fijads ) carried out constant terrorist attacks against Israelis during the 1950s and 1970s, but seldom responded, and the situation worsened in the 1980s.