Višňovský, Vojtech Juraj

Visnovsky, Vojtech Juraj
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Višňovský Višňovský
Jméno:
Given Name:
Vojtech Juraj Vojtech Juraj
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Vojtech Juraj Višňovský
Fotografie či obrázek:
Photograph or Picture:
Hodnost:
Rank:
podplukovník generálneho štábu -
Akademický či vědecký titul:
Academic or Scientific Title:
- -
Šlechtický titul:
Hereditary Title:
- -
Datum, místo narození:
Date and Place of Birth:
20.04.1910 Ivanka pri Nitre /
20.04.1910 Ivanka pri Nitre /
Datum, místo úmrtí:
Date and Place of Decease:
19.12.1996 Banská Štiavnica 19.12.1996 Banská Štiavnica
Nejvýznamnější funkce:
(maximálně tři)
Most Important Appointments:
(up to three)
- prednosta operačného oddelenia 4. čs. samostatnej brigády v ZSSR - head of the operational department of the 4th Czechoslovak separate brigade in the USSR
Jiné významné skutečnosti:
(maximálně tři)
Other Notable Facts:
(up to three)
- -
Související články:
Related Articles:

Zdroje:
Sources:
Cséfalvay, František a kolektív - Vojenské osobnosti dejín Slovenska 1939-1945 ISBN 978–80–89523–27-6
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Visnovsky-Vojtech-Juraj-t194721#560639 Version : 0
     
Příjmení:
Surname:
Višňovský Višňovský
Jméno:
Given Name:
Vojtech Juraj Vojtech Juraj
Jméno v originále:
Original Name:
Vojtech Juraj Višňovský
Všeobecné vzdělání:
General Education:
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Vojenské vzdělání:
Military Education:
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Důstojnické hodnosti:
Officer Ranks:
DD.07.1934 poručík
DD.04.1938 nadporučík
01.01.1940 stotník
01.07.1943 major
01.10.1945 podplukovník
DD.07.1934 poručík
DD.04.1938 nadporučík
01.01.1940 stotník
01.07.1943 major
01.10.1945 podplukovník
Průběh vojenské služby:
Military Career:
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Vyznamenání:
Awards:
Poznámka:
Note:
- -
Zdroje:
Sources:
Cséfalvay, František a kolektív - Vojenské osobnosti dejín Slovenska 1939-1945 ISBN 978–80–89523–27-6
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Visnovsky-Vojtech-Juraj-t194721#560640 Version : 0
Author Roman Šedivý via email

Forgotten Officer

Member of the pre-war and post-war Czechoslovak army, officer in the army of the Slovak state, hero of the Slovak National Uprising. Above all, a patriot who became inconvenient for the communist regime.

Vojtech Juraj Višňovský was born on 20 April 1910 in the small village of Ivanka near Nitra, where his parents owned a mill. His father was Slovak, his mother came from České Budějovice. Bright and active from his youth, Vojtech grew up with four siblings. After graduating from the business school in Nitra and the State Business Academy, he was called up for basic military service in October 1931, during which he also graduated from the School of Infantry Reserve Officers (ŠDPZ) in Košice. Already here it was obvious that he was destined for a military career.

An officer in the army of the First Republic

In 1932 he therefore entered the Military Academy in Hranice na Moravě, training officers for the Czechoslovak Army. One of the professors at the time, Ludvík Svoboda, liked the hard-working student so much that he accommodated the young Višňovský in his home. It was here that their lifelong friendship was born. Vojtech Višňovský graduated from the academy in the summer of 1934 as the 32nd of 136 students and was discharged on 1 July as an infantry lieutenant. He joined the 3rd Infantry Regiment in Kroměříž as a platoon commander. The young officer was distinguished by his perfect military bearing, exemplary performance of duties and personal example. From that time comes an incident when Lieutenant Višňovský had to report to his commander before joining the unit. However, the horse on which Višňovský was mounted unexpectedly threw out its hindquarters and threw its rider from the saddle. However, the young lieutenant handled the unpleasant situation with bravado. He immediately stood on his feet and gave an exemplary report to his superior.

During his time in Kroměříž, Vojtech managed to get married. His chosen one was Mária Heiserová, the daughter of a "gendarme" from the Nitra area. Soon a son, Viliam, was born. In 1938, Višňovský was transferred to Infantry Regiment 2 in Litoměřice, from April with the rank of lieutenant.

Headquarters officer of the Rapid Division

After Munich, he was appointed adjutant to the commander of the labor battalion in Mělník, then transferred to Slovakia to the garrison in Nitra. There, as a member of the army of the newly formed Slovak State, he became the 1st adjutant of the battalion commander of the 5th Infantry Regiment. In February 1940, shortly after his promotion to centurion (captain), he entered the Military College in Bratislava, from which he graduated with excellent results. An intelligent and well-educated officer, with excellent references, speaking Hungarian, German and Russian, he was ideal for high staff positions. While still a student, he had a short internship on the Eastern Front at the headquarters of the so-called Assurance Division.

After graduating from college in the summer of 1942, he was first appointed liaison officer to the Supreme Bureau of Supply. By September, however, he was again sent to the front, this time as a staff officer of the Rapid Division, which was then operating as part of German Army Group A in the foothills of the Caucasus. The advance of the Axis troops was then definitely stalled. General fatigue from the arduous campaign and the growing conviction that the Slovaks were not on the right side led in January 1943 to secret negotiations with the Soviet side about the possibility of the division's transfer to the Red Army. The action was initiated by the commander of the Rapid Division himself, General Stefan Jurech, with the Soviet side being negotiated by his officers. The transition itself was prepared mainly by members of the staff, including Višňovský. Lieutenant Donoval signed the agreement for the Slovak side. Everything was to take place on 23-24 January by crossing the Psekups River at Kuban. The rank and file soldiers were not privy to the matter. Before the position of the Soviet army command became clear, the order to retreat came and contacts were thus broken. It is sometimes said that the German command became suspicious and withdrew the Slovaks from the front line in time. After the disaster at Stalingrad, however, the German Wehrmacht also began to withdraw. During the ensuing harrowing winter retreat to the Kuban River and then to the Crimean peninsula, the Slovaks lost most of their armaments, material and rolling stock. Primarily due to exhaustion from the long combat deployment and a retreat marked by casualties, the morale of the division's members declined greatly. In July 1943, therefore, a partial renewal of the division's cadres was resorted to. Vojtech Višňovský was promoted to Major and sent back to Slovakia, where he took over the position of Head of the Training Department of the Land Forces Command in Banská Bystrica.

The uprising in Slovakia

At that time, the Chief of Staff of the Ground Forces Command, Lieutenant Colonel Ján Golian, was already gathering around him officers dissatisfied with the Ludovsk regime, and in 1944 he recruited Višňovský for the planned anti-fascist armed appearance of the Slovak army. Preparations reached their final stage during the summer. Staff officers, including Višňovský, had supplies of military material, fuel and ammunition sent to Banská Bystrica and the surrounding area. Officially, for the purpose of the planned large exercise.
When on 29 August, after the first clashes with German troops entering Slovakia, the uprising exploded, Golian became the commander of the newly established 1. cz Army in Slovakia. Colonel Karol Pekník became the chief of the Operations Department and Vojtech Višňovský was appointed deputy head of this department. One of the first tasks of the department was to reorganize the entire rebel army, as well as its strategy and tactics, after the original plan to involve the eastern Slovak divisions and free the Carpathian passes for the Soviet army collapsed. The military garrisons in western Slovakia also failed to join the uprising, contrary to expectations. Višňovský was significantly involved in the design of the organisation of the rebel army, including the creation of the so-called tactical groups. The new concept was completed on 10 September. According to historian Ján Dibala, the department of which Višňovský was a member:"It participated in the planning, preparation and execution of counterattacks throughout the rebel army, putting up effective defences and carrying out control activities."
During this hectic time, when Višňovský was on the verge of exhaustion and absorbed in the performance of his duties, his second-born son Pavol was born in Banská Bystrica on 12 September 1944.

Capture and Escape

Despite valiant resistance, the rebel territory was steadily shrinking under the pressure of fascist troops. The rebel command was thus forced to abandon Banská Bystrica on 25 October, which fell two days later. The headquarters of both Generals Viest and Golian and their escorts retreated northwards towards Donovaly, from where the next route to the east was directed. The arduous march over the mountain slopes was made very difficult by bad weather. On November 2, 1944, near Supotnicka valley, the staff and its escort were surprised by German superiority, scattered and for the most part captured. According to the official report, Višňovský's immediate superior, Colonel Pekník, was shot on the run (but with a shot in the back of the head). Generals Viest and Golian were captured the next day in Pohronský Bukovec. Vojtech Višňovský and others were captured on 4 November, only a few escaped. The prisoners were transported in parts to Banská Bystrica. The group, in which Višňovský was, spent the night closed in a school building in the village of Sv.Ondrej nad Hronom (today part of the town of Brusno, about 15 km from Banská Bystrica). Thanks to the help of the local parish administrator Alojz Gocnik, Major Višňovský managed to escape from German captivity.
During the winter, Višňovský had to seek medical help directly in Banská Bystrica, where the chief surgeon Daniel Petelen secretly operated on his life-threatening hernia. The officer of the defeated rebel army then took refuge in the house where his family lived. No one thought to look for him there. It was only after his convalescence that Višňovský returned to the mountains.
On 20 December 1944, the regime's daily Slovenská Pravda printed an article under the title "The purge of the army continues", in which a list of officers who had been dismissed from the army and stripped of their rank on the basis of a newly adopted law was published. One of them was Major General Vojtech Višňovský.

War period

Banská Bystrica was liberated on 25 March 1945. Višňovský immediately enlisted in the Czechoslovak Army Corps, where, due to his experience, he was assigned to the operations department of the newly formed 4th Brigade. Its members were caught at the end of the war during fierce battles with fascists in the Vsetín and Prostějov regions.
Effective April 1, 1946, Višňovský became Chief of Staff of the VIII Army Corps and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel shortly thereafter. In the spring of that year, he took part in directing combat operations against UPA (so-called Bandera) units infiltrating into Slovakia. From April 1948 he worked briefly at the secretariat of the Ministry of Defence in Prague and from autumn as a professor of tactics at the War College. The February regime change soon affected Vojtech Višňovský as well. Being politically unreliable, he was sent on leave in August 1949 and shortly afterwards, at the age of forty, he was sent into retirement. According to the Deputy Minister of Defence Bedřich Reicin, responsible for the purges in the army, Višňovský was "dangerous for the people's democratic establishment".
Rodina had to leave her service apartment and returned to Slovakia, to Ivanka near Nitra, where her third son Jozef was soon born. The officer, who had been fired from the army, had to seek employment in civilian life. He worked in a shoe shop, a tyre shop or as an accountant for the state-owned company Úsvit. From time to time, the State Security made itself known and always took him away from home for a few days. He was even imprisoned for a time, allegedly for filling in for a suddenly deceased manager. Thanks to his skills and knowledge, he eventually became a research officer at the University of Agriculture in Nitra. Because of his excellent language skills, he was indispensable when visiting foreign delegations, for whom he was an escort and could provide expert commentary. He also learned shorthand. He retired in 1970. He spent the last part of his life in a home for the elderly.
Retired Colonel of the General Staff Vojtech Juraj Višňovský died on 19.12.1996 in Banská Štiavnica, where he is buried.


Medals and decorations:


Memorial Medal for the Defence of Slovakia 1939 (awarded 1940)
Medal for Merit (1942)
Medal for Heroism 3.Medal of Merit II.degree (1946)
Medal of M.R.Štefánik I.degree (1947)
Medal of Trocnov Hero (1947)
Memorial Cross of the Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic III.

Sources and literature:

František Cséfalvay et al.: Military Personalities of Slovak History 1939 - 1945, Bratislava 2013
Višňovský family archive
www.vahranice
URL : https://www.valka.cz/Visnovsky-Vojtech-Juraj-t194721#756574 Version : 0
Photos by Roman Šedivý via email

Source: the Višňovský family archive, the website of the Military Academy Hranice https://vahranice.g6.cz/seznam_absolventu.html and Wikipedia


The church in Vojtech Višňovský's native village, 1927 (provided by the municipality of Ivanka near Nitra)


Visnovsky at the Military Academy in Hranice na Moravě


Višňovský first from left, Military Academy


Višňovský as a lieutenant of the Czechoslovak Army, 2nd.mid-30s


Višňovský with officers of Infantry Regiment 3 in Kroměříž. Standing third from left


Mária and Vojtech Višňovští, 1939


Slovak and German officers on the Eastern Front (maybe Crimea?)


Višňovský as Major of the General Staff of the Army of the Slovak State


Prime Minister Danial Petelen's operation saved Vishnevsky's life, But he risked his (source wikipedia)


Višňovský as a lieutenant colonel of the post-war army (he became a colonel only in retirement sometime in the 90s).


This memorial cross was presented in 2022



VA Officer Assignments, 1934


URL : https://www.valka.cz/Visnovsky-Vojtech-Juraj-t194721#756575 Version : 0
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