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World War One / The Great War [1914-1918]

A global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Described as The war to end all Wars.


1st Czechoslovak Assault Battalion

"A red and white ribbon for Bohemia, a mortal skull for death, there is no life without the Czech state, freedom or death." It was the motto, energy and life philosophy of strikers, which is the name for members of the 1st Czechoslovak separate assault battalion.

1st Imperial Camel Corps Brigade

The one-humped camel (and its Asian relative - the camel (Camelus bactrianus)) is ingeniously adapted to life in the deserts. Long lashes protect the eyes as well as the nostrils from sand. They have wide steps, thanks to which they do not penetrate into loose ground. And legendary are their water reservoirs, hidden in humps. True, they are not water tanks, but ordinary fat. During a long march through arid territory, it is chemically incinerated, producing water, so the camel will last even longer without drinking. When he can drink, he quickly compensates for the loss, because he can drink up to 135 liters of water per minute.

33/5000 Caudron G.3 - Unexpectedly long-lived

From a conceptual point of view, the Caudron G.3 was an obsolete aircraft at the time of the outbreak of the first world conflict. Nevertheless, it enjoyed great popularity and was produced long after the war. It was used by many countries and many pilots gained their first experience on it. He has a number of interesting events to his credit, including a landing on the roof of the Galeries Lafayette.

88 years of unlimited submarine warfare

After two and a half years of war, Imperial Germany was much more exhausted than the hostile states of the Allies. Britain and France drew new forces from their colonies and the merchant fleets of neutral states also used the transport of the necessary raw materials ...

A family that shook the world

The Novgorod engraver Sverdlov and his wife gave the world not only the leader of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic, but also a French general and an American banker.

A snippet from our navy (ZENTA Protected Cruiser)

Towards the end of the second half of the 19th century, there was a general demand in the Navy for a ship capable of protecting convoys, threatening enemy trade, conducting reconnaissance, or quickly handing out traps โ€” what existing armored cruisers could not do. This is due to its weakness or low speed.

A tragedy called the Versailles system

As early as 1915, it was clear that the main battlefield of the First World War - the Western Front - had a stalemate. As in previous conflicts, especially the wars of inheritance in the 18th century, there may have been hopes that diplomats would eventually solve the problems. Unfortunately, all these hopes soon came to fruition.

A/M Karel Janouลกek RNDr., KCB

When I look around here at ฤŒernรฝ Most and read the names of the streets, I see one interesting name next to another. The heroes themselves. Ocelka, Breitcetl, Bryks, Dygrรฝn, Frantiลกek, Vaลกรกtko, Valenta, Maลˆรกk ... Pilots who fought in the ranks of the RAF against the hated enemy during the Second World War, for the liberation of the homeland, for democracy, the ideals of Masaryk and Beneลก, for returning to their homes . They are all dominated by the name of the only Czechoslovak air marshal, a man who practically led our air force in Great Britain for five war years and who helped build his fame and the name of our Czechoslovak Republic, A / M RNDr. Karel Janouลกek, KCB ...

Air Chief Marshal Sir Edgar Ludlow-Hewitt

Biography of the RAF Marshal, who held important positions in the ranks of the RFC and RAF during the First World War and who, under his command, led the British Bomber Air Force to the beginning of World War II.

Armored cars on guard of freedom

During the First World War, there was an unprecedented development of various motor vehicles, which, in addition to tanks and aircraft, included armored cars. Although the idea of a passenger car retrofitted with machine gun armament was realized in the first years of the last century, the first mass-produced vehicles, equipped with armor and one or two rotating turrets, saw the light of day on the battlefields of the Great War. The fact is that armored cars were produced by virtually all major states that took part in the conflict. And several such vehicles were also in the arsenal of our foreign troops.

Armored cruiser Georgios Averof

At the beginning of the 20th century, Greece decided to build a modern naval fleet and the flagship of the Greek fleet of appropriate size - the armored cruiser Georgios Averof.
Today, the armored cruiser Georgios Averof is still in active service and carries the flag of the flagship of the Greek Navy. Here is his combat history.

Armoured trains of the Russian army in the Great War

The first armored train of the Russian army was built already at the beginning of August 1914, i.e. at the very beginning of combat operations, by the 9th Railway Battalion in Tarnopol. Interesting is that a number of its elements came from the enemy. Initially consisted of captured Austrian locomotives fitted with armour, and three cars, one with gunย and two with machine-guns. This whole armament came from the loot captured fromย the enemy.

Asiago 1916

A successful Austro-Hungarian offensive on the Alpine front against Italy in 1916. A brief description of the battle from the perspective of both warring parties. It is also known among historians as the "Strafexpedition" - a criminal expedition, as it was described by contemporary Austro-Hungarian propaganda in the spirit of the rhetoric of the time about punishing treacherous Italy, which passed from the Trojspolk to the Treaty.

Attack on Durres 1918

On the Thessaloniki front, on September 15, 1918, the Treaty Oriental Army launched an attack on a defensive line defended primarily by the Bulgarian army, supplemented by German troops. Its right wing ( in Albania ) was protected by the Austro-Hungarian army. This line was broken in just a week, and after another week the Bulgarian army surrendered. A huge gap was created in the queue, which there was nothing to fill. Austrian troops in Albania were threatened with siege, so it was decided on 28 September to evacuate Albania.

Austro-Hungarian fortress closures in Tyrol and Carinthia

In the first half of the 19th century, the territory of Tyrol and Carinthia lay deep in the interior of the Austrian Empire, so there was no need to pay special attention to its defense. The only significant fortifications of this period were therefore the Franzensfeste fortress, protecting the entrance to the Brenner Pass, and several small road closures, such as Nauders at the Swiss border.


In March, we commemorate the anniversary of the retreat in Ukraine in 1918 and the battle of Bachmaฤ. It was in the battle of Bachmaฤ in Ukraine, where the Czechoslovak army, fighting in Russia in World War I for the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, defended this important railway junction during its evacuation from Ukraine to the east.

Balloons and airships

Flying has always been a man's dream. It's hard to worry today, when this dream first appeared. Already in an ancient legend, it is told about Icarus and his father, who escaped from captivity with the help of wings from bird feathers glued together with wax. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, inventor and omniscient, also dealt with flying. Of course, birds and their years became the inspiration for people. The first enthusiasts therefore made bird-like wings and fastened them on their hands. They then jumped from taller buildings, flapping their wings, trying to make a flight. However, they only achieved a fall, which usually ended in tragedy.

Balloons and airships

In general, tethered balloons were best suited for military purposes. It was a balloon attached to a rope to a winch placed on the ground, and thus remained at a certain height above the ground in one place. They were used exclusively for reconnaissance tasks, or. to control artillery fire. The problem with all tethered balloons was the weather conditions, as their use was limited to no wind or wind with a maximum speed of 7 m / s. As the wind speed rose above this limit, staying in the balloon basket became impossible for constant fluctuations, and the crew rose more often from the bottom of the basket than observed the enemy and his movement.

Balloons and airships

Balloons were not only used in the form of military equipment, but were also widely used in civilian life.

Balloons and airships

Flying has always been a man's dream. It's hard to worry today, when this dream first appeared. Already in an ancient legend, it is told about Icarus and his father, who escaped from captivity with the help of wings from bird feathers glued together with wax. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, inventor and omniscient, also dealt with flying. Of course, birds and their years became the inspiration for people. The first enthusiasts therefore made bird-like wings and fastened them on their hands. They then jumped from taller buildings, flapping their wings, trying to make a flight. However, they only achieved a fall, which usually ended in tragedy.

Battle of Caporetto 1917

Decisive combat operation on the Sochi River, leading to the advance of Austro-Hungarian and German troops to Piava.

Battle of Caporetto through the eyes of Czech soldiers

From the beginning of the war, which Italy declared to Austria-Hungary on May 23, 1915, the main goal of the Italian army was to conquer the Austro-Hungarian port city of Trieste. She tried it a total of eleven times - in eleven battles on the West Slavic river Soฤa ( Isonzo ) around the town of Gorica ( Gรถrz, Gorizia, Gurize ). Despite a significant numerical and material superiority over the Austro-Hungarian army, it did not fulfill this task. Since Italy declared war on its other former ally, Germany, on August 17, 1917 , it took part in the last, twelfth battle of Sochi (the Battle of Caporetto), in addition to the exhausted, ethnically and qualitatively diverse Austro-Hungarian army in all respects. more powerful German army ...

Battle of Kleiner Lagazuoi (1915-1917)

Mountain Lagazuoi Piccolo ( 2756 m ) together with the opposite Sasso di Stria ( 2477 m ) form the Passo Valparola saddle, through which the strategically important road from Cortina d'Ampezzo to the Val Badia and Val Pusteria valleys passes. In the pass, the Austrians built the fortress of Tra i Sassi, which was to prevent a possible Italian attack from the nearby mountain pass Passo Falzarego to the north.

Battle of Monte Zebio (1917)

Monte Zebio, six kilometers north of Asiago, has been a central pillar of the Austro-Hungarian defensive line between Monte Ortigara in the north and the former Italian fortress of Interrotto above Asiago in the south since the summer of 1916.

Battle of Tanga (2nd to 5th November 1914)

In November 1914, units of the British Colonial Indian Army under Major General Aitken launched an amphibious assault on the port of Tanga in German East Africa, defended by the German colonial army under Lt. Col. von Letow-Vorbeck. Although the British had a multiple predominance in manpower and an absolute predominance in land and naval artillery, they suffered a defeat which - like their other "famous" African defeat at Isandlwana - reached the Guinness Book of Military Mistakes ...

Battle of the Argonn Forest

When "Argonne" is pronounced, it means the forested mountains in the Paris Basin between the Aisne and Aire valleys. And when it is said of "World War I and the Argonn Forest," this is the last major operation that took place from September 26, 1918 to November 10, 1918 โ€” that is, until the very end of this entire war. To do this, however, it was necessary to break the system of German field fortifications or Siegfriedstellung . It consisted of four lines along the entire front line with a total depth of 8 km. An important role was played by the American expeditionary contingent under the command of the legendary gen. John Pershing, who was to attack with the French in the area of the river Maas near the Argonn Forest. The American advance to Sedan, about 50 km away, would then disrupt the German defensive line further north.

Bezenฤuk 1918

It loosely follows the article Alexander Bridge 1918, Lipjagy 1918 and partially precedes the article Samara 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (4)

Overture, Act 1, or Blood is not water As the blogger "egon" wrote on the net: "A few days ago (October 2001), random pedestrians in front of TV cameras answered the question of when our republic was founded. As every year, some respondents have no idea events in 1918, and since many of us have forgotten what they taught us at school, let us recall the sequence of events leading to our independence. "

Bloody Years 1938-45 (5)

The rise of nationalism under Austria This is how Karl Marx put it for the Neue Reinische Zeitung in 1848. The quote was exactly as follows: "โ€ฆ irreconcilable struggle, war to the death of the Slavs, those traitors of the revolutionโ€ฆ their extermination is needed, unbridled terrorism against them - not in the interests of Germany ( of course not, Karl .... ), but for the sake of the revolutionโ€ฆ The situation between the Slavs and the Germans was already so tense at that time that the greatest revolutionary - Charles Marx ( himself considered a revolutionary and the GERMAN ) - immediately knew what to do with what he said, " Slavic splinters in the body monarchy ". So this comrades from Moscow and Prague somehow kept it secret from us โ€ฆ

Bloody Years 1938-45 (6)

Znojmo capitulated. We are going to Bratislava! Moravia, even though it has been a part of the Czech lands for more than a thousand years, is not Czech and everything is always a little different. It was no different in 1918.

Bloody Years 1938-45 (7)

Front-line veterans In general, not much is known about the Czechoslovak Army, which began in October 1918 to liberate and occupy the territory of the new Czechoslovakia. During the First Republic, it somehow "officially" pretended that the victory was brought by the legionaries. Under the communists, there was only talk of Czech Red Army men, and the legionaries were soldiers of imperialism or fought against the Bolsheviks, and the Great October Socialist Revolution was the only one that actually brought us freedom. Moreover, as far as I live, everyone is talking about cowardly Czechs. Fully in line with the views of Vienna's nationalist propaganda under Austria-Hungary and the post-February Communists. It is interesting that Hitler, as a soldier fighting in World War I, was very careful in his views on Czechoslovak soldiers and the nation as a coward during the war. During the Protectorate, he refused to involve any Czech soldiers in the war, although otherwise I would be willing to use Bosniaks, Albanians and Indians ...

Bloody Years 1938-45 (8)

Lost Heroes The maturity and self-confidence of a nation can be recognized by the way it evaluates its soldiers, even though they have been on various warring sides due to political and personal events. The young and new republics did not behave badly towards the soldiers serving the emperor, but adored mainly legionnaires. It was understandable then. We can say that if it were not for the brave Czech " Austro-Hungarian " soldiers who formed the basis of the new Czechoslovak army, the Czechoslovak Republic might never have emerged. Because it was created by diplomacy, supported by a substantiated force.

Captain in memoriam Antonรญn HALBICH

He was highly valued by others for his bravery and tactical balance. According to other members of the company, he was very hardworking, and in addition to his extraordinary talent in strategy, he constantly tried to improve the training of other strikers. He compiled for the members of the strike battalion a manual on hand grenades of all known types with drawings. He translated the operating instructions for American machine guns from English. He was also recognized for his armaments skills, where he often taught other strikers to control captured weapons.

Carpathian "Thermopylae"

In November 1914, Austria-Hungary faced one of the most severe crises during the entire period of World War I. The German ally failed to fulfill its pre-war promises and move its main forces from France to the Eastern Front. The army of the monarchy thus opposed the large numerical superiority of Russian troops, which advanced to Krakow and controlled the Carpathian passes. The most critical situation arose near the town of Humennรฉ, the occupation of which meant the deepest penetration of the Russians into the interior of the then Hungary. Only the last line of Austro-Hungarian defense in the valley of the Laborec River separated the attacking Russian regiments from the East Slovak lowlands.

Cavalry Colonel Miroslav Broz

Biography of the cavalry colonel Miroslav Broลพ, the Russian legionnaire "Starodruลพinรญk" and the first republican cavalry officer, the last commander of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment "Siberian".

Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians I.

Surely no one doubts that the First World War was a terrifying conflict that left traces behind. The remnants of fierce fighting were obscured by nature or human activity. It is no different here in the Carpathian mountains. At the turn of 1914-1915, a large part of today's northeastern Slovakia became the scene of heavy fighting. As I mentioned, the traces of this cataclysm have faded, but something remains ... The last memento of the terrible war are dozens of military cemeteries in our region. The tooth of time was also signed on them. For decades, these sad monuments to the devastating war fell into disrepair and gradually disappeared from the face of the earth. It's time to change this unhappy state. The following lines are devoted to a brief introduction to the issue of military cemeteries from the First World War in northeastern Slovakia.

Cemeteries of the First World War in the Carpathians II.

The First World War left a number of military cemeteries and graves in our territory. The successor state of the former monarchy had to take care of these graves. In difficult conditions, the Czechoslovak authorities tried to fulfill their international obligations in the field of care for war graves. As time later showed, the interwar era was the only period until today, when military cemeteries from the First World War were well taken care of.

Chelyabinsk incident 1918

"After the withdrawal of the Czechoslovak Army Corps from Ukraine, after the famous fighting near Bachmaฤ in March 1918, there were difficult negotiations with the Soviet government to move the corps across Russia to the port of Vladivostok, from where the corps was to transport the corps to France on the Western Front. officially part of the Czechoslovak army in France) to continue the fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary, but the Soviet government tried to detain the Czechoslovaks and use their combat potential. enmity between the Soviet government and the Czechoslovak Army Corps. These events became the beginning of the most famous part of the history of the Czechoslovak army of Russia - the Siberian anabasis ... "

Churchill's "tanks"

The current war has swept away all existing military theories. The machine gun fire is so strong that it is enough for a hundred meters to stop any attack by the enemy, who, in order to escape the artillery fire, digs trenches in the rear ...

Cover uniforms a hundred years ago

In the twentieth century, there was a need to develop new types of military clothing and equipment, as well as to perceive armed conflict with all its consequences. As early as the beginning of World War I, in 1914 and 1915, cavalry officers were seen in magnificent multicolored uniforms with gold braids and plumes on their hats, with sabers at their sides, as was common in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Crazy brave pilot

Milan Rastislav ล tefรกnik is known as an astronomer, politician, Czechoslovak Minister of War, general and tireless fighter for the freedom of Czechoslovakia. However, the profession of military pilot also played an important role in his life. Above all, air operations over the Serbian front. As a fighter pilot, he experienced firsthand the collapse of the Serbian front and part of the tragic retreat anabasis through Albania.

Czech company (1914-1916) - I.

About the famous Czechoslovak volunteers in the so-called Czechoslovak legions much has already been written, especially during the so-called First Republic. Members of Czechoslovak legions were then celebrated by law as national heroes. The Czechoslovak legionaries from Russia had the largest representation among them. And since they were as volunteers in the Russian Tsarist Army, they were taken for a very combat-ready military body in this army ...

Czech Kornilovs

We have already written about the 1st Czechoslovak separate assault battalion. As for this martial art based on the traditions of strike (elite) units, it was still controlled by the Czech association in Czechoslovakia. an engineer battalion called the Czech Kornilovs (named after General Kornilov), who fought in the ranks of the White Guard Voluntary Army against Bolshevik Russia. Today, the Czech Kornilovs are a completely forgotten stage of our famous military history. Why?

Decisive battle in the Carpathians

At the turn of March and April 1915, the Carpathian front shook in the fighting of one of the most important battles of World War I. The Russian command concentrated all available forces in the Carpathians and launched a decisive offensive aimed at penetrating the interior of Austria-Hungary and eliminating it from the war. The most exposed section of the Carpathian front became the area between the valley of the river Laborec and the main ridge of the Carpathians, where Russian troops inflicted the strongest blows.

Distinctions of the Ottoman army during the Great War

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Ottoman Empire sided with Austria-Hungary and Germany, and its army numbered more than one million men after the mobilization. Although Sultan Turkey was then considered a "sick man on the Bosphorus", its armed forces went through several conflicts before the Great War (the Young Turks Revolution of 1908, the war with Italy on Libya in 1911, and the Balkan War in 1912-1913), which were valuable to them. source of knowledge. Although the Ottoman Empire lagged far behind its Western allies and opponents in industry and economics, its troops achieved remarkable success, the most important of which was the heroic and ingenious defense of access to the Sea of Marmara in 1915-1916, known as the Battle of Gallipoli, or the mighty 1916 offensives in Iran and Egypt. However, the protracted war exhausted the Ottoman Empire. By mid-1918, the initiative on all fronts had been taken over by the enemy, so there was no choice but to conclude an armistice on October 30. In Turkey, the sultanate was abolished in 1922, and the following year the country became a republic.

Divisional General Stanislav Cecek

The first Czech commander of Czechoslovak company and regiment during the First World War, one of the supreme commanders of our legionaries in Russia and a top official of the newly formed Czechoslovak Army, a man who became a legend during his lifetime.

Doss Alto 1918

During the World War I, after the entry of Italy into the war in 1915, there were hard battles on the Italian battlefield. Among the captured members of the Austro-Hungarian Czech army was a significant percentage of Czechs and Slovaks.

Eastern Front and the fighting in the Carpathians 1914

Northeast Slovakia became the scene of heavy fighting in 1914โ€“1915. As a result, 37,400 soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian and German armies, who are buried in 236 military cemeteries, fell or died as a result of injuries. These fighting took place in the broader strategic context of the Carpathian section of the Eastern Front. This section became the site of intensive combat operations, which influenced the further course of the First World War.

Eastern Front and the fighting in the Carpathians 1915

Northeast Slovakia became the scene of heavy fighting in the years 1914 - 1915. As a result, 37,400 soldiers of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian and German armies, who are buried in 236 military cemeteries, fell or died as a result of injuries. These fighting took place in the broader strategic context of the Carpathian section of the Eastern Front. This section became the site of intensive combat operations, which influenced the further course of the First World War.

Eights in our history

In the Czech nation, it is said that in the 20th century, the eight at the end of the century is fatal for us. However, this is not quite true - the eights, which signaled a certain breakthrough, we know from centuries past. For example, in 1348, Emperor and King Charles IV founded University of Prague - today Charles University. In May 1618, the evangelical nobles expelled two imperial governors and a scribe from Prague Castle - this defenestration was the beginning of the aristocratic resistance, which ended with the final subordination of the Czech lands to the Habsburg dynasty and their incorporation into the Austrian monarchy. In the turbulent year of 1848, when a number of uprisings broke out in Central Europe, the inhabitants of Prague also rose - their defeat led to the strengthening of the Austrian government. Ten years later, the National Theater in Prague began its activities - one of the symbols of patriotism. In 1878, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers 'Party was established in Prague - the first workers' party in the Czech lands.

Father Palec

The founder of the Czechoslovak airborne army gen. Karel Paleฤek tried to ensure that his units were destined primarily for special operations.

Fight on many fronts

French General Maurice Pellรฉ was at the birth of the Czechoslovak army, claiming that he felt to be Czech.

Fighter aces

The concept itself was born in France. At the time of the Battle of Verdun, there was a need for a system that would encourage fighters and other pilots to try to surpass others in the number of shot down enemy aircraft. Major de Rose, Air Force Commander of II. Army, then replaced the hitherto inconsistent record of victories with accurate records and at the same time criteria were set for the recognition of achievements, primarily the testimony of their own ground troops. The pilot, who achieved five victories, was entitled to the title of ace ...

Fighter aces

War ... No other word better describes human helplessness. People know that wars are terrible and do nothing good, but they have led, waged, and are likely to continue to wage them. Although they make it possible to manifest the worst and best human qualities, they are undoubtedly the most terrible that mankind has created. They accompany the development of man from his creation to the present day. And because humanity still can't do anything about it, they will probably fight in the future.

Fighter aces

The ancient human desire to soar into the air, to free oneself from the gravity of the earth, to get closer to birds and to God, came true on December 17, 1903. On that day, a man rose into the air for the first time on a flying vehicle heavier than air.

Fighter aces

The situation in Europe in 1914 was unsustainable. The Imperial conquests of the Trojspolk intersected with the interests of the Trojdohoda. It was more than obvious that sooner or later there would be a conflict.

Fighter aces

It was obvious that the fighter must have very special characteristics. Above all, he must be faster, climb better and faster, and be able to operate at higher altitudes. Last but not least, he must be heavily armed and have very good maneuverability. These conditions clearly indicated the need for a high-performance engine and low weight for the entire machine.

Fighter aces

On the Western Front, the Allies prepared several offensive operations in 1915, which were basically to test the possibility of breaking the German lines.

Fighter aces

In the east, fierce fighting continued after the battle of East Prussia.

Fighter aces

At the end of the summer of 1916, German war pilots woke up a nightmare in the form of a French Spad S.VII biplane, with the words "Vieux Charles" written on the fuselage, crashing headlong to the stern of their aircraft.

Fighter aces

If it was a "material battle" on the ground near Verdun, then it was no different in the air. For the first time, larger aircraft formations began to compete here. The number of air battles was growing at a dizzying pace.

Fighter aces

In April 1917, General Nivelle, who succeeded General Joffre as commander in chief of the French army, planned to break through German defensive positions on the heights at the Chemin des Dames. It was an enticing goal, because if successful, Allied troops would control a wide area all around the heights. From here it was possible to see the whole Champagnes plain and it was possible to secure the bridgehead of the river Aisne. However, this plan was doomed to failure from the beginning.

Fighter aces

English pilots and mechanics wasted time telling terrifying stories in the haunting monsters of the hangars, waiting for orders. They whispered about planes that had returned to the airport with a dead crew, planes that had been missing for weeks and yet were seen again and again in the air, heralding losses in the ranks of the unit, or pilots who, although long dead, they came to the canteen without a word and left again, and sooner or later everyone they met also went to the realm of oblivion. However, none of these fables were more horrible than the legend of the " Red Baron . "

Fighter aces

In addition to the famous victories, however, came the first defeats.

Fighter aces

After the Battle of Cambrai, the winter of 1917/18 took place without dramatic events.

Fighter aces

Knightly battles were irretrievably a thing of the past. Gone are the days when lone predators gliding across their rivals in the sky, this time when the famous masters were competing, was over.

Fighter aces

Because Italy did not receive a guarantee of territorial gain from the Triple Entente at the beginning of the war, it declared its neutrality on August 3, 1914, despite the German pressure.

Fighter aces

The German General Staff, aware of the stalemate on the Western Front, tried to resolve the conflict on another battlefield.

Fighter aces

In September 1918, the RAF headquarters decided that Major Barker had done enough for the British Empire. He was therefore promoted to the rank of Lieutenant - Colonel (Lieutenant Colonel) and appointed commander of the Aviation School of Higher Pilotage in Hounslow, England.

Fighter aces

After heavy losses, the offensive at Ypres finally stopped. However, RFC pilots did not have many opportunities to rest, because on April 20, 1917, a tank offensive was launched at Cambrai and RFC squadrons were designed to directly support ground troops.

Fighter aces

At that time, there was also stagnation in the chemical war. The soldiers of both sides were no longer surprised, experience taught them to use protective masks quickly and effectively.

Fighter aces

While Collishaw was on vacation in Vancouver, another excellent British fighter was at home in Canada. He was William Avery Bishop, known throughout France, Britain, Canada and the United States as "the incredible Billy Bishop" - an ace with 47 kills.

Fighter aces

The massive German spring offensive on the Western Front in 1918, which has been mentioned several times, was made possible mainly by the events that took place in the autumn of the previous year in Russia. War operations on the Eastern Front required a different approach in all respects, including air combat. Mass air battles over the Western Front completely overshadowed the air battles taking place in the East. Nevertheless, a number of excellent aces served on both sides of the front.

Fighter aces

On the evening of August 3, 1919, the day the British pilots held a farewell dinner for their Russian friends, Kazakov appeared in the hangar and ordered his Camel to prepare for flight.

Fighter aces

On January 1, 1918, World War II entered its final year, although of course the men at the front had no idea. However, they prayed fervently for it. But the last year of the war was to be as horrible as any previous one. The fighting continued with unabated force, and modern flying knights were still racing over the front. The riders on the winged horses raced again and again into their aerial battles. They flew and flew, chasing through the clouds, living in the air and dying in the fire.

Fighter aces

In the summer of 1918, German pilots found a fallen French pilot in a clip from a French newspaper, which was referred to as a German fighter as an "ace es" . Attached was his photograph and name - Lieutenant Udet. After Richthofen's death, Ernst Udet really had the most victories of all living German pilots. He then fought to stay in this position, and in the end he succeeded. He became the most successful living German fighter and the second most successful overall. However, this was preceded by three years of hard air fighting.

Fighter aces

When Udet was on vacation, Richthofen fell. In JG I, some personnel changes took place and Udet was appointed commander of Jasta 4, belonging to JG I. On the eighth of June, in addition, Lieutenant Hermann Gรถring, then an ace with 21 victories, took command of JG I. However, his appointment was not deserved so much by his abilities as by his acquaintances in high places.

Fighter aces

On May 8, 1918, Coppens had little time when, after three fruitless attacks on the "sausage", the Germans cut off the balloon and it struck Coppens' Hanriot from below. Fortunately, the fighter slipped on its cover ...

Fighter aces

In the last months of the war, the Allied Air Force clearly demonstrated its numerical and material superiority. The German Air Force, although remaining combat-ready and dangerous until the end, could no longer stop them. In the case of some Allied pilots, the war turned into complete hunts for German aircraft and competition for the championship in the tables according to the number of victories.

Fighter aces

It's almost unbelievable that I survived these exciting dangers then ... But you can handle a lot when you're young.
Arthur Gould Lee, Camel pilot at the 46th RFC Squadron in 1917-18

Fighter Aces - First Aces

Morane with deflectors can be considered the world's first fighter. The deflectors were very primitive, but, as practice has shown, they were also very effective.

Fighting on Monte Ortigara (1917)

After the end of the Austro-Hungarian spring offensive ( 1916 ), the front in the area of the plateaus of Folgaria, Lavarone and Asiago ( Altipiano ) settled on the line Monte Pasubio-Monte Maio-Monte Cimone-Roana-fortress Interrotto-Monte Mosciagh-Monte Zebio-Monte Chiesa- Monte Campigoletti-Monte Ortigara. The Austrians thoroughly fortified their mountain positions, so they had no problem repelling several Italian local attacks as early as the summer of 1916, including two aimed at the northernmost tip of the line - the Monte Ortigara massif.

Fighting on the Marmolata Massif (1915-1917)

Marmolata is a large rock massif approximately 25 km southwest of Cortina dยดAmpezzo. Its highest peak is Punta di Penia ( 3,344 m ), through which the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy ran until 1919.

Fighting on the Pasubio Massif (1916-1918)

"This whole section was hell for the soldiers. Strategic importance commanded him to keep him worthwhile, so every hour was paid for with blood and life. Within a few kilometers, the monstrous drummer did not rest, and even at night the cannonball whistled occasionally, roaring in silence, leaving an echoing menacing and noisy. Monte Passubio, as the mountain was called, was the worst. The devils know the curse that haunted this place. The enemy was beaten and beaten like a race, so that after two years of onslaught it was found that the maintenance of this dangerous island was not so important and that its conquest did not achieve any significant military success. Sometimes the fiction of generals is strange ... "

Fighting on the Three Thin Plateau (1915-1917)

On the evening of May 23, 1915, at 7:00 pm, the war began. On the same day, Captain Jaschke relocated the battalion headquarters to the nearby Alpseehotel hut on Lake Constance and ordered his two hundred soldiers, armed with only two machine guns, full combat readiness. Needless to say, although the Italian command was aware of the declaration of war itself, it somehow failed to tell some of its units of the day and time when the hostilities would break out. And so the alpines of the 7th Battalion did not learn about the war until the morning of the next day, when the Austrian artillery began shelling them ...

First submarine sunk by aircraft attack

The use of aircraft to combat enemy naval activities is a well-known fact. Dueling aircraft with surface ships is one of the realities of battlefields in both world wars. But the clash of two relatively young weapons - air and submarine, is no longer so often ventilated. And few people know who was the first winner and who the victim.

From the Chelyabinsk Incident to the War with the Soviet Government (1918)

The so-called Chelyabinsk incident in the spring of 1918, which was the result of a series of provocations by the Soviet government in a tense situation, was followed by insidious raids by previously deliberately divided Czechoslovak trains without declaring hostilities in Marianovka, Irkutsk and Zlatoust by Soviet troops. This led to open hostility between the Czechoslovak Army Corps in Russia and the Soviet government, followed by the famous Siberian anabasis of Czechoslovak legionnaires in Russia.

Gate through the Carpathians

The Dukliansky Pass has traditionally had great military significance in the past. Its strategic importance was also confirmed by the fighting of both world wars. While the military operations of 1944 are well known, the fighting of 1914/1915 remains forgotten in their shadows. However, these battles during World War I were just as important and were as difficult and bloody as the later battles during World War II.

gen. Rudolf Medek

In March 1931 he was promoted to general. He then became the most important figure in legionnaire literature. He largely deserved recognition of the merits and traditions of Czechoslovak legionรกล™ลฏ at ...

George Smith Patton

A biography of the legendary American general and pioneer in the use of tanks, who participated in the liberation of Europe and together with his famous 3rd Army reached the territory of Czechoslovakia.

Grandpa and the Great War (Part 1)

My grandfather, Karel Oktรกbec ( October 30, 1894 - December 18, 1956 ), was born early enough to take part in the entire First World War. At that time it was called " World " or " Great ". And he died too soon to hear his experiences in person. I was six years old and there were a lot of things that interested me more than the war. Despite the fact that humanity has meanwhile managed to repeat the "world" one more time. The " grandfather " was left with his military diaries, letters, and field postcards. That was quite enough. Later, I sometimes read something to my grandmother. However, she also died, and before her death she burned both diaries and letters. She must have had a reason for that. Only those postcards remained. And also Grandpa's personal records in the Military Historical Archive. From these limited sources, this attempt arose to review the grandfather's military career ...

Grandpa and the Great War (Part 2)

My grandfather, Karel Oktรกbec ( October 30, 1894 - December 18, 1956 ), was born early enough to take part in the entire First World War. At that time it was called " World " or " Great ". And he died too soon to hear his experiences in person. I was six years old and there were a lot of things that interested me more than the war. Despite the fact that humanity has meanwhile managed to repeat the "world" one more time. The " grandfather " was left with his military diaries, letters, and field postcards. That was quite enough. Later, I sometimes read something to my grandmother. However, she also died, and before her death she burned both diaries and letters. She must have had a reason for that. Only those postcards remained. And also Grandpa's personal records in the Military Historical Archive. From these limited sources, this attempt arose to review the grandfather's military career ...

He was also Czech

The man, who proved all his life that the word homeland is not just an empty concept for him, was born on August 25, 1908 into a family that immediately contributed to the establishment of Czechoslovakia. His uncle Karel left for Russia in 1912 as a candidate for the professorship and settled in Volhynia.

Historical timeline of the 8th Infantry Regiment

It deals with the origin and course of the existence of the 8th Infantry Regiment. The Military Historical Association in Brno agrees with the publication. Authors: Milan Koudelka and Vladimรญr Holรญk VHS-BRNO

History of Blitzkrieg

The Blitzkrieg is one of the most significant phenomena of the 20th century, if only for the simple reason that it had a major impact on the events of World War II, the bloodiest conflict in human history to date. The aim of our work is to try to best map the development of Blitzkrieg from its beginnings during the First World War through the origin of ideas in the 1920s and 1930s and practical implementation during the Second World War to the present with its conflicts.

History of Blitzkrieg

The Blitzkrieg is one of the most significant phenomena of the 20th century, if only for the simple reason that it had a major impact on the events of World War II, the bloodiest conflict in human history to date. The aim of our work is to try to best map the development of Blitzkrieg from its beginnings during the First World War through the origin of ideas in the 1920s and 1930s and practical implementation during the Second World War to the present with its conflicts.

How spies are killed

"Is it normal or not to kill fugitive spies?" Jana Bendovรก, who heads the journalism section at MFD, asked me by phone. Of course not! "Then write to us about it." I sat down and wrote. It didn't take much work. I knew a lot about the Soviet spies who had run over and whose lives were ended by an execution squad sent from Moscow. I just checked with Dr. by e-mail. Petr Zeman, a former director of the Czech Civil Intelligence Service, who also monitors the issue of security in retirement, that revenge on defectors is not one of the principles of Western intelligence services.

How the tank was born

Wars have accompanied humanity since time immemorial. And they are evolving with him. The twentieth century marked a huge turning point. Man invented armored tracked vehicles and with their help swept away all the usual habits of fighting. Let us now return to the very beginning of everything and step by step follow the development of ground technology in the world and in our country.

In the war in the Carpathians and Galicia

Impressions of a Czech soldier. O. Kypr
I attribute this book of memories to Maruลกka of my dreams, to the good soul, patiently waiting for the return of my children's father.

Infantry Lieutenant Colonel Bohumil Zรกleskรฝ

The man who last commanded the so-called "Kornilov Battalion" , otherwise the Czechoslovak Engineering Regiment, which was established in January 1918 on the Don in General Kornilov's Voluntary Army. A man who personally took part in 59 battles with the Bolsheviks.

Johannes Kรผmmel

Brief biographical data of the tank ace Johannes Kรผmmel

K. u. K Seeflugwesen / K. u. K. Seefliegerkorps

The official establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Naval Air Force dates back to August 1916, when a separate K. u. K Seeflugwesen was established. Later in 1917, this unit was renamed the K. u. K. Seefliegerkorps. But as early as 1911, the Navy had its first two naval pilots, one of whom was a Czech naval officer.


A short story and the most common decoration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy - the circumstances of its origin, description as well as the method of wearing.

Karst Hell - an introduction to the combat operations of the 98th Infantry Regiment in Sochi

Eleven gigantic positional, from the point of view of the Habsburg monarchy, defensive battles took place between the armies of Italy and Austria-Hungary in the catchment area of the Sochi River flowing through the front zone from north to south between 23rd 1915 and 13 September 1917. The last battle, sometimes referred to as the Twelfth, which is incorrect from an operational point of view, was an offensive completely modern operation conducted from 24 to 27 October 1917 with the participation of the German ally in the area of Upper Sochi between Bovec and Tolmin ...

Karst Hell - Fights of the 98th Infantry Regiment in Sochi in the 10th Italian Offensive

Forty-five kilometers long front from Plava to the sea experienced a massive Italian attack on May 12, 1917, numbering a manpower of 280 thousand soldiers of Italian 3rd Army of Lt. Gen. Emanuel Filibert Duco dยดAosta, after 54 hours of fire of more than three thousand guns. The first phase of the tenth offensive began with the repulse of the Italian attacks at Plav and Zagora in the afternoon of the same day. Another mass attack was directed at Monte Santo ( Sveta Gora ), S. Katarina and ล kabrijel, Roลพnรก Dolina, Panovec and Marek's hrib. The Italian attacks were devastating, but the defenders resisted and prevented them from occupying their positions.

Karst Hell - Fights of the 98th Infantry Regiment in Sochi in the 11th Italian Offensive

The Italian eleventh offensive, which naturally had to come despite huge losses of manpower, was definitely the last attempt of the gen. Cadorny on the breakthrough front on the Sochi river. Comando Supremo drew up an ingenious operational plan, the aim of which on the southern section of the front was to break through the K line, occupy most of the Comenius Karst and isolate the defenders on Hermada.

Karst Hell - Fights of the 98th Infantry Regiment in Sochi in the 8th Italian Offensive

Destruction of Honved regiments at Opatje Sela - the eighth Italian offensive in Sochi
The extraordinary density of fourteen divisions within twelve kilometers of Shempeter and the coast, the ever-improving interaction of artillery and infantry, massive firepower, were all great positives of the Italian 2nd and 3rd armies in the Eighth Battle of Sochi. The defenders, on the other hand, were deployed on a destroyed or completely destroyed line of defense.

Kiev 1918

After the famous battle of Zborov in July 1917 and the subsequent July battles of the so-called Tarnopol retreat, which is also the name of Czechoslovakia. made the soldier famous, the Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade had significant losses. After constant fighting, in which she proved herself fully, she was moved to the area of Volyn, where a strong Czech community lived, to rest and replenish her numbers...

Kljukvenรก 1918

Soon after the famous battle of Czechoslovak legionaries at Zborov was established within the new 2nd Division of the Czechoslovak army in Russia the 1st Independent Strike Battalion. First in the form of separate strike companies at the end of 1917, as an elite part of the Czechoslovak army. These companies were soon merged to form a separate battalion, which was directly under the command of the division. He had four infantry companies, one machine gun company, a pioneer mortar platoon and logistics. The emblem of the strike battalion, later very famous, was a mortal skull with crossbones on a red background.

Knights of Heaven I

In 1903, the Wright brothers made the first demonstrably successful flight of a plane heavier than air, made no secret its a business, and, of course, saw the most important customer in the military. In 1908, they held a large demonstration tour of Europe with the " Flyer A " model, especially for military audiences, with a contract already signed in their pockets for $ 25,000 for the delivery of one aircraft to the US military. They launched an avalanche, at the air week in August 1909 in Reims, the representatives of the military administrations abounded and to have a flying " apparatus " in their arsenal became a prestigious matter for all European armies.

Knights of the Clouds or a little more about fighter aces of World War I (Part I)

During the following narration, I do not intend to describe the biographies of the famous fighters of the Great War - they are relatively well known and I have published a lot of them on the server I want to explain where the fighter aces actually came from, and how it is possible that the cult of "air knights" is almost as strong today as it was at the time of its birth. We will also try to look at the motivation of aces, their martial arts, recognition of victories, etc.

Knights of the Clouds or a little more about fighter aces of World War I (Part II)

The stories of Garros, Immelmann, Boelck, and other early air warriors laid the foundation for the legend of fighter aces as air knights. When asked why this is so, we must realize that World War I was the first European conflict where small professional armies were not fighting, but millions of civilians dressed in uniforms. The war now affected the whole nation in the true sense of the word ...

Knights of the Clouds or a little more about fighter aces of World War I (Part III)

In addition to the three greatest legends - Guynemer, Ball, von Richthofen, discussed in the second part of the article, there was a whole host of aces during the war. Many of their stories sound unbelievable to us today, because we often do not realize the kind of air war at the time. The press carefully selected some of these events and served them warmly to hungry readers. And this is exactly what this sequel is about.

ฤพEscadrille Laffayette

The Escadrille Laffayette was undoubtedly a famous unit. However, its significance did not lie in her combat successes - although her score was definitely positive, the number of victories was rather among the average. It wasn't so much about what she could do, but rather about what she symbolized - she was a unit of American volunteers, often from wealthy families whose country had not yet been at war. These young men could stay at home in comfort, but instead decided to fight for what they thought was right.

Lieutenant Jan Gayer

Arrived June 4, 1918 and took part in the famous Battle of Lipjag. Here, as the interim commander of the 4th Czechoslovak Rifle Regiment, he personally led the entire regiment in the rain of bullets and around exploding grenades and shrapnel, and with his example he dragged everyone else into an enthusiastic attack. He led and organized the entire event of the 4th Regiment in this battle. The final bayonet attack was led by Lt. Gayer personally at the head of his regiment.

Life, battle and death under the seven flags (1)

If you think that it is unnecessary and that there is no need to deal with history and thinking about it in any way, keep in mind the old motto, which also applies in our dispute and in dealing with our neighbors. Some of whom try to convince us that we are just a nation of cowards and fools: If we want to destroy a nation, we must first destroy its morals and it will fall into our lap like a ripe fruit. And now I will let you wonder if this was said by Sun Tsu, the famous Chinese military leader and philosopher, or by V.I. Lenin.

Lipjagy 1918

Fighting Czechoslovak legionaries of the 4th Rifle Regiment with the superiority of Soviet troops at Lipjag in June 1918.

Local mobilization statistics and relevant military units in the Podฤ›brady District

According to the data in Podฤ›brady, in the territory of the official district of the district governor of Podฤ›brady, which belonged to the judicial districts of Nymburk, Podฤ›brady and Krรกlลฏv Mฤ›stec with more than 80 larger political municipalities and which roughly coincides with the current district only without smaller areas around Lysรก nad Labem, Roลพฤalovice and ฤŒeskobrodsko, 8,223 men of 21,191 men were called to arms.

Lt. Karel Vaลกรกtko

Biography of a member and later commander of the 2nd Company of the Czech Company. One of the bravest members of our legions in Russia.

Magnificent courage

Our best pilot was probably Werner Voss, a man in fourth place. He had excellent eyes, was an excellent pilot and often flew alone. Joseph Jacobs (48 kills, PlM).

Major General Emil Milan Uzelac

During his life, he became the founder of three air forces, three different independent states.
He became a pilot and commander of the Austro-Hungarian Air Force, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force and the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia. He was not destroyed by the enemies of Austria-Hungary, fascists or communists.

Major General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck

The following article will take you to exotic Africa during World War I. To the area of German East Africa, where the guerrilla war raged since the second half of the world conflict, led by the then Colonel of the German Imperial Army Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck.

Matej Kocรกk

(1882 - 1918)
U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant, holder of army and navy Medal of Honor and Heart and Purple heart from the First World War.

Military places of worship of Czech soldiers in Sochi, Piava and the front in the Alps

Monuments to the victims of the will and violence resulting from the wars, fought under the sovereign yellow-black banner of the Habsburg Monarchy, can be found not only in the territory of the former district. governor of Podฤ›brady, but also in the adjacent political districts. Solitary monuments from the period of the Seven Years' War with Prussia near Kล™eฤhoล™ in the Kolรญn region, both coalitions against the Napoleonic Wars in Louฤeลˆ, the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866 in Kล™inecko, Hradec Krรกlovรฉ and the Great War of 1914โ€“1918 in the whole mentioned area. At the very end of the dissertation, it would be inappropriate not to mention in short the war graves, military cemeteries and axes of Austro-Hungarian soldiers of Czech nationality stationed abroad.

Monte Grappa 1917-18

The strategic location of Monte Grappa did not go unnoticed by any of the warring parties. The Italians built their fortifications on the northern part of the summit, a huge maze of positions with cannons and machine guns, which was sunk deep into the rock, thanks to the experience of the French from Verdun.

Nine camels of Baron von Richthofen

Most notable events usually have very common explanations. It is no different with the respectable number of 80 victories of the Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen. When we get to know all his victims in detail and the circumstances of all his victories, everything suddenly seems logical and easy to understand.

Nothing new on the Carpathian front

In 1915, the Carpathian Front of World War I was one of the most strategically important European battlefields. Rows of trenches and obstacles made of barbed wire also cut through the territory of the then Upper Zemplรญn and ล ariลก counties. The territory of six districts of present-day northeastern Slovakia has thus become the scene of intensive military operations. Heavy and bloody battles were alternated with operational breaks, which, however, did not bring officers and soldiers much relief from their demanding and exhausting frontal life.

Parasite aircrafts

Ever since the first heavier-than-air planes appeared and began to compete with the reigning airships, designers have been flirting with the idea of using heavier aircraft (the term aircraft includes all flying machines, heavier-than-air aircraft and lighter air aerostats) to carry lighter ones.

Penza 1918

After the incident in May in Chelyabinsk and the raids on the Czechoslovak parts without a previous declaration of hostilities in Marianovka, Zlatoust and Irkutsk, the intentions of the Soviet government were already clear to the Czechoslovaks. It was clear that heavy fighting would come as part of the corps' defense and its intended route to the French battlefield, because the Soviet government would not release the Czechoslovak Army Corps from its controlled territory. The Soviet government wanted a well-armed, disciplined, and experienced army corps either to win over its promises or threats to fight its enemies, or to intern it and give it to Austria-Hungary as a possible "gift." Therefore, the Czechoslovaks no longer believed the false promises of the Bolsheviks after recent experiences. The Soviet government manifested itself against the Czechoslovak raid on Czechoslovak trains after previous delays and threats. clearly open hostility to the army corps. There was subsequently an open war between Czechoslovak army corps and the Soviet government.

Political and military-historical background of the origin of monuments to the Great War

In the euphoric period, during the march of the emerging Masaryk state law unit, new currents of opinion were formed in all strata of society. Passion, blindness in retaliation for the old order, and political and personal intrigues played unscrupulously the main role. The ostentatious patriotism and the creation of one-sided legends, together with the other factors mentioned above, had a fundamental negative effect on the preservation of the memory of the fallen citizens of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Fallen war deserters and captured soldiers of Czech and Slovak nationality who joined the Czechoslovak legions in France, Russia, Italy and Serbia for various reasons, whether ideological or emergency, voluntarily or not, were especially praised in the struggles for "freedom of the country".

Poppy Day

The symbol of the memorial service, which is called "Poppy Day", is a poppy flower. He reminds us that in times of war only this wild flower prospered in uncultivated fields. The poppy flower is then perhaps not missing in any lapel of the participantsโ€ฆ

Portugal on the fronts of First World War

Portugal's war contribution to the victory of the Entente in World War I was redeemed by about 12,000 lost soldiers on European and colonial fronts and at sea. Civilian casualties climbed to 220,000, of which 82,000 per famine due to the collapse of supplies and 138,000 from the "Spanish flu". The following article deals with the main events on the ground battlefields.

Post-war arrangement influencing the development of construction and preservation of military monuments to the Great War

After the end of the fighting in 1918, former members of the defunct Habsburg army returned to their home villages in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia long after the armistice. First, however, they had to go through Czechoslovakia. newly established acceptance or quarantine camps by the government, in which they underwent thorough political training established as a necessary ideological supervision of the former c. and k. army and its commanders. At that time, it was professionally called the release of the returning field army.

Russian golden treasure and czechoslovak legionnaires

In recent years, the media from time to time there are reports on the issue of the Russian golden treasure, which are either a direct accusation or suggest that perhaps part of it in the years 1918-1920 should have stolen Czechoslovakia. legionnaires. Most of these various "articles" and reports come from people who dealt with the topic in the vision of the "discovery of sensation" only very superficially, without trying to study even the most basic materials on the topic.

Russian legions close up

The Czechoslovak legions in Russia, together with the French and Italian legions, were among the most significant manifestations of foreign anti-Austrian resistance during the First World War. However, the effort to establish Czechoslovak troops in the states of the Allies in all cases encountered unclear war goals of the Allies and political pressures of various, mostly pro-Austrian oriented interest groups. However, thanks to developments on the Western and Southern fronts and the great political efforts of the members of the Czech Republic, all existing obstacles fell during 1917 in France and in 1918 in Italy. The Czechoslovak legions could subsequently begin to form in peace as a politically autonomous part of the national armies of these states.

Russian legions close up

The Czechoslovak legions in Russia, together with the French and Italian legions, were among the most significant manifestations of foreign anti-Austrian resistance during the First World War. However, the effort to establish Czechoslovak troops in the states of the Allies in all cases encountered unclear war goals of the Allies and political pressures of various, mostly pro-Austrian oriented interest groups. However, thanks to developments on the Western and Southern fronts and the great political efforts of the members of the Czech Republic, all existing obstacles fell during 1917 in France and in 1918 in Italy. The Czechoslovak legions could subsequently begin to form in peace as a politically autonomous part of the national armies of these states.

Russian legions close up

The foundations of the Czechoslovak legions in Russia began to form shortly after the outbreak of the First World War. In 1914, approximately 60-100 thousand Czech compatriots lived in the Russian Empire. Most of them were natives, but next to them, a large number of Czech specialists and engineers, who were still citizens of Austria-Hungary, had been employed in the Russian economy since the beginning of the century.

Russian legions close up

Since the very beginning of the Czechoslovak Republic, the Czechoslovak legions have been highlighted as the only strong point of stability and democracy in large areas of the Russian country. Relations between Czechoslovak soldiers were often presented almost as non-conflicting. Any disputes within the legions were often attributed more to unfortunate misunderstandings than to other, more objective causes.

Russian legions close up

The first stage of the existence of Czechoslovak Armed Forces movement in Russia was the period of the so-called Czech retinue. This relatively small military unit was a regular part of the Russian III. army. Its members were completely subject to Russian military orders, which strictly and very strictly defined the rules of life in the army. Despite all the restrictions, however, Czechoslovakia. volunteers in a gradually growing unit were able to create some elements of internal autonomy. However, it encountered a number of obstacles in its daily contact with the Russian environment. These were formed mainly by Russian officers of the Company and compatriots who had already lost their sense of belonging to the Czech nation.

Russian legions close up

The February Revolution brought Russia huge changes that did not escape the army. Deeply demoralized compatriots could be expelled from the 1st Czechoslovak Brigade. The existing tsarist system of troops was replaced by a reorganized revolutionary army. Elected regimental committees ( committees ) were established, and the activities of the commanders were supervised by political commissioners. Most of the existing military orders were abandoned and new administrative elements were introduced instead. According to Frantiลกek Polรกk, these were changes that were unheard of even by the widely applied degree of democratization for the armies of traditional democratic states. In the history of Czechoslovak troops in Russia played a key role.

Russian legions close up

The appearance of legions against the Bolsheviks pitted the Czechoslovak army into a new situation. While the existing independent administrative institutions were established only temporarily, with the knowledge that the army would soon switch to the French system, after the speech, the sovereign structure of the democratic administration of the legions began to be consistently organized. July 28, 1918 was the Congress of Czechoslovak troops adopted an amended French disciplinary code. The system of regimental committees and proxies was specified, and in the autumn of 1918 the reorganization of the Czechoslovak troops judiciary began. The armed performance changed the character of the army. Its ranks were supplemented by mobilized czechoslovak prisoners. The soldiers began to be visibly affected by the prolonged combat deployment.

Russian legions close up

At the turn of 1918 and 1919, Czechoslovak regiments withdrew on the Trans-Siberian railroad. This step was already demanded in the summer of 1918 at the Ufa negotiations on a unified Russian government, but the slow organization of Russian troops delayed it. Withdrawal of Czechoslovak army, among other reasons, was led by efforts to concentrate it in order to thoroughly reorganize. The basic steps to these changes were taken at the beginning of 1919 by M.R. ล tefรกnik. The army was changed according to Western European standards. A number of revolutionary gains were canceled. A new disciplinary code has been issued. The army's response to these far-reaching changes was quite negative, and after a series of resistance, it culminated in the events of Irkutsk in mid-1919. Czechoslovak soldiers were driven by the idea of returning home throughout their stay on the railroad.

Russian legions close up

High-quality, organized facilities, which cover all the needs of the army, have always fundamentally influenced the successful management of all military operations. It was no different in Czechoslovak legions in Russia. The quality of supply and technical support played an important role, especially in the post-accession period, when the shattered Russian economy provided only part of its pre-war potential.

Russian legions close up

Until the exit,russian army provided all the needs of Czechoslovak troops. Until the February Revolution, in all of the Czechoslovak regiments was not in a single company economic officer from Bohemia. The supply of equipment and food to the Czech company was at a low level. Soldiers regularly received summer clothes for winter and winter for summer. The situation was not better even within the entire Russian army, where so-called fasting days were announced in times of food shortages. On such days, instead of the usual composition of food, only dried fish soup and begged porridge oiled with oil were served, which, according to some contemporary evidence, was almost indigestible food for Central Europeans. The rescue could be brought only by the regimental manager, who had the right at the expense of the regiment to provide improvements to the diet.

Russian legions close up

Unlike the supply, until the exit the Czechoslovak units did not create a great need to provide for itself of a technical nature. All care for weapons, ammunition and the satisfaction of all other needs of the army as a whole was fully provided by the Russian side. Already in prisoner of war organizations and subsequently in Czechoslovak units, however, the soldiers were able to repair parts of the equipment or variously adapt some tools to their technical needs. They showed a great deal of improvisation skills. After the performance, they were able to fully apply all their learned skills.

Russian legions close up

In the previous chapters, the methods of financing some components of Czechoslovak military and military organizations were marginally mentioned. The aim of the next chapter of this work is to shed light on the sources of finance by which Czechoslovak organization itself covered a large part of the expenses.

Russian legions close up

A small but important chapter in the history of the Czechoslovak troops in Russia also played Czechoslovak field post, which became the most reliable mediator of correspondence in the then Siberian Russia.

Russian legions close up

During the stay of Czechoslovak legions in Russia developed a broad-based cultural activity in their units. During each longer interruption of combat activities, music and theater performances, educational lectures, or sports events were held in the units.

Russian legions close up

In the Czech company, the effort to carry out cultural activities has manifested itself since the very beginning of the unit. However, compared to later cultural and educational activities, they have never reached such a boom. Their development was hindered by contemporary military orders, which conditioned individual activities with the permission of the commanding officer.

Russian legions close up

The February Revolution brought to the life of the Russian army a noticeable loosening of orders, which had a very positive effect on the cultural activity of the legions. Although just after the revolution, the same cultural activity continued as before 1917, the changes were reflected in the fact that between Czechoslovak soldiers Czech written literature, a welcome gift sent by American compatriots, also slowly began to flow. A significant change was the establishment of regimental and company committees. In addition to their economic functions, they also performed cultural and educational tasks. Their activity brought order and organization to the hitherto spontaneous and inconsistent activities. Their great contribution to the development of the cultural activities of the legions was significant until their dissolution in 1919.

Russian legions close up

Processing the history of Czechoslovak legions in Russia since the 1930s have focused mainly on military and political issues of their existence. A varied and diverse range of other possible perspectives on this issue remained practically out of the interest of historians. However, the thematically monotonous interpretation of the elaboration does not contribute much to the growth of a deeper interest in the study of Czechoslovak legions history.

Samara 1918

Conquest of Samara by Czechoslovak legionaries of the Pension Group in Russia in June 1918.

Schneider CA.1 - the first French tank

The British were the first to deploy tanks in combat. Although the Germans built very late only a few pieces of the A7V tank, their construction went down in history with the first duel with British opponents. The creations of the French tank school remained somewhat out of focus. Needless to say, wrong.

Seydlitz: Proof of toughness

The ships that came from the shipyards of Imperial Germany were clearly among the best that carried the waters of the oceans. Tough, well-armored ships with excellent artillery were a constant danger to the British naval forces during World War I. Although there were actually only two major battles, the German ships showed that there were juices on which the British fleet could break its teeth quite well. The battle cruiser Seydlitz also took part in both mentioned battles. He was badly damaged in both, but still suffered a humiliating self-sinking in Scapa Flow.

SMS Emden

1. Birth and first actions Emden and his sister ship Dresden were built to replace obsolete cruisers. Both were named after important German cities, although it was not so clear at Emden. Emden was originally named Ersatz Pfeil as a replacement for the light cruiser SMS Pfeil. The keel of Emden was laid on November 1, 1906 in the Imperial Shipyard in Gdaล„sk. The name Emden was given to it by the mayor of the same city, Mr. Fรผrbringer, during the launch ceremony on Tuesday, May 26, 1908. The last German cruiser, which powered the steam engine, came to the water because Dresden already had turbines. Emden officially cost 6.38 million marks.

SMS Emden

2. War Along with Emden, there were 4 gunboats and an older S90 destroyer in the port. One large Cormoran gunboat was just in the dry dock for longer repairs. In the event of war, Emden could not stay in Chingdao because it was clear that Britain would attack the port. In it, Emden would be virtually defenseless without the possibility of maneuvering. Not to mention that British ships had stronger armaments than German ones.

SMS Emden

3. Alone in the Indian Ocean After Emden separated from the rest of the squadron, the most important thing was to get into the Indian Ocean unnoticed. That meant avoiding any ship. At the same time, however, the cruiser had to save coal.

SPAD VII versus Albatros D.III (2) - Gentlemen did not die out ...

I have assembled you to pay a posthumous tribute to Captain Guynemer. We are not standing here in front of his hearse or over his grave. At Poelcapelle, no remnants were found of his remnants, as if the sky, jealously guarding his hero, did not want to allow him to remain on earth what he himself claimed. Guynemer disappeared from us forever and completely, as if he had been abducted by miraculous forces into heaven, into the realm of glory ...

Stories of German spies in France - I - A story about a surprising revelation in Monte Carlo

Even before the beginning of the First World War, the German side managed to infiltrate the ranks of its French neighbor in an unbelievable way. More than 60,000 men and women worked in the German service abroad, and the entire network was perfectly organized. Today, we take a look at the story of how a spy network under the leadership of the founder of Mercedes, settled in the center of European gambling in Monte Carlo, and how it was discovered thanks to an inquisitive journalist. (paid advertising)

Tarnopol Retreat 1917

Heavy retreat struggles czechoslovak legionaries after the famous battle of Zborov in the summer of 1917 with the German army. The fighting led to access to Tarnopol, in the ongoing disruption of the Russian front. The Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade proved their high quality again in them.

The clutches of the American eagle I

Of all the armed forces of the West, the US military has the shortest and, I dare say, the strangest history. Usually, the armed forces go down in history through battle, and the strangeness of the American military begins with the fact that in the battle, which dates back to the beginning of the North American military, this army did not fight at all, because it did not exist yet.

The clutches of the American eagle II

The militia system of the army, which the United States preferred after its inception, did not allow the creation of a unified rear service. When war broke out with the Seminoles in Florida in 1818, engineering units had to be decommissioned to supply field units because civilian contractors failed to fulfill contracts. This led War Minister Calhoun to put pressure on Congress to release funds for intendant administration ...

The clutches of the American eagle III

At the end of the 19th century, the United States found itself in a special position. The country had no external enemy, after the defeat of Mexico, other American states recognized it as a hegemon, and the long sea borders were protected by the British navy. Due to mineral wealth, which also included oil on the list (fields in California and Texas), the US government had no ambition to gain control of foreign resources. This led to the fact that there was no strategy, no concept of defense, no plans against potential adversaries, that is, everything that was a matter of course in Europe ...

The clutches of the American eagle IV

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States resembled a sleepily contented boa constrictor. The success of the US Navy in the Spanish-American War opened the bag to Congress, and T. Roosevelt had no problem raising funds for the construction of new heavy units of the fleet. Suddenly, everyone seemed to understand the importance of the ocean fleet in the sense of the Mahan Doctrine - it was evident that the British fleet did not intend to cover the new US overseas economic interests of the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico, although it de facto still ensured US security.

The clutches of the American eagle V

An armistice in November 1918 put the United States in a role with which it had no experience. Day by day, they became the world's leading power, and President Wilson, with his 14 points, took the lead in organizing post-war Europe ...

The clutches of the American eagle VI

Until World War II ended, President Roosevelt anxiously avoided any negotiations on postwar borders or state institutions. In December 1941, when he was badly oppressed, Stalin wanted to act and would allow the return of eastern Poland and the evacuation of the Baltic countries, but with the Red Army's advance to the west, his willingness faded to zero.

The clutches of the American eagle VII

If one can think of a specific date in which the United States became the first superpower of the modern world and gained strategic control over it, it is December 8, 1991, when the USSR was formally abolished - a global adversary with which it maintained for more than 40 years power balance ...

The disgusting game with the bones of dead soldiers continues ...

More than a year ago, we drew attention to the dubious reconstruction of the war cemetery from the First World War in Medzilaborce. During its reconstruction, the historical reality was not respected and in the end the cemetery was unjustifiably presented as a German war cemetery. This is despite the fact that the German victims make up only a small fraction of all soldiers buried there. Not much time passed and other irregularities appeared, but this time connected with the exhumation of war victims in the cemetery in the village of Oฤพka. Austro-Hungarian and Russian soldiers were exhumed in violation of documents from the archives on the pretext that they were Germans. We have pointed out suspicious facts on our website . We informed the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic with official letters, which is dealing with the agenda of war graves. The media also became interested in the case.

The first siege of Przemyล›l (September 26 - October 9, 1914)

Przemyล›l, Verdun of the East. Symbol of the Austro-Hungarian battles in Galicia and the Carpathians. In August and September 1914 the seat of the Austro-Hungarian High Command. For half a year, from September 1914 to March 1915, he was alternately part of the defensive line on the San River and under siege by Russian troops. Repeated Austro-Hungarian attempts to liberate the fortress cost hundreds of thousands of lives on both sides, so that three months after its capitulation the front rolled over for the last time and the immediate hardships associated with it moved from Galicia and the Carpathians to the east, to Ukraine.

The first success of the RAF or the

Ninety years ago, on April 1, 1918, the British Royal Flying Corps belonging to the ground forces, merged with the Royal Navy Air Service, creating the world's first independent air force, the famous Royal Air Force, Royal Air Force. However, this seemingly only administrative step fundamentally affected the lives of three men. At that time, air warfare raged in the sky and all three of them were fighters. Without this measure, the two would never have met with one unit, and one of them would not have saved the other's life. The third would not die, at least not under the circumstances I will tell you about now ...

The first successful rotorcraft (1) - PKZ-1

Helicopters are a common sight in today's sky, but the journey to them was much more complicated than in the case of airplanes. It is gratifying that a number of men born in the territory of the future Czechoslovakia took part in the development of the first motor aircraft capable of steady hanging.

The first successful rotorcraft (2) - PKZ-2

After the destruction of the PKZ-1 power unit, the engineer ลฝurovec decided to continue with the construction of the observation platform according to the original Petrรณczi design. In the meantime, large-diameter propellers were available - the results of the work of engineer Kรกrmรกn at the propeller test institute. Nothing prevented the further development of the helicopter platform.

The forgotten battlefield in the Carpathians

In November 1914, Russian troops first entered the territory of present-day Slovakia. General Kornilov and his 48th Infantry Division crossed the main Carpathian ridge and penetrated the valley of the river Ciroch to Snina and Humennรฉ. The Austro-Hungarian command was forced to improvise and throw all available forces into the counterattack. During this operation, there were intense fighting in the area of the villages of Dara - Prรญslop - Kolbasov.

The founder of World War I special operations was British officer Thomas Edward Lawrence

Col. Clayton took another look at the thin, tall lieutenant and thought for a long time. They didn't know much about the Arab uprising yet. Intelligence found that Sheriff's princes Abdallah and Faisal raised a red banner in Mecca and declared the end of Turkish rule over the Arabs. Under their command, they managed to gather 10,000 men. They gradually occupied most of the cities and ports in Hijaz. But no one knew what the Turkish reaction was. For several times already, the inexperienced lieutenant came to him, saying that it was necessary to use this revolt for the interests of the British crown. It is said to be the most opportune moment - they should support the Arab tribes in their resistance. He himself declared that he would act as a liaison officer at the prince's court.

The Great War over the Adriatic

Combat deployment - K. u. K Seeflugwesen / K. u. K. Seefliegerkorps during the Great War. How did the naval pilots of the Austro-Hungarian Navy fare on flying boats against the predominance of the Triad and their allies?

The last battle of the Austro-Hungarian Army (Vittorio Veneto 1918)

In an effort to save the inherited empire, on October 16, 1918, Emperor Charles issued a manifesto on the transformation of the ancient Austro-Hungarian monarchy into a federal state. On October 23, the Hungarian parliament responded by calling on Hungarian troops to return home and defend the integrity of the Kingdom of Hungary. Naturally, they all gladly obeyed and began to leave the Italian front en masse. After this actual disintegration not only of the Austro-Hungarian army, but also of the Austro-Hungarian state, on October 24, 1918, British, French and Italian troops launched an offensive on the Piava and in the Monte Grappa area ...

The last sailing corsair - Felix Graf von Luckner

As a child, he sat harmlessly on Queen Victoria's lap, and by 1917 his fame as a corsair of a sailing auxiliary cruiser had reached such a height that he received the nickname Seadevil from the British.

The legend of the desertion of the Prague 28th Infantry Regiment in the Carpathians

In the northeast of Slovakia, in the Bardejov district, is the village of Stebnรญcka Huta, which became the scene of heavy fighting during the First World War. An event occurred in this village on April 3, 1915, which entered the political history of the Czechoslovak Republic. According to the official version, members of the Austro-Hungarian 28th Infantry Regiment then voluntarily ran to the Russian side of the front. This unit was known as the regiment of the " Prague Children " and its desertion was to be credited to members of the " Czech retinue ", who fought in the ranks of the Russian Tsarist army against the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. What part of this story is a legend and what actually happened at Stebnรญcka Huta?

The one-year volunteers Austro-Hungarian army

At least everyone who read Haลกek's ล vejk knows about the existence of one-year volunteers in the Austro-Hungarian army. After all, Jaroslav Haลกek himself was one of them, although he did not do well in this position. This article is an attempt to clarify how the term "one-year volunteer" originated and what its content was ...

The war on the railway

The first chapters of the history of the Czechoslovak railway army and armored trains began to be written shortly after the formation of our legions.

They called him brother "Cultivator"

Biography of the army general in memoriam Karel Kutlvaลกr (* 27.1.1895 - + 2.10.1961). Commander of the insurgents during the Prague Uprising and a participant in the three czechoslovak resistance.

Too bloody baron

Ungern von Sternberg conquered Mongolia with several hundred Cossacks and for a time believed that he was a modern Russian Genghis Khan.
The Baron's Tibetan mountaineers, disguised as monks, penetrated the streets of Urga ( Ulaanbaatar ) teeming with Chinese troops. They conquered the high rocks, on top of which stretched the Winter Palace, the seat of the ruler of Outer Mongolia - the Dalai Lama, Bogdy Chan. The blind man, who was being held under house arrest by Chinese soldiers here, was waiting for his release. It only took a moment to kill the guards. Even before the alarm was sounded, the Tibetans descended down the steep rock with the spiritual leader on their backs. The last two were repelled by machine gun fire on Chinese soldiers.